BioMed Research International The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Comparative Efficacy of the Air-Q Intubating Laryngeal Airway during General Anesthesia in Pediatric Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Thu, 23 Jun 2016 14:54:09 +0000 Air-Q® (air-Q) is a supraglottic airway device which can be used as a guidance of intubation in pediatric as well as in adult patients. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of air-Q compared to other airway devices during general anesthesia in pediatric patients by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis. A total of 10 studies including 789 patients were included in the final analysis. Compared with other supraglottic airway devices, air-Q showed no evidence for a difference in leakage pressure and insertion time. The ease of insertion was significantly lower than other supraglottic airway devices. The success rate of intubation was significantly lower than other airway devices. However, fiberoptic view was better through the air-Q than other supraglottic airway devices. Therefore, air-Q could be a safe substitute for other airway devices and may provide better fiberoptic bronchoscopic view. Eun Jin Ahn, Geun Joo Choi, Hyun Kang, Chong Wha Baek, Yong Hun Jung, Young Cheol Woo, and Si Ra Bang Copyright © 2016 Eun Jin Ahn et al. All rights reserved. Prediction and Prevention of Acute Kidney Injury after Cardiac Surgery Thu, 23 Jun 2016 12:56:43 +0000 The incidence of acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery (CS-AKI) ranges from 33% to 94% and is associated with a high incidence of morbidity and mortality. The etiology is suggested to be multifactorial and related to almost all aspects of perioperative management. Numerous studies have reported the risk factors and risk scores and novel biomarkers of AKI have been investigated to facilitate the subclinical diagnosis of AKI. Based on the known independent risk factors, many preventive interventions to reduce the risk of CS-AKI have been tested. However, any single preventive intervention did not show a definite and persistent benefit to reduce the incidence of CS-AKI. Goal-directed therapy has been considered to be a preventive strategy with a substantial level of efficacy. Many pharmacologic agents were tested for any benefit to treat or prevent CS-AKI but the results were conflicting and evidences are still lacking. The present review will summarize the current updated evidences about the risk factors and preventive strategies for CS-AKI. Su Rin Shin, Won Ho Kim, Dong Joon Kim, Il-Woo Shin, and Ju-Tae Sohn Copyright © 2016 Su Rin Shin et al. All rights reserved. Cloning and Expression Analysis of One Gamma-Glutamylcysteine Synthetase Gene (Hbγ-ECS1) in Latex Production in Hevea brasiliensis Thu, 23 Jun 2016 10:41:09 +0000 Rubber tree is a major commercial source of natural rubber. Latex coagulation is delayed by thiols, which belong to the important type of antioxidants in laticifer submembrane, and is composed of glutathione (GSH), cysteine, and methionine. The rate-limiting enzyme, γ-ECS, plays an important role in regulating the biosynthesis of glutathione under any environment conditions. To understand the relation between γ-ECS and thiols and to correlate latex flow with one-time tapping and continuous tapping, we cloned and derived the full length of one γ-ECS from rubber tree latex (Hbγ-ECS1). According to qPCR analysis, the expression levels of Hbγ-ECS1 were induced by tapping and Ethrel stimulation, and the expression was related to thiols content in the latex. Continuous tapping induced injury, and the expression of HbγECS1 increased with routine tapping and Ethrel-stimulation tapping (more intensive tapping). According to expression in long-term flowing latex, the gene was related to the duration of latex flow. HbγECS1 was expressed in E. coli Rosetta using pET-sumo as an expression vector and the recombinant enzyme was purified; then we achieved 0.827 U/mg specific activity and about 66 kDa molecular weight. The present study can help us understand the complex role of Hbγ-ECS in thiols biosynthesis, which is influenced by tapping. Wei Fang, Luo Shi Qiao, Wu Ming, Qiu Jian, Yang Wen Feng, Gao Hong Hua, and Xiao Xian Zhou Copyright © 2016 Wei Fang et al. All rights reserved. Acoustic Cavitation Enhances Focused Ultrasound Ablation with Phase-Shift Inorganic Perfluorohexane Nanoemulsions: An In Vitro Study Using a Clinical Device Thu, 23 Jun 2016 07:12:17 +0000 Purpose. To investigate whether acoustic cavitation could increase the evaporation of a phase-shift inorganic perfluorohexane (PFH) nanoemulsion and enhance high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation. Materials and Methods. PFH was encapsulated by mesoporous silica nanocapsule (MSNC) to form a nanometer-sized droplet (MSNC-PFH). It was added to a tissue-mimicking phantom, whereas phosphate buffered saline (PBS) was added as a control (PBS-control). HIFU ( W,  s) exposures were performed in both phantoms with various duty cycles (DC). US images, temperature, and cavitation emissions were recorded during HIFU exposure. HIFU-induced lesions were measured and calculated. Results. Compared to PBS-control, MSNC-PFH nanoemulsion could significantly increase the volume of HIFU-induced lesion (). Peak temperatures were 78.16 ± 5.64°C at a DC of 100%, 70.17 ± 6.43°C at 10%, 53.17 ± 4.54°C at 5%, and 42.00 ± 5.55°C at 2%, respectively. Inertial cavitation was much stronger in the pulsed-HIFU than that in the continuous-wave HIFU exposure. Compared to 100%-DC exposure, the mean volume of lesion induced by 5 s exposure at 10%-DC was significantly larger, but smaller at 2%-DC. Conclusions. MSNC-PFH nanoemulsion can significantly enhance HIFU ablation. Appropriate pulsed-HIFU exposure could significantly increase the volume of lesion and reduce total US energy required for HIFU ablation. Lu-Yan Zhao, Jian-Zhong Zou, Zong-Gui Chen, Shan Liu, Jiao Jiao, and Feng Wu Copyright © 2016 Lu-Yan Zhao et al. All rights reserved. A Metric on the Space of Partly Reduced Phylogenetic Networks Thu, 23 Jun 2016 06:48:16 +0000 Phylogenetic networks are a generalization of phylogenetic trees that allow for the representation of evolutionary events acting at the population level, such as recombination between genes, hybridization between lineages, and horizontal gene transfer. The researchers have designed several measures for computing the dissimilarity between two phylogenetic networks, and each measure has been proven to be a metric on a special kind of phylogenetic networks. However, none of the existing measures is a metric on the space of partly reduced phylogenetic networks. In this paper, we provide a metric, -distance, on the space of partly reduced phylogenetic networks, which is polynomial-time computable. Juan Wang Copyright © 2016 Juan Wang. All rights reserved. A Comparative Study of Microleakage on Dental Surfaces Bonded with Three Self-Etch Adhesive Systems Treated with the Er:YAG Laser and Bur Wed, 22 Jun 2016 14:24:41 +0000 Aim. This study sought to compare the microleakage of three adhesive systems in the context of Erbium-YAG laser and diamond bur cavity procedures. Cavities were restored with composite resin. Materials and Methods. Standardized Class V cavities were performed in 72 extracted human teeth by means of diamond burs or Er-YAG laser. The samples were randomly divided into six groups of 12, testing three adhesive systems (Clearfil s3 Bond Plus, Xeno® Select, and Futurabond U) for each method used. Cavities were restored with composite resin before thermocycling (methylene blue 2%, 24 h). The slices were prepared using a microtome. Optical microscope photography was employed to measure the penetration. Results. No statistically significant differences in microleakage were found in the use of bur or laser, nor between adhesive systems. Only statistically significant values were observed comparing enamel with cervical walls (). Conclusion. It can be concluded that the Er:YAG laser is as efficient as diamond bur concerning microleakage values in adhesive restoration procedures, thus constituting an alternative tool for tooth preparation. Youssef Sanhadji El Haddar, Sibel Cetik, Babak Bahrami, and Ramin Atash Copyright © 2016 Youssef Sanhadji El Haddar et al. All rights reserved. Synergistic Effects of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Mexican Seaweeds against Measles Virus Wed, 22 Jun 2016 11:56:44 +0000 Sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) extracted from five seaweed samples collected or cultivated in Mexico (Macrocystis pyrifera, Eisenia arborea, Pelvetia compressa, Ulva intestinalis, and Solieria filiformis) were tested in this study in order to evaluate their effect on measles virus in vitro. All polysaccharides showed antiviral activity (as measured by the reduction of syncytia formation) and low cytotoxicity (MTT assay) at inhibitory concentrations. SPs from Eisenia arborea and Solieria filiformis showed the highest antiviral activities (confirmed by qPCR) and were selected to determine their combined effect. Their synergistic effect was observed at low concentrations (0.0274 μg/mL and 0.011 μg/mL of E. arborea and S. filiformis SPs, resp.), which exhibited by far a higher inhibitory effect (96% syncytia reduction) in comparison to the individual SP effects (50% inhibition with 0.275 μg/mL and 0.985 μg/mL of E. arborea and S. filiformis, resp.). Time of addition experiments and viral penetration assays suggest that best activities of these SPs occur at different stages of infection. The synergistic effect would allow reducing the treatment dose and toxicity and minimizing or delaying the induction of antiviral resistance; sulfated polysaccharides of the tested seaweed species thus appear as promising candidates for the development of natural antiviral agents. Karla Morán-Santibañez, Lucia Elizabeth Cruz-Suárez, Denis Ricque-Marie, Daniel Robledo, Yolanda Freile-Pelegrín, Mario A. Peña-Hernández, Cristina Rodríguez-Padilla, and Laura M. Trejo-Avila Copyright © 2016 Karla Morán-Santibañez et al. All rights reserved. Magnesium Attenuates Phosphate-Induced Deregulation of a MicroRNA Signature and Prevents Modulation of Smad1 and Osterix during the Course of Vascular Calcification Wed, 22 Jun 2016 07:15:14 +0000 Vascular calcification (VC) is prevalent in patients suffering from chronic kidney disease (CKD). High phosphate levels promote VC by inducing abnormalities in mineral and bone metabolism. Previously, we demonstrated that magnesium (Mg2+) prevents inorganic phosphate- (Pi-) induced VC in human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (HAVSMC). As microRNAs (miR) modulate gene expression, we investigated the role of miR-29b, -30b, -125b, -133a, -143, and -204 in the protective effect of Mg2+ on VC. HAVSMC were cultured in the presence of 3 mM Pi with or without 2 mM Mg2+ chloride. Total RNA was extracted after 4 h, 24 h, day 3, day 7, and day 10. miR-30b, -133a, and -143 were downregulated during the time course of Pi-induced VC, whereas the addition of Mg2+ restored (miR-30b) or improved (miR-133a, miR-143) their expression. The expression of specific targets Smad1 and Osterix was significantly increased in the presence of Pi and restored by coincubation with Mg2+. As miR-30b, miR-133a, and miR-143 are negatively regulated by Pi and restored by Mg2+ with a congruent modulation of their known targets Runx2, Smad1, and Osterix, our results provide a potential mechanistic explanation of the observed upregulation of these master switches of osteogenesis during the course of VC. Loïc Louvet, Laurent Metzinger, Janine Büchel, Sonja Steppan, and Ziad A. Massy Copyright © 2016 Loïc Louvet et al. All rights reserved. Mean Platelet Volume in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection Wed, 22 Jun 2016 07:07:28 +0000 Introduction. Mean platelet volume (MPV) has been thought as a useful index of platelet activation. It is supposed that MPV is also associated with several inflammatory and infectious diseases. Korea still has a high incidence of tuberculosis (TB). The aim of this study was to investigate MPV as an inflammatory marker in TB patients. Materials and Methods. MPV were determined in 221 patients with TB and 143 individuals for control group. MPV was estimated by an Advia 2120 (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics, Tarrytown, NY, USA). Results. In the TB patient group, a positive correlation was found between CRP and MPV. Age and MPV had a positive correlation in TB patient group. Conclusions. We conclude that there is a significant relation between MPV and inflammatory conditions. MPV can be an inflammatory marker to determine the disease activity in TB patients. Min Young Lee, Young Jin Kim, Hee Joo Lee, Sun Young Cho, and Tae Sung Park Copyright © 2016 Min Young Lee et al. All rights reserved. Outcome of Home-Based Early Intervention for Autism in Sri Lanka: Follow-Up of a Cohort and Comparison with a Nonintervention Group Wed, 22 Jun 2016 06:59:22 +0000 This paper presents the outcome of a home-based autism intervention program (HBAIP) in 18- to 40-month-old children newly diagnosed and treatment naïve. Intervention was exclusively implemented at home. Outcome was measured at 3 months and 6 months after intervention and compared with a group of newly diagnosed children with autism who were >40 months at intake but had not received any autism specific clinical management. Aim was also to estimate whether natural development would contribute to gain in skills and compare with the effect of intervention. Five selected parameters of behavior representing social interaction and social communication were used to assess outcome. Results showed a statistically significant improvement between preintervention and postintervention in all the measured parameters. The effect size was large when compared to preintervention and gains were indicated by changes in mean scores and values within a narrow confidence interval. Highest gains were in first 3 months of postintervention which continued up to 6 months. Although the comparison group was more advanced in the measured skills at intake, they were significantly below the level reached by experimental group at 3 months and 6 months after intervention. This study was registered in the Sri Lanka Clinical Trials Registry (SLCTR/2009/011). Hemamali Perera, Kamal Chandima Jeewandara, Sudarshi Seneviratne, and Chandima Guruge Copyright © 2016 Hemamali Perera et al. All rights reserved. Total Laparoscopic Hysterectomy in Patients with Large Uteri: Comparison of Uterine Removal by Transvaginal and Uterine Morcellation Approaches Wed, 22 Jun 2016 06:02:15 +0000 The aim of this study was to compare the clinical results of total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH) for large uterus with uterus size of 12 gestational weeks (g.w.) or greater through transvaginal or uterine morcellation approaches. We retrospectively collected the clinical data of those undergoing total laparoscopic hysterectomies between January 2004 and June 2012. Intraoperative and postoperative outcomes were compared between patients whose large uterus was removed through transvaginal or morcellation approaches. The morcellation group has significantly shorter mean operation time and uterus removal time and smaller incidence of intraoperative complications than the transvaginal group (all ). No statistical significant difference regarding the mean blood loss, uterine weight, and length of hospital stay was noted in the morcellation and transvaginal groups (all ). In two groups, there was one patient in each group who underwent conversion to laparotomy due to huge uterus size. With regard to postoperative complications, there was no statistical significant difference regarding the frequencies of pelvic hematoma, vaginal stump infection, and lower limb venous thrombosis in two groups (all ). TLH through uterine morcellation can reduce the operation time, uterus removal time, and the intraoperative complications and provide comparable postoperative outcomes compared to that through the transvaginal approaches. Haibo Wang, Ping Li, Xiujuan Li, Licai Gao, Caihong Lu, Jinrong Zhao, and Ai-ling Zhou Copyright © 2016 Haibo Wang et al. All rights reserved. Transcriptomics: A Step behind the Comprehension of the Polygenic Influence on Oxidative Stress, Immune Deregulation, and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Chronic Kidney Disease Tue, 21 Jun 2016 15:06:23 +0000 Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an increasing and global health problem with a great economic burden for healthcare system. Therefore to slow down the progression of this condition is a main objective in nephrology. It has been extensively reported that microinflammation, immune system deregulation, and oxidative stress contribute to CKD progression. Additionally, dialysis worsens this clinical condition because of the contact of blood with bioincompatible dialytic devices. Numerous studies have shown the close link between immune system impairment and CKD but most have been performed using classical biomolecular strategies. These methodologies are limited in their ability to discover new elements and enable measuring the simultaneous influence of multiple factors. The “omics” techniques could overcome these gaps. For example, transcriptomics has revealed that mitochondria and inflammasome have a role in pathogenesis of CKD and are pivotal elements in the cellular alterations leading to systemic complications. We believe that a larger employment of this technique, together with other “omics” methodologies, could help clinicians to obtain new pathogenetic insights, novel diagnostic biomarkers, and therapeutic targets. Finally, transcriptomics could allow clinicians to personalize therapeutic strategies according to individual genetic background (nutrigenomic and pharmacogenomic). In this review, we analyzed the available transcriptomic studies involving CKD patients. Simona Granata, Alessandra Dalla Gassa, Gloria Bellin, Antonio Lupo, and Gianluigi Zaza Copyright © 2016 Simona Granata et al. All rights reserved. Resistance Status to the Insecticides Temephos, Deltamethrin, and Diflubenzuron in Brazilian Aedes aegypti Populations Tue, 21 Jun 2016 14:20:46 +0000 Insecticides are still largely applied in public health to control disease vectors. In Brazil, organophosphates (OP) and pyrethroids (PY) are used against Aedes aegypti for years. Since 2009 Insect Growth Regulators (IGR) are also employed in the control of larvae. We quantified resistance to temephos (OP), deltamethrin (PY), and diflubenzuron (IGR) of A. aegypti samples from 12 municipalities distributed throughout the country, collected between 2010 and 2012. High levels of resistance to neurotoxic insecticides were detected in almost all populations: RR95 to temephos varied between 4.0 and 27.1; the lowest RR95 to deltamethrin was 13.1, and values higher than 70.0 were found. In contrast, all samples were susceptible to diflubenzuron (RR95 < 2.3). Biochemical tests performed with larvae and adults discarded the participation of acetylcholinesterase, the OP target, and confirmed involvement of the detoxifying enzymes esterases, mixed function oxidases, and glutathione-S-transferases. The results obtained were discussed taking into account the public chemical control component and the increase in the domestic use of insecticides during dengue epidemic seasons in the evaluated municipalities. Diogo Fernandes Bellinato, Priscila Fernandes Viana-Medeiros, Simone Costa Araújo, Ademir J. Martins, José Bento Pereira Lima, and Denise Valle Copyright © 2016 Diogo Fernandes Bellinato et al. All rights reserved. An Experimental Study of Briquetting Process of Torrefied Rubber Seed Kernel and Palm Oil Shell Tue, 21 Jun 2016 14:13:07 +0000 Torrefaction process of biomass material is essential in converting them into biofuel with improved calorific value and physical strength. However, the production of torrefied biomass is loose, powdery, and nonuniform. One method of upgrading this material to improve their handling and combustion properties is by densification into briquettes of higher density than the original bulk density of the material. The effects of critical parameters of briquetting process that includes the type of biomass material used for torrefaction and briquetting, densification temperature, and composition of binder for torrefied biomass are studied and characterized. Starch is used as a binder in the study. The results showed that the briquette of torrefied rubber seed kernel (RSK) is better than torrefied palm oil shell (POS) in both calorific value and compressive strength. The best quality of briquettes is yielded from torrefied RSK at the ambient temperature of briquetting process with the composition of 60% water and 5% binder. The maximum compressive load for the briquettes of torrefied RSK is 141 N and the calorific value is 16 MJ/kg. Based on the economic evaluation analysis, the return of investment (ROI) for the mass production of both RSK and POS briquettes is estimated in 2-year period and the annual profit after payback was approximately 107,428.6 USD. M. Fadzli Hamid, M. Yusof Idroas, M. Zulfikar Ishak, Z. Alimuddin Zainal Alauddin, M. Azman Miskam, and M. Khalil Abdullah Copyright © 2016 M. Fadzli Hamid et al. All rights reserved. Molecular Imaging for Comparison of Different Growth Factors on Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells’ Survival and Proliferation In Vivo Tue, 21 Jun 2016 14:10:59 +0000 Introduction. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) have emerged as promising cell candidates but with poor survival after transplantation. This study was designed to investigate the efficacy of VEGF, bFGF, and IGF-1 on BMSCs’ viability and proliferation both in vivo and in vitro using bioluminescence imaging (BLI). Methods. BMSCs were isolated from β-actin-Fluc+ transgenic FVB mice, which constitutively express firefly luciferase. Apoptosis was induced by hypoxia preconditioning for up to 24 h followed by flow cytometry and TUNEL assay. 106 BMSCs with/without growth factors were injected subcutaneously into wild type FVB mice’s backs. Survival of BMSCs was longitudinally monitored using bioluminescence imaging (BLI) for 5 weeks. Protein expression of Akt, p-Akt, PARP, and caspase-3 was detected by Western blot. Results. Hypoxia-induced apoptosis was significantly attenuated by bFGF and IGF-1 compared with VEGF and control group in vitro (). When combined with matrigel, IGF-1 showed the most beneficial effects in protecting BMSCs from apoptosis in vivo. The phosphorylation of Akt had a higher ratio in the cells from IGF-1 group. Conclusion. IGF-1 could protect BMSCs from hypoxia-induced apoptosis through activation of p-Akt/Akt pathway. Hongyu Qiao, Ran Zhang, Lina Gao, Yanjie Guo, Jinda Wang, Rongqing Zhang, Xiujuan Li, Congye Li, Yundai Chen, and Feng Cao Copyright © 2016 Hongyu Qiao et al. All rights reserved. Transient Global Amnesia following Neural and Cardiac Angiography May Be Related to Ischemia Tue, 21 Jun 2016 09:40:32 +0000 Introduction. Transient global amnesia (TGA) following angiography is rare, and the pathogenesis has not been illustrated clearly till now. The aim of this research is to explore the pathogenesis of TGA following angiography by analyzing our data and reviewing the literature. Methods. We retrospectively studied 20836 cases with angiography in our hospital between 2007 and 2015 and found 9 cases with TGA following angiography. The data of these 9 cases were analyzed. Results. We found all 9 cases with TGA following neural angiography (5 in 4360) or cardiac angiography (4 in 8817) and no case with TGA following peripheral angiography (0 in 7659). Statistical difference was found when comparing the neural and cardiac angiography group with peripheral group (). Two cases with TGA were confirmed with small acute infarctions in hippocampus after angiography. This might be related to the microemboli which were rushed into vertebral artery following blood flow during neural angiography or cardiac angiography. There was no statistical difference when comparing the different approaches for angiography () and different contrast agents (). Conclusion. Based on the positive findings of imaging study and our analysis, we speculate that ischemia in the medial temporal lobe with the involvement of the hippocampus might be an important reason of TGA following angiography. Hongzhou Duan, Liang Li, Yang Zhang, Jiayong Zhang, Ming Chen, and Shengde Bao Copyright © 2016 Hongzhou Duan et al. All rights reserved. Contaminants of Emerging Concern: From the Detection to Their Effects on Human Health Mon, 20 Jun 2016 15:03:05 +0000 Fernando Barbosa Junior, Andres Campiglia, Bruno Rocha, and Daniel Cyr Copyright © 2016 Fernando Barbosa Junior et al. All rights reserved. Expression of HIF-2α and VEGF in Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Its Clinical Significance Mon, 20 Jun 2016 14:16:27 +0000 CSCC is a systemic disease involving polygenic alteration and multiple steps, and HIF and VEGF are closely associated with tumorigenesis. Specimens surgically resected from 64 cases of CSCC and 22 cases of normal cervical tissue were selected randomly to detect the expression of HIF-2α and VEGF in CSCC for exploring their clinical significance; information regarding the age, lymph node metastasis, and FIGO staging were collected as well; expression of HIF-2α and VEGF was detected by qPCR and immunohistochemistry. We found that the expression of HIF-2α and VEGF mRNA in CSCC was significantly higher than that of normal cervical tissues and showed a positive correlation between them. The positive rates of HIF-2α and VEGF protein expression in CSCC and normal cervical tissues were 93.8% and 18.2%, respectively, with correlation between them. The expression of both HIF-2α and VEGF mRNA did not relate closely to age but the FIGO staging and lymph node metastasis. Compared with the counterpart control group, CSCC tissues with high FIGO staging and lymph node metastasis had a higher level of HIF-2α and VEGF mRNA expression. So, HIF-2α and VEGF were overexpressed in CSCC, which has a great clinical significance for its diagnosis. Lixia Zhang, Qiang Chen, Jing Hu, Yue Chen, Chenglong Liu, and Changshui Xu Copyright © 2016 Lixia Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Low-Flow Sevoflurane Anesthesia on Pulmonary Functions in Patients Undergoing Laparoscopic Abdominal Surgery Mon, 20 Jun 2016 12:26:01 +0000 Objective. The aim of this prospective, randomized study was to investigate the effects of low-flow sevoflurane anesthesia on the pulmonary functions in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods. Sixty American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status classes I and II patients scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were included in the study. Patients were randomly allocated to two study groups: high-flow sevoflurane anesthesia group (Group H, ) and low-flow sevoflurane anesthesia group (Group L, ). The fresh gas flow rate was of 4 L/min in high-flow sevoflurane anesthesia group and 1 L/min in low-flow sevoflurane anesthesia group. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2), and end-tidal carbon dioxide concentration (ETCO2) were recorded. Pulmonary function tests were performed before and 2, 8, and 24 hours after surgery. Results. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of HR, MABP, SpO2, and ETCO2. Pulmonary function test results were similar in both groups at all measurement times. Conclusions. The effects of low-flow sevoflurane anesthesia on pulmonary functions are comparable to high-flow sevoflurane anesthesia in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Cihan Doger, Kadriye Kahveci, Dilsen Ornek, Abdulkadir But, Mustafa Aksoy, Derya Gokcinar, and Didem Katar Copyright © 2016 Cihan Doger et al. All rights reserved. Genetic Analysis of the Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Gene Polymorphisms among Essential Hypertensive Patients in Malaysia Mon, 20 Jun 2016 12:19:25 +0000 Background. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) considerably influences blood pressure regulation through water and sodium homoeostasis. Several of the studies have utilized anonymous genetic polymorphic markers and made inconsequent claims about the ANP relevant disorders. Thus, we screened Insertion/Deletion (ID) and G191A polymorphisms of ANP to discover sequence variations with potential functional significance and to specify the linkage disequilibrium pattern between polymorphisms. The relationships of detected polymorphisms with EH with or without Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) status were tested subsequently. Method. ANP gene polymorphisms (I/D and A191G) were specified utilizing mutagenically separated Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in 320 subjects including 163 EH case subjects and 157 controls. Result. This case-control study discovered a significant association between I/D polymorphisms of ANP gene in EH patient without T2DM. However, the study determined no association between G191A polymorphisms of ANP in EH with or without T2DM. In addition, sociodemographic factors in the case and healthy subjects exhibited strong differences (). Conclusion. As a risk factor, ANP gene polymorphisms may affect hypertension. Despite the small sample size in this study, it is the first research assessing the ANP gene polymorphisms in both EH and T2DM patients among Malaysian population. Nooshin Ghodsian, Patimah Ismail, Salma Ahmadloo, Narges Eskandarian, and Ali Etemad Copyright © 2016 Nooshin Ghodsian et al. All rights reserved. Diagnosis of Xeroderma Pigmentosum Groups A and C by Detection of Two Prevalent Mutations in West Algerian Population: A Rapid Genotyping Tool for the Frequent XPC Mutation c.1643_1644delTG Mon, 20 Jun 2016 10:43:52 +0000 Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder. Considering that XP patients have a defect of the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway which enables them to repair DNA damage caused by UV light, they have an increased risk of developing skin and eyes cancers. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of the prevalent XPA and XPC genes mutations—nonsense mutation (c.682C>T, p.Arg228X) and a two-base-pair (2 bp) deletion (c.1643_1644delTG or p.Val548Ala fsX25), respectively—in 19 index cases from 19 unrelated families in the West of Algeria. For the genetic diagnosis of XPA gene, we proceeded to PCR-RFLP. For the XPC gene, we validated a routine analysis which includes a specific amplification of a short region surrounding the 2 bp deletion using a fluorescent primer and fragment sizing (GeneScan size) on a sequencing gel. Among the 19 index cases, there were 17 homozygous patients for the 2 bp deletion in the XPC gene and 2 homozygous patients carrying the nonsense XPA mutation. Finally, XPC appears to be the major disease-causing gene concerning xeroderma pigmentosum in North Africa. The use of fragment sizing is the simplest method to analyze this 2 bp deletion for the DNA samples coming from countries where the mutation c.1643_1644delTG of XPC gene is prevalent. Salima Bensenouci, Lotfi Louhibi, Hubert De Verneuil, Khadidja Mahmoudi, and Nadhira Saidi-Mehtar Copyright © 2016 Salima Bensenouci et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Shaoyao-Gancao Decoction on Infarcted Cerebral Cortical Neurons: Suppression of the Inflammatory Response following Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion in a Rat Model Mon, 20 Jun 2016 09:17:20 +0000 The mechanisms by which Shaoyao-Gancao decoction (SGD) inhibits the production of inflammatory cytokines in serum and brain tissue after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (CI-RP) in rats were investigated. A right middle cerebral artery occlusion was used to induce CI-RP after which the rats were divided into model (), SGD (), clopidogrel () and sham operated () groups. The Bederson scale was used to evaluate changes in behavioral indices. The levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, MCP-1, IL-10, RANTES, VEGF, and TGF-β1 in the serum and infarcted brain tissues were measured. Nissl body and immunohistochemical staining methods were used to detect biochemical changes in neurons, microglial cells, and astrocytes. Serum levels of VEGF, TNF-α, MCP-1, IL-1β, and IL-10 increased significantly 24 h after CI-RP. In brain tissue, levels of TNF-α and IL-1β significantly increased 24 h after CI-RP, whereas levels of TGF-β1 and MCP-1 were significantly higher 96 h after CI-RP (). SGD or clopidogrel after CI-RP reduced TNF-α and IL-1β levels in brain tissue and serum levels of MCP-1, IL-1β, and IL-10. SGD increased the number of NeuN-positive cells in infarcted brain tissue and reduced the number of IBA1-positive and GFAP-positive cells. The efficacy of SGD was significantly higher than that of clopidogrel. Ying Zhang, Xinling Jia, Jian Yang, Qing Li, Guofeng Yan, Zhongju Xu, and Jingye Wang Copyright © 2016 Ying Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Preventive Effects of Houttuynia cordata Extract for Oral Infectious Diseases Mon, 20 Jun 2016 07:41:44 +0000 Houttuynia cordata (HC) (Saururaceae) has been used internally and externally as a traditional medicine and as an herbal tea for healthcare in Japan. Our recent survey showed that HC poultice (HCP) prepared from smothering fresh leaves of HC had been frequently used for the treatment of purulent skin diseases with high effectiveness. Our experimental study also demonstrated that ethanol extract of HCP (eHCP) has antibacterial, antibiofilm, and anti-inflammatory effects against S. aureus which caused purulent skin diseases. In this study, we focused on novel effects of HCP against oral infectious diseases, such as periodontal disease and dental caries. We determined the antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of water solution of HCP ethanol extract (wHCP) against important oral pathogens and investigated its cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory effects on human oral epithelial cells. wHCP had moderate antimicrobial effects against some oral microorganisms and profound antibiofilm effects against Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus mutans, and Candida albicans. In addition, wHCP had no cytotoxic effects and could inhibit interleukin-8 and CCL20 productions by Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human oral keratinocytes. Our findings suggested that wHCP may be clinically useful for preventing oral infectious diseases as a mouthwash for oral care. Yasuko Sekita, Keiji Murakami, Hiromichi Yumoto, Takashi Amoh, Natsumi Fujiwara, Shohei Ogata, Takashi Matsuo, Yoichiro Miyake, and Yoshiki Kashiwada Copyright © 2016 Yasuko Sekita et al. All rights reserved. Manipulation of DNA Repair Proficiency in Mouse Models of Colorectal Cancer Mon, 20 Jun 2016 07:23:26 +0000 Technical and biological innovations have enabled the development of more sophisticated and focused murine models that increasingly recapitulate the complex pathologies of human diseases, in particular cancer. Mouse models provide excellent in vivo systems for deciphering the intricacies of cancer biology within the context of precise experimental settings. They present biologically relevant, adaptable platforms that are amenable to continual improvement and refinement. We discuss how recent advances in our understanding of tumorigenesis and the underlying deficiencies of DNA repair mechanisms that drive it have been informed by using genetically engineered mice to create defined, well-characterized models of human colorectal cancer. In particular, we focus on how mechanisms of DNA repair can be manipulated precisely to create in vivo models whereby the underlying processes of tumorigenesis are accelerated or attenuated, dependent on the composite alleles carried by the mouse model. Such models have evolved to the stage where they now reflect the initiation and progression of sporadic cancers. The review is focused on mouse models of colorectal cancer and how insights from these models have been instrumental in shaping our understanding of the processes and potential therapies for this disease. Michael A. Mcilhatton, Gregory P. Boivin, and Joanna Groden Copyright © 2016 Michael A. Mcilhatton et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Homozygous p.L539F Mutation Identified in PINK1 Gene in a Moroccan Patient with Parkinsonism Mon, 20 Jun 2016 07:06:21 +0000 Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer’s disease. Ten of fifteen causative genes linked to familial forms of PD have been reported to cause autosomal recessive forms. Among them, mutations in the PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) gene were shown to be responsible for a phenotype characterized by early onset, good response to levodopa, and a benign course. Using chromosomal microarray analysis and Sanger sequencing, we identified a homozygous G/C substitution in a 58-year-old Moroccan man diagnosed with recessive inherited Parkinson’s disease. This G-to-C transition occurred at position 1617 leading to an amino acid change L/F at position 539 located in highly conserved motif in the C terminal sequence of PINK1. Interestingly, the c.1617G>C substitution is absent in 192 ethnically matched control chromosomes. Our findings have shown that the p.L539F is a novel mutation located in the C terminal sequence of the PINK1 protein that could be pathogenic and responsible for a clinical phenotype resembling idiopathic Parkinson’s disease with rapid progression and early cognitive impairment. Rafiqua Ben El Haj, Wafaa Regragui, Rachid Tazi-Ahnini, Asmae Skalli, Naima Bouslam, Ali Benomar, Mohamed Yahyaoui, and Ahmed Bouhouche Copyright © 2016 Rafiqua Ben El Haj et al. All rights reserved. Mechanoregulation of Wound Healing and Skin Homeostasis Mon, 20 Jun 2016 07:02:02 +0000 Basic and clinical studies on mechanobiology of cells and tissues point to the importance of mechanical forces in the process of skin regeneration and wound healing. These studies result in the development of new therapies that use mechanical force which supports effective healing. A better understanding of mechanobiology will make it possible to develop biomaterials with appropriate physical and chemical properties used to treat poorly healing wounds. In addition, it will make it possible to design devices precisely controlling wound mechanics and to individualize a therapy depending on the type, size, and anatomical location of the wound in specific patients, which will increase the clinical efficiency of the therapy. Linking mechanobiology with the science of biomaterials and nanotechnology will enable in the near future precise interference in abnormal cell signaling responsible for the proliferation, differentiation, cell death, and restoration of the biological balance. The objective of this study is to point to the importance of mechanobiology in regeneration of skin damage and wound healing. The study describes the influence of rigidity of extracellular matrix and special restrictions on cell physiology. The study also defines how and what mechanical changes influence tissue regeneration and wound healing. The influence of mechanical signals in the process of proliferation, differentiation, and skin regeneration is tagged in the study. Joanna Rosińczuk, Jakub Taradaj, Robert Dymarek, and Mirosław Sopel Copyright © 2016 Joanna Rosińczuk et al. All rights reserved. The Relationship of Oxidation Sensitivity of Red Blood Cells and Carbonic Anhydrase Activity in Stored Human Blood: Effect of Certain Phenolic Compounds Mon, 20 Jun 2016 06:42:17 +0000 It has been reported that many modifications occur with the increase of oxidative stress during storage in erythrocytes. In order to delay these negative changes, we evaluated whether the addition of substances likely to protect antioxidant capacity in stored blood would be useful. Therefore, we investigated the effects of resveratrol, tannic acid, and caffeic acid in lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacity of erythrocytes in stored blood. Donated blood was taken into four CPD containing blood bags. One bag was used as the control, and the others were supplemented with caffeic acid (30 μg/mL), resveratrol (30 μg/mL), and tannic acid (15 μg/mL), respectively. Erythrocyte lipid peroxidation, sensitivity to oxidation, glutathione levels and carbonic anhydrase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase activities were measured on days 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28. In the control group, erythrocyte malondialdehyde levels and sensitivity to oxidation were increased whereas glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase levels were decreased (). Resveratrol and caffeic acid prevented malondialdehyde accumulation and preserved glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase activities in erythrocytes. We demonstrated that resveratrol, caffeic acid, and tannic acid in stored blood could decrease the sensitivity to oxidation of erythrocytes in vitro but did not exhibit such effects on CA activity. Zübeyir Huyut, Mehmet Ramazan Şekeroğlu, Ragıp Balahoroğlu, Tahsin Karakoyun, and Erdem Çokluk Copyright © 2016 Zübeyir Huyut et al. All rights reserved. The Effect of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells on Full-Thickness Skin Grafts Mon, 20 Jun 2016 06:34:43 +0000 Background. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of ASCs on full-thickness skin grafts. Specifically, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of ASCs that are mediated via regulation of the phenotypes of activated macrophages. Methods. ASCs were isolated, cultured, and injected under full-thickness skin grafts in 15 rats (ASC group). An additional 15 rats served as controls (PBS group). Skin graft survival assessment and vascularization detection were assessed with H&E staining and laser Doppler blood flowmetry (LDF). The effects of ASCs on angiogenesis, anti-inflammation, collagen accumulation-promoting, and antiscarring were assessed. Results. We found that the skin graft survival rate was significantly increased in the ASC group. The neovascularization, collagen deposition, collagen type I to type III ratio, and levels of VEGF and TGF-β3 in the ASC group were markedly higher than those in the PBS group at day 14. Additionally, in the ASC group, the levels of iNOS, IL-1β, and TNF-α were remarkably decreased, whereas the levels of IL-10 and Arg-1 were substantially increased. Conclusions. Our results confirm that ASCs transplantation can effectively improve full-thickness skin graft survival. Additionally, the anti-inflammatory role of ASCs may indirectly contribute to skin graft survival via its effect on macrophage polarization. Juan Wang, Haojie Hao, Hong Huang, Deyun Chen, Yan Han, and Weidong Han Copyright © 2016 Juan Wang et al. All rights reserved. Immunopathological Features of Canine Myocarditis Associated with Leishmania infantum Infection Sun, 19 Jun 2016 11:05:02 +0000 Myocarditis associated with infectious diseases may occur in dogs, including those caused by the protozoa Neospora caninum, Trypanosoma cruzi, Babesia canis, and Hepatozoon canis. However, although cardiac disease due to Leishmania infection has also been documented, the immunopathological features of myocarditis have not been reported so far. The aim of this study was to examine the types of cellular infiltrates and expression of MHC classes I and II in myocardial samples obtained at necropsy from 15 dogs with an established intravitam diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis. Pathological features of myocardium were characterized by hyaline degeneration of cardiomyocytes, necrosis, and infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells consisting of lymphocytes and macrophages, sometimes with perivascular pattern; fibrosis was also present in various degrees. Immunophenotyping of inflammatory cells was performed by immunohistochemistry on cryostat sections obtained from the heart of the infected dogs. The predominant leukocyte population was CD8+ with a fewer number of CD4+ cells. Many cardiomyocytes expressed MHC classes I and II on the sarcolemma. Leishmania amastigote forms were not detected within macrophages or any other cell of the examined samples. Our study provided evidence that myocarditis in canine visceral leishmaniasis might be related to immunological alterations associated with Leishmania infection. Alessandro Costagliola, Giuseppe Piegari, Iwona Otrocka-Domagala, Davide Ciccarelli, Valentina Iovane, Gaetano Oliva, Valeria Russo, Laura Rinaldi, Serenella Papparella, and Orlando Paciello Copyright © 2016 Alessandro Costagliola et al. All rights reserved. The Effect of Glutamate Receptor Agonists on Mouse Retinal Astrocyte [Ca2+]i Sun, 19 Jun 2016 10:54:11 +0000 Calcium-imaging techniques were used to determine if mouse retinal astrocytes in situ respond to agonists of ionotropic (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid, AMPA; N-methyl-D-aspartate, NMDA) and metabotropic (S-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine, DHPG; trans-1-amino-1,3-cyclopentanedicarboxylic acid, ACPD) glutamate receptors. In most cases we found no evidence that retinal astrocyte intracellular calcium ion concentration () increased in response to these glutamate agonists. The one exception was AMPA that increased in some, but not all, mouse retinal astrocytes in situ. However, AMPA did not increase in mouse retinal astrocytes in vitro, suggesting that the effect of AMPA in situ may be indirect. Stephanie N. Blandford and William H. Baldridge Copyright © 2016 Stephanie N. Blandford and William H. Baldridge. All rights reserved.