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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 827265, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/827265
Review Article

Advanced Imaging for the Early Diagnosis of Local Recurrence Prostate Cancer after Radical Prostatectomy

1Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and Pathology, Sapienza University of Rome, 00161 Rome, Italy
2Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Interventional Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Therapy, University Hospital “Tor Vergata”, 00133 Rome, Italy
3Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and Pathology, Spencer-Lorillard Foundation, Sapienza University of Rome, 00161 Rome, Italy

Received 19 December 2013; Accepted 6 February 2014; Published 13 March 2014

Academic Editor: Giovanni Luca Gravina

Copyright © 2014 Valeria Panebianco et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Currently the diagnosis of local recurrence of prostate cancer (PCa) after radical prostatectomy (RT) is based on the onset of biochemical failure which is defined by two consecutive values of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) higher than 0.2 ng/mL. The aim of this paper was to review the current roles of advanced imaging in the detection of locoregional recurrence. A nonsystematic literature search using the Medline and Cochrane Library databases was performed up to November 2013. Bibliographies of retrieved and review articles were also examined. Only those articles reporting complete data with clinical relevance for the present review were selected. This review article is divided into two major parts: the first one considers the role of PET/CT in the restaging of PCa after RP; the second part is intended to provide the impact of multiparametric-MRI (mp-MRI) in the depiction of locoregional recurrence. Published data indicate an emerging role for mp-MRI in the depiction of locoregional recurrence, while the performance of PET/CT still remains unclear. Moreover Mp-MRI, thanks to functional techniques, allows to distinguish between residual glandular healthy tissue, scar/fibrotic tissue, granulation tissue, and tumour recurrence and it may also be able to assess the aggressiveness of nodule recurrence.