Table 3: Vitamin D status in different subgroups in both cases and controls.

Item Mean of serum vitamin D ± SD (control) value
(within case groups)
Mean of serum vitamin D ± SD (case) value
(within control groups)
value
(between case and control groups)

Sex
 Female 0.019 0.0460.702
 Male 0.381
Residency
 Rural 0.159 0.0840.949
 Urban 0.857
Level of education
 Below high school diploma 0.895 0.6720.967
 Above high school diploma 0.793
Duration of sun exposure
 0–120 min/day 0.000 0.0040.238
 ≥120 min/day 0.234
Group age
 ≤25 0.993 0.4570.722
 >25 0.693
 ≤50 0.307 0.2430.803
 >50 0.968

The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare mean of vitamin D in different groups.