Figure 1: TcES modify the secretion of cytokines by human DCs activated with LPS. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were obtained from buffy coats of 12 healthy blood donors. Informed consent was obtained for the use of blood samples according to the declaration of Helsinki and the local scientific and ethics committees approved the protocol. Monocyte-derived DCs were cultured for six days in the presence of IL-4 and GM-CSF . Cells were challenged with 20 ug/mL TcES, 1 ug/mL LPS, or a combination of them for 3 h or 24 h. Control cells received RPMI. Cells and supernatants were collected and cytokine response was measured by ELISA kits (Peprotech and R&D). The data is shown as scattered plots and medians of twelve independent experiments ( for 3 h and for 24 h). Comparisons were performed by the Mann-Whitney test. * LPS versus LPS/TcES. All analyses were performed with the GraphPad Prism v. 5 statistical software.