Table 3: Associations between cytokine genes and leprosy.

PopulationStudy designSample sizePhenotypeAllele, genotype, or haplotypeType of associationP Ref.

BrazilianCase-control70LL, 85BL, 55BB, 2BT, 63TT, 10IL, 15 pure neural, 92 controlsBT/TTTNF-308A Resistance [43]

BrazilianCase-control74BTBT/TTTNF-308A ResistanceND[44]

BrazilianCase-control210MB, 90PB, 92 controls
143MB, 79PB, 62 controls
LD
PB
LD
TNF-308A  
IL10-819T  
IL10-819TT
Resistance Susceptibility
Susceptibility
  
  
[45]

BrazilianCase-control43TT, 65LL, 50BB, 9IL, 240 controlsLD
LL
TNF-308A  
IL10-1082G/-819C/-592C
Resistance
Resistance
  
[46]

BrazilianFamily study
case-control
363LD
1146LD, 1036 controls
LDTNF-308A Resistance
Resistance
  
[47]

NepalCase-control581(LL,BL,BB), 343(BT,TT); 101 controlsLDTNF-308A Resistance [48]

IndianCase-control121LL, 107TT, 160 controlsLLTNF-308A Susceptibility [49]

ThaiCase-control24MB, 13PB, 140 controlsMB
LD
TNF-308A  
TNF-308GA
Susceptibility
Susceptibility
  
[50]

French Polynesian Family study6 familiesLDIL-1 beta, TNF-alpha (1, 2), and TNF-alpha (A, G) ns[51]

BrazilianMulti case families study76 familiesLDTNF * 1  
TNF*1/LTA*2  
TNF*2/LTA*2
Susceptibility
Susceptibility
Resistance
  
  
[31]

MexicanCase-control62 cases, 144 controlsLLTNF-308G/A  
IL10-819C
ns[52]

IndianCase-control449PB, 473MB, 1670 controlsLDBAT1-LTA-TNF-BTNL2 Susceptibility [53]

BrazilianCase-control
Meta-analysis
374 cases, 380 controls
2702 individuals (5 studies)
LDIL10-819T Susceptibility [54]

ColombianCase-control100 cases, 100 controlsLDIL10-819CC and CT  
IL10-592CC and CA  
IL10-819C-592C  
IL10-1082A-819C-592C
Susceptibility
Susceptibility
Susceptibility
Susceptibility
  
  
  
[55]

Brazilian Case-control131PB, 166MB, 283 controlsLDIL10-3575A/-2849G/-2763C  
IL10-3575T/-2849A/2763C
Resistance
Susceptibility
  
[56]

IndianCase-control 144MB, 142PB, 266 controlsLDIL10-3575T/-2849G/-2763C/-1082A/-819C/-592C  
IL10-3575T/-2849G/-2763C/-1082A/-819T/-592A
Resistance
Susceptibility
  
[57]

IndianCase-control80 cases, 89 controlsLDIL12B 3UTR 2.2 Resistance [58]

KoreanCase-control93LL, 94 controlsLLIL12RB1  
IFNGR1
ns[59]

JapaneseCase-control130LL, 46TL, 68 controlsLLIL12RB2-1035G  
IL12RB2-1023G  
IL12RB2-650delG  
IL12RB2-464G  
IL12RB2-1035A/-1023A/-650G/-464A
Susceptibility   
  
  
  
[60]

MexicanCase-control44LL, 51 controlsLLIL12 3UTR 1188A/C Susceptibility [61]

MexicanCase-control66LL, 140 controlsLLIL12 3UTR 1188A/C ns[62]

ChineseMultiple-stage genetic association4971 cases, 5503 controlsLDIL18RAP/IL18R1(rs2058660) IL12B(rs6871626)Susceptibility   
[63]

BrazilianCase-control1045 cases, 1080 controlsLDIFNG+ 874T Resistance [64]

ChineseCase-control527 cases, 583 controlsLD
LD, MB
MB
MB
PB
IFNG+ 874T/A  
IFNG(10CA),  
IFNG(13CA)  
IFNG(15CA)  
IFNG(17CA)
ns
Susceptibility
Susceptibility
Susceptibility
Susceptibility
   
  
  
  
[65]

BrazilianCase-control108 cases, 113 controlsPBIFNG+874AA  
IFNG(16CA)
Susceptibility
Susceptibility
  
[66]

BrazilianCase-control10TT, 59BB, 27LL, 98 controlsLDIFNG(15CA), (16CA),  and  (17CA) Susceptibility [67]

IranianCase report3 casesLDIFNGR1-56T/C SusceptibilityND[68]

ChineseCase-control80PB, 352MB, 465 controlsLDIL4-590TC  
IL4-590CC  
IL4-590C
Resistance
Resistance
Resistance
  
  
[69]

IndianCase-control2447 cases, 1294 controlsLDIL-10 (rs1800871, rs1800872,
rs1554286);
IL-10RB (rs3171425; rs7281762);
TGFBR2 (rs2228048, rs744751);
IL-6 (rs1800797)
Susceptibility [70]

MB: multibacillary; PB: paucibacillary; LL: lepromatous leprosy; BL: borderline lepromatous; BT: borderline tuberculoid; TT: tuberculoid leprosy; LD: leprosy disease; ns: not significant; ND: no data; value; Ref.: reference.