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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 141396, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/141396
Research Article

Effects of Stress and MDMA on Hippocampal Gene Expression

1James Winkle College of Pharmacy, University of Cincinnati, 3225 Eden Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45267, USA
2Department of Neurosciences, University of Toledo School of Medicine, Toledo, OH 43606, USA

Received 18 April 2013; Revised 18 September 2013; Accepted 10 October 2013; Published 9 January 2014

Academic Editor: Anton M. Jetten

Copyright © 2014 Georg F. Weber et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) is a substituted amphetamine and popular drug of abuse. Its mood-enhancing short-term effects may prompt its consumption under stress. Clinical studies indicate that MDMA treatment may mitigate the symptoms of stress disorders such as posttraumatic stress syndrome (PTSD). On the other hand, repeated administration of MDMA results in persistent deficits in markers of serotonergic (5-HT) nerve terminals that have been viewed as indicative of 5-HT neurotoxicity. Exposure to chronic stress has been shown to augment MDMA-induced 5-HT neurotoxicity. Here, we examine the transcriptional responses in the hippocampus to MDMA treatment of control rats and rats exposed to chronic stress. MDMA altered the expression of genes that regulate unfolded protein binding, protein folding, calmodulin-dependent protein kinase activity, and neuropeptide signaling. In stressed rats, the gene expression profile in response to MDMA was altered to affect sensory processing and responses to tissue damage in nerve sheaths. Subsequent treatment with MDMA also markedly altered the genetic responses to stress such that the stress-induced downregulation of genes related to the circadian rhythm was reversed. The data support the view that MDMA-induced transcriptional responses accompany the persistent effects of this drug on neuronal structure/function. In addition, MDMA treatment alters the stress-induced transcriptional signature.