- About this Journal
- Abstracting and Indexing
- Aims and Scope
- Annual Issues
- Article Processing Charges
- Articles in Press
- Author Guidelines
- Bibliographic Information
- Citations to this Journal
- Contact Information
- Editorial Board
- Editorial Workflow
- Free eTOC Alerts
- Publication Ethics
- Reviewers Acknowledgment
- Submit a Manuscript
- Subscription Information
- Table of Contents
BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 941467, 9 pages
Unmasking Snake Venom of Bothrops leucurus: Purification and Pharmacological and Structural Characterization of New PL Bleu TX-III
1Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, State University of Campinas, 13083-970 Campinas, SP, Brazil
2Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Biology, State University of Campinas, 13083-970 Campinas, SP, Brazil
Received 4 September 2012; Revised 31 October 2012; Accepted 6 November 2012
Academic Editor: Laura Leiva
Copyright © 2013 Fábio André Marangoni et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- J. J. Calvete, “Venomics: digging into the evolution of venomous systems and learning to twist nature to fight pathology,” Journal of Proteomics, vol. 72, no. 2, pp. 121–126, 2009.
- J. W. Fox and S. M. T. Serrano, “Exploring snake venom proteomes: multifaceted analyses for complex toxin mixtures,” Proteomics, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 909–920, 2008.
- D. Georgieva, R. K. Arni, and C. Betzel, “Proteome analysis of snake venom toxins: pharmacological insights,” Expert Review of Proteomics, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 787–797, 2008.
- F. Chaves, G. León, V. H. Alvarado, and J. M. Gutiérrez, “Pharmacological modulation of edema induced by Lys-49 and Asp-49 myotoxic phospholipases A2 isolated from the venom of the snake Bothrops asper (terciopelo),” Toxicon, vol. 36, no. 12, pp. 1861–1869, 1998.
- D. C. S. Damico, S. Lilla, G. De Nucci et al., “Biochemical and enzymatic characterization of two basic Asp49 phospholipase A2 isoforms from Lachesis muta muta (Surucucu) venom,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 1726, no. 1, pp. 75–86, 2005.
- R. Doley and R. M. Kini, “Protein complexes in snake venom,” Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, vol. 66, no. 17, pp. 2851–2871, 2009.
- D. C. O. Nunes, R. S. Rodrigues, M. N. Lucena et al., “Isolation and functional characterization of proinflammatory acidic phospholipase A2 from Bothrops leucurus snake venom,” Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology C, vol. 154, no. 3, pp. 226–233, 2011.
- D. A. Higuchi, C. M. V. Barbosa, C. Bincoletto et al., “Purification and partial characterization of two phospholipases A2 from Bothrops leucurus (white-tailed-jararaca) snake venom,” Biochimie, vol. 89, no. 3, pp. 319–328, 2007.
- L. A. Ponce-Soto, P. A. Baldasso, F. F. Romero-Vargas, F. V. Winck, J. C. Novello, and S. Marangoni, “Biochemical, pharmacological and structural characterization of two PLA2 isoforms Cdr-12 and Cdr-13 from Crotalus durissus ruruima snake venom,” Protein Journal, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 39–49, 2007.
- H. Schagger and G. Von Jagow, “Tricine-sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for the separation of proteins in the range from 1 to 100 kDa,” Analytical Biochemistry, vol. 166, no. 2, pp. 368–379, 1987.
- M. Holzer and S. P. Mackessy, “An aqueous endpoint assay of snake venom phospholipase A2,” Toxicon, vol. 34, no. 10, pp. 1149–1155, 1996.
- L. A. Ponce-Soto, M. H. Toyama, S. Hyslop, J. C. Novello, and S. Marangoni, “Isolation and preliminary enzymatic characterization of a novel PLA2 from Crotalus durissus collilineatus venom,” Journal of Protein Chemistry, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 131–136, 2002.
- R. L. Hendrickson and S. C. Meredith, “Amino acid analysis by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography: precolumn derivatization with phenylisothiocyanate,” Analytical Biochemistry, vol. 136, pp. 65–74, 1984.
- J. H. Schumaker, A. OGarra, B. Schrader et al., “The characterization of four monoclonal antibodies specific for mouse IL-5 and development of mouse and human IL-5 ELISA,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 141, pp. 1576–1581, 1988.
- M. R. Ruff and G. E. Gifford, “Purification and physico-chemical characterization of rabbit tumor necrosis factor,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 125, no. 4, pp. 1671–1677, 1980.
- T. R. John, L. A. Smith, and I. I. Kaiser, “Genomic sequences encoding the acidic and basic subunits of Mojave toxin: unusually high sequence identity of non-coding regions,” Gene, vol. 139, no. 2, pp. 229–234, 1994.
- H. M. Verheij, J. Westerman, B. Sternby, and G. H. de Haas, “The complete primary structure of phospholipase A2 from human pancreas,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 747, no. 1-2, pp. 93–99, 1983.
- A. K. Calgarotto, D. C. S. Damico, L. A. Ponce-Soto et al., “Biological and biochemical characterization of new basic phospholipase A2 BmTX-I isolated from Bothrops moojeni snake venom,” Toxicon, vol. 51, no. 8, pp. 1509–1519, 2008.
- E. Valentin and G. Lambeau, “What can venom phospholipases A2 tell us about the functional diversity of mammalian secreted phospholipases A2?” Biochimie, vol. 82, no. 9-10, pp. 815–831, 2000.
- L. A. Ponce-Soto, V. L. Bonfim, L. Rodrigues-Simioni, J. C. Novello, and S. Marangoni, “Determination of primary structure of two isoforms 6-1 and 6-2 PLA 2 D49 from Bothrops jararacussu snake venom and neurotoxic characterization using in vitro neuromuscular preparation,” Protein Journal, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 147–155, 2006.
- L. A. Ponce-Soto, J. C. Barros, S. Marangoni et al., “Neuromuscular activity of BaTX, a presynaptic basic PLA2 isolated from Bothrops alternatus snake venom,” Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology C, vol. 150, no. 2, pp. 291–297, 2009.
- J. Gutiérrez and B. Lomonte, “Phospholipase A2 myotoxins from Bothrops snake venoms,” Toxicon, vol. 33, no. 11, pp. 1405–1424, 1995.
- R. M. Kini, “Excitement ahead: structure, function and mechanism of snake venom phospholipase A2 enzymes,” Toxicon, vol. 42, no. 8, pp. 827–840, 2003.
- S. Huancahuire-Vega, L. A. Ponce-Soto, D. Martins-de-Souza, and S. Marangoni, “Structural and functional characterization of brazilitoxins II and III (BbTX-II and -III), two myotoxins from the venom of Bothrops brazili snake,” Toxicon, vol. 54, no. 6, pp. 818–827, 2009.
- J. A. Pereañez, V. Núñez, S. Huancahuire-Vega, S. Marangoni, and L. A. Ponce-Soto, “Biochemical and biological characterization of a PLA2 from crotoxin complex of Crotalus durissus cumanensis,” Toxicon, vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 534–542, 2009.
- D. L. Scott, S. P. White, Z. Otwinowski, W. Yuan, M. H. Gelb, and P. B. Sigler, “Interfacial catalysis: the mechanism of phospholipase A2,” Science, vol. 250, no. 4987, pp. 1541–1546, 1990.
- R. K. Arni and R. J. Ward, “Phospholipase A2—a structural review,” Toxicon, vol. 34, no. 8, pp. 827–841, 1996.
- L. A. Ponce-Soto, D. Martins-De-souza, and S. Marangoni, “Neurotoxic, myotoxic and cytolytic activities of the new basic PLA2 isoforms BmjeTX-I and BmjeTX-II isolated from the Bothrops marajoensis (marajó lancehead) snake venom,” Protein Journal, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 103–113, 2010.
- R. Renetseder, S. Brunie, B. W. Dijkstra, J. Drenth, and P. B. Sigler, “A comparison of the crystal structure of phospholipase A2 from bovine pancreas and Crotalus atrox venom,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 260, no. 21, pp. 11627–11634, 1985.
- J. M. Gutiérrez, “Understanding snake venoms: 50 years of research in Latin America,” Revista De Biologia Tropical, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 377–394, 2002.
- A. S. Kamiguti, J. L. C. Cardoso, R. D. G. Theakston et al., “Coagulopathy and haemorrhage in human victims of Bothrops jararaca envenoming in Brazil,” Toxicon, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 961–972, 1991.
- J. M. Gutiérrez and C. L. Ownby, “Skeletal muscle degeneration induced by venom phospholipases A 2: insights into the mechanisms of local and systemic myotoxicity,” Toxicon, vol. 42, no. 8, pp. 915–931, 2003.
- J. M. Gutierrez, C. L. Ownby, and G. V. Odell, “Skeletal muscle regeneration after myonecrosis induced by crude venom and a myotoxin from the snake Bothrops asper (Fer-de-Lance),” Toxicon, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 719–731, 1984.
- J. B. Harris and M. J. Cullen, “Muscle necrosis caused by snake venoms and toxins,” Electron Microscopy Reviews, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 183–211, 1990.
- D. Mebs and C. L. Ownby, “Myotoxic components of snake venoms: their biochemical and biological activities,” Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 223–236, 1990.
- J. M. Gutiérrez, F. Chaves, and L. Cerdas, “Inflammatory infiltrate in skeletal muscle injected with Bothrops asper venom,” Revista de Biologia Tropical, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 209–214, 1986.
- D. F. J. Ketelhut, M. Homem De Mello, E. L. G. Veronese et al., “Isolation, characterization and biological activity of acidic phospholipase A2 isoforms from Bothrops jararacussu snake venom,” Biochimie, vol. 85, no. 10, pp. 983–991, 2003.
- R. S. Rodrigues, L. F. M. Izidoro, S. S. Teixeira et al., “Isolation and functional characterization of a new myotoxic acidic phospholipase A2 from Bothrops pauloensis snake venom,” Toxicon, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 153–165, 2007.
- E. C. T. Landucci, R. C. Castro, M. F. Pereira et al., “Mast cell degranulation induced by two phospholipase A2 homologues: dissociation between enzymatic and biological activities,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 343, no. 2-3, pp. 257–263, 1998.
- E. C. T. Landucci, R. C. De Castro, M. Toyama et al., “Inflammatory oedema induced by the Lys-49 phospholipase A2 homologue piratoxin-I in the rat and rabbit. Effect of polyanions and p-bromophenacyl bromide,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 59, no. 10, pp. 1289–1294, 2000.
- B. Lomonte, A. Tarkowski, and L. A. Hanson, “Host response to Bothrops asper snake venom. Analysis of edema formation, inflammatory cells, and cytokine release in a mouse model,” Inflammation, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 93–105, 1993.
- B. S. Vishwanath, R. M. Kini, and T. V. Gowda, “Characterization of three edema-inducing phospholipase A2 enzymes from habu (Trimeresurus flavoviridis) venom and their interaction with the alkaloid aristolochic acid,” Toxicon, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 501–515, 1987.
- J. P. Zuliani, C. M. Fernandes, S. R. Zamuner, J. M. Gutiérrez, and C. F. P. Teixeira, “Inflammatory events induced by Lys-49 and Asp-49 phospholipases A2 isolated from Bothrops asper snake venom: role of catalytic activity,” Toxicon, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 335–346, 2005.
- E. Stylianou and J. Saklatvala, “Interleukin-1,” International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, vol. 30, no. 10, pp. 1075–1079, 1998.