About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
BioMed Research International
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 542526, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/542526
Clinical Study

Does rTMS Alter Neurocognitive Functioning in Patients with Panic Disorder/Agoraphobia? An fNIRS-Based Investigation of Prefrontal Activation during a Cognitive Task and Its Modulation via Sham-Controlled rTMS

1Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Tuebingen, Calwerstr 14, 72076 Tuebingen, Germany
2Mood and Anxiety Disorders Research Unit, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Muenster, Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1, Building A9, 48149 Muenster, Germany
3Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Universitaetsstr 31, 93053 Regensburg, Germany
4kbo-Inn-Salzach-Hospital, Gabersee 7, 83512 Wasserburg am Inn, Germany
5Graduate School LEAD, University of Tuebingen, Europastr. 6, 72072 Tuebingen, Germany
6Cluster of Excellence CIN, University of Tuebingen, Otfried-Mueller-Str. 25, 72076 Tuebingen, Germany

Received 4 October 2013; Revised 10 January 2014; Accepted 11 January 2014; Published 18 March 2014

Academic Editor: Qiyong Gong

Copyright © 2014 Saskia Deppermann et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR), American Psychiatric Publishing, 4th edition, 2000.
  2. J. M. Gorman, M. R. Liebowitz, A. J. Fyer, and J. Stein, “A neuroanatomical hypothesis for panic disorder,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 146, no. 2, pp. 148–161, 1989. View at Scopus
  3. J. M. Gorman, J. M. Kent, G. M. Sullivan, and J. D. Coplan, “Neuroanatomical hypothesis of panic disorder, revised,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 157, no. 4, pp. 493–505, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. T. Dresler, A. Guhn, S. V. Tupak et al., “Revise the revised? New dimensions of the neuroanatomical hypothesis of panic disorder,” Journal of Neural Transmission, vol. 120, no. 1, pp. 3–29, 2013.
  5. T. Dresler, C. Hindi Attar, C. Spitzer et al., “Neural correlates of the emotional Stroop task in panic disorder patients: an event-related fMRI study,” Journal of Psychiatric Research, vol. 46, no. 12, pp. 1627–1634, 2012.
  6. Y. Nishimura, H. Tanii, M. Fukuda et al., “Frontal dysfunction during a cognitive task in drug-naive patients with panic disorder as investigated by multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy imaging,” Neuroscience Research, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 107–112, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. H. Ohta, B. Yamagata, H. Tomioka et al., “Hypofrontality in panic disorder and major depressive disorder assessed by multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy,” Depression and Anxiety, vol. 25, no. 12, pp. 1053–1059, 2008. View at Scopus
  8. Y. Nishimura, H. Tanii, N. Hara et al., “Relationship between the prefrontal function during a cognitive task and the severity of the symptoms in patients with panic disorder: a multi-channel NIRS study,” Psychiatry Research, vol. 172, no. 2, pp. 168–172, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. E. M. Wassermann and T. Zimmermann, “Transcranial magnetic brain stimulation: therapeutic promises and scientific gaps,” Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 133, no. 1, pp. 98–107, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. O. Pogarell, W. Koch, G. Pöpperl et al., “Acute prefrontal rTMS increases striatal dopamine to a similar degree as D-amphetamine,” Psychiatry Research, vol. 156, no. 3, pp. 251–255, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. A. M. Speer, T. A. Kimbrell, E. M. Wassermann et al., “Opposite effects of high and low frequency rTMS on regional brain activity in depressed patients,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 48, no. 12, pp. 1133–1141, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. U. Herwig, A. J. Fallgatter, J. Höppner et al., “Antidepressant effects of augmentative transcranial magnetic stimulation: randomised multicentre trial,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 191, pp. 441–448, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. D. J. L. G. Schutter, “Antidepressant efficacy of high-frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in double-blind sham-controlled designs: a meta-analysis,” Psychological Medicine, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 65–75, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. D. O. Rumi, W. F. Gattaz, S. P. Rigonatti et al., “Transcranial magnetic stimulation accelerates the antidepressant effect of amitriptyline in severe depression: a double-blind placebo-controlled study,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 162–166, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. S. S. Cho, E. J. Yoon, J. M. Lee, and S. E. Kim, “Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex improves probabilistic category learning,” Brain Topography, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 443–449, 2012.
  16. K. Yamanaka, B. Yamagata, H. Tomioka, S. Kawasaki, and M. Mimura, “Transcranial magnetic stimulation of the parietal cortex facilitates spatial working memory: near-infrared spectroscopy study,” Cerebral Cortex, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 1037–1045, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. L. H. Ernst, S. Schneider, A.-C. Ehlis, and A. J. Fallgatter, “Review: functional near infrared spectroscopy in psychiatry: a critical review,” Journal of Near Infrared Spectroscopy, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 93–105, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. F. Irani, S. M. Platek, S. Bunce, A. C. Ruocco, and D. Chute, “Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS): an emerging neuroimaging technology with important applications for the study of brain disorders,” The Clinical Neuropsychologist, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 9–37, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. F. B. Haeussinger, S. Heinzel, T. Hahn, M. Schecklmann, A.-C. Ehlis, and A. J. Fallgatter, “Simulation of near-infrared light absorption considering individual head and prefrontal cortex anatomy: implications for optical neuroimaging,” PLoS ONE, vol. 6, no. 10, Article ID e26377, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. X. Cui, S. Bray, D. M. Bryant, G. H. Glover, and A. L. Reiss, “A quantitative comparison of NIRS and fMRI across multiple cognitive tasks,” NeuroImage, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 2808–2821, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. M. Ferrari and V. Quaresima, “A brief review on the history of human functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) development and fields of application,” NeuroImage, vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 921–935, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. A. C. Ehlis, S. Schneider, T. Dresler, and A. J. Fallgatter, “Application of functional near-infrared spectroscopy in psychiatry,” NeuroImage, vol. 85, part 1, pp. 478–488, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. S. Deppermann, N. Vennewald, J. Diemer et al., “Neurobiological and clinical effects of NIRS-controlled transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in patients with panic disorder/agoraphobia during cognitive behavioral therapy,” Manuscript in preparation, University of Tuebingen.
  24. J. Margraf and S. Schneider, Panik Angstanfälle und ihre Behandlung, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1990.
  25. S. Schneider and J. Margraf, Agoraphobie und Panikstörung. Fortschritte der Psychotherapie, Hogrefe, Göttingen, Germany, 1998.
  26. A. Aschenbrenner, O. Tucha, and K. Lange, RWT Regensburger Wortflüssigkeits-Test Handanweisung, Hogrefe, Göttingen, Germany, 2000.
  27. Y.-Z. Huang, M. J. Edwards, E. Rounis, K. P. Bhatia, and J. C. Rothwell, “Theta burst stimulation of the human motor cortex,” Neuron, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 201–206, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. J. Restle, T. Murakami, and U. Ziemann, “Facilitation of speech repetition accuracy by theta burst stimulation of the left posterior inferior frontal gyrus,” Neuropsychologia, vol. 50, no. 8, pp. 2026–2031, 2012.
  29. M. V. Sale, M. C. Ridding, and M. A. Nordstrom, “Factors influencing the magnitude and reproducibility of corticomotor excitability changes induced by paired associative stimulation,” Experimental Brain Research, vol. 181, no. 4, pp. 615–626, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. U. Herwig, P. Satrapi, and C. Schönfeldt-Lecuona, “Using the international 10-20 EEG system for positioning of transcranial magnetic stimulation,” Brain Topography, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 95–99, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. H. Obrig and A. Villringer, “Beyond the visible—imaging the human brain with light,” Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 1–18, 2003. View at Scopus
  32. H. Jasper, “The ten-twenty electrode system of the International Federation,” Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, vol. 10, pp. 371–375, 1958.
  33. X. Cui, S. Bray, and A. L. Reiss, “Functional near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) signal improvement based on negative correlation between oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin dynamics,” NeuroImage, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 3039–3046, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. T. Yamamoto and T. Kato, “Paradoxical correlation between signal in functional magnetic resonance imaging and deoxygenated haemoglobin content in capillaries: a new theoretical explanation,” Physics in Medicine and Biology, vol. 47, no. 7, pp. 1121–1141, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. S. Brigadoi, L. Ceccherini, S. Cutini et al., “Motion artifacts in functional near-infrared spectroscopy: a comparison of motion correction techniques applied to real cognitive data,” NeuroImage, vol. 85, part 1, pp. 181–191, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  36. S. V. Tupak, M. Badewien, T. Dresler et al., “Differential prefrontal and frontotemporal oxygenation patterns during phonemic and semantic verbal fluency,” Neuropsychologia, vol. 50, no. 7, pp. 1565–1569, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. M. Schecklmann, A.-C. Ehlis, M. M. Plichta et al., “Diminished prefrontal oxygenation with normal and above-average verbal fluency performance in adult ADHD,” Journal of Psychiatric Research, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 98–106, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. D. Tsuzuki, V. Jurcak, A. K. Singh, M. Okamoto, E. Watanabe, and I. Dan, “Virtual spatial registration of stand-alone fNIRS data to MNI space,” NeuroImage, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 1506–1518, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. C. Rorden and M. Brett, “Stereotaxic display of brain lesions,” Behavioural Neurology, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 191–200, 2000. View at Scopus
  40. J. L. Lancaster, M. G. Woldorff, L. M. Parsons et al., “Automated Talairach atlas labels for functional brain mapping,” Human Brain Mapping, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 120–131, 2000.
  41. M. B. First, R. L. Spitzer, M. Gibbon, and J. B. W. Williams, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders, Clinician Version (SCID-CV), American Psychiatric Press, Washington, DC, USA, 1996.
  42. H. Wittchen, U. Wunderlich, S. Gruschwitz, and M. Zaudig, Strukturiertes Klinisches Interview für DSM-IV: SKID I Interviewheft—Achse 1: Psychische Störungen, Hogrefe, Göttingen, Germany, 1997.
  43. B. Bandelow, Panic and Agoraphobia Scale (PAS), Hogrefe & Huber, Seattle, Wash, USA, 1997.
  44. H. Hamilton, “Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA),” in Internationale Skalen für Psychiatrie, CIPS, Ed., Beltz Test GmbH, Göttingen, Germany, 1996.
  45. G. H. Eifert, R. N. Thompson, M. J. Zvolensky et al., “The cardiac anxiety questionnaire: development and preliminary validity,” Behaviour Research and Therapy, vol. 38, no. 10, pp. 1039–1053, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. J. Hoyer, S. Helbig, and J. Margraf, Diagnostik der Angststörungen, Hogrefe, Göttingen, Germany, 2005.
  47. R. M. Berman, M. Narasimhan, G. Sanacora et al., “A randomized clinical trial of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of major depression,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 332–337, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. S. Pallanti and S. Bernardi, “Neurobiology of repeated transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of anxiety: a critical review,” International Clinical Psychopharmacology, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 163–173, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. S. M. Quintana, S. E. Maxwell, S. M. Quintana, and S. E. Maxwell, “A Monte Carlo comparison of seven E-adjustment procedures in repeated measures designs with small sample sizes,” Journal of Educational Statistics, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 57–71, 1994.
  50. S. Holm, “A simple sequentially rejective multiple test procedure,” Scandinavian Journal of Statistics, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 65–70, 1979.
  51. T. Takahashi, Y. Takikawa, R. Kawagoe, S. Shibuya, T. Iwano, and S. Kitazawa, “Influence of skin blood flow on near-infrared spectroscopy signals measured on the forehead during a verbal fluency task,” NeuroImage, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 991–1002, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. F. B. Haeussinger, T. Dresler, S. Heinzel, M. Schecklmann, A. J. Fallgatter, and A. C. Ehlis, “Reconstructing functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) signals impaired by extra-cranial confounds: an easy-to-use filter method,” accepted in NeuroImage.
  53. E. Kirilina, A. Jelzow, A. Heine et al., “The physiological origin of task-evoked systemic artefacts in functional near infrared spectroscopy,” NeuroImage, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 70–81, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. M. Holzer and F. Padberg, “Intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) ameliorates therapy-resistant depression: a case series,” Brain Stimulation, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 181–183, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. A. V. Chistyakov, O. Rubicsek, B. Kaplan, M. Zaaroor, and E. Klein, “Safety, tolerability and preliminary evidence for antidepressant efficacy of theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with major depression,” The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 387–393, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. S. Rossi, M. Ferro, M. Cincotta et al., “A real electro-magnetic placebo (REMP) device for sham transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS),” Clinical Neurophysiology, vol. 118, no. 3, pp. 709–716, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. P. S. Boggio, M. Rocha, M. O. Oliveira et al., “Noninvasive brain stimulation with high-frequency and low-intensity repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder,” Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, vol. 71, no. 8, pp. 992–999, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. B. Cheeran, P. Talelli, F. Mori et al., “A common polymorphism in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene ( BDNF) modulates human cortical plasticity and the response to rTMS,” The Journal of Physiology, vol. 586, no. 23, pp. 5717–5725, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. Y.-Z. Huang, R.-S. Chen, J. C. Rothwell, and H.-Y. Wen, “The after-effect of human theta burst stimulation is NMDA receptor dependent,” Clinical Neurophysiology, vol. 118, no. 5, pp. 1028–1032, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. O. L. Gamboa, A. Antal, V. Moliadze, and W. Paulus, “Simply longer is not better: reversal of theta burst after-effect with prolonged stimulation,” Experimental Brain Research, vol. 204, no. 2, pp. 181–187, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus