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BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 942916, 15 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/942916
Review Article

Mechanisms of Nanoparticle-Induced Oxidative Stress and Toxicity

1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Mary Babb Randolph Cancer Center, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA
2Physiology and Pathology Research Branch, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV 26505, USA

Received 9 May 2013; Accepted 16 July 2013

Academic Editor: Nikhat J. Siddiqi

Copyright © 2013 Amruta Manke et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The rapidly emerging field of nanotechnology has offered innovative discoveries in the medical, industrial, and consumer sectors. The unique physicochemical and electrical properties of engineered nanoparticles (NP) make them highly desirable in a variety of applications. However, these novel properties of NP are fraught with concerns for environmental and occupational exposure. Changes in structural and physicochemical properties of NP can lead to changes in biological activities including ROS generation, one of the most frequently reported NP-associated toxicities. Oxidative stress induced by engineered NP is due to acellular factors such as particle surface, size, composition, and presence of metals, while cellular responses such as mitochondrial respiration, NP-cell interaction, and immune cell activation are responsible for ROS-mediated damage. NP-induced oxidative stress responses are torch bearers for further pathophysiological effects including genotoxicity, inflammation, and fibrosis as demonstrated by activation of associated cell signaling pathways. Since oxidative stress is a key determinant of NP-induced injury, it is necessary to characterize the ROS response resulting from NP. Through physicochemical characterization and understanding of the multiple signaling cascades activated by NP-induced ROS, a systemic toxicity screen with oxidative stress as a predictive model for NP-induced injury can be developed.