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Figure 2: Efficient transduction of neurons with intracardiac injections of the tyrosine-mutant AAV9/3 vectors containing a neuron-specific promoter. Extensive transduction of neurons was achieved throughout the mouse brain by injections of tyrosine-mutant AAV9/3 vectors that expressed GFP under control of the synapsin I promoter. Representative images of coronal sections stained with an anti-GFP antibody following virus administration. Section locations relative to the Bregma: (a) +0.74 mm; (b) –1.82 mm; (c) –2.92 mm; and (d) –6.12 mm. ((e), (f)) Merged images showing results of double immunostaining experiments. Nearly all transduced cells were immunoreactive for NeuN but not GFAP. (e) GFP (green), NeuN (red); and (f) GFP (green), GFAP (red). Analysis of peripheral organs in yfAAV9/3-SynI-GFP vector-injected mice revealed that GFP expression was not observed in heart muscle, kidney cells, or hepatocytes ((g)–(i)) and was restricted to peripheral nerve cells (inset in (g)). Scale bars: ((a)–(d)) 2 mm; ((e), (f), and inset of (g)–(i)) 30 μm; ((g)–(i)) 1 mm.