BioMed Research International The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Therapies for Prevention and Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease Thu, 28 Jul 2016 14:25:33 +0000 Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia associated with a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, with a prevalence of 44 million people throughout the world in 2015, and this figure is estimated to double by 2050. This disease is characterized by blood-brain barrier disruption, oxidative stress, mitochondrial impairment, neuroinflammation, and hypometabolism; it is related to amyloid-β peptide accumulation and tau hyperphosphorylation as well as a decrease in acetylcholine levels and a reduction of cerebral blood flow. Obesity is a major risk factor for AD, because it induces adipokine dysregulation, which consists of the release of the proinflammatory adipokines and decreased anti-inflammatory adipokines, among other processes. The pharmacological treatments for AD can be divided into two categories: symptomatic treatments such as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists and etiology-based treatments such as secretase inhibitors, amyloid binders, and tau therapies. Strategies for prevention of AD through nonpharmacological treatments are associated with lifestyle interventions such as exercise, mental challenges, and socialization as well as caloric restriction and a healthy diet. AD is an important health issue on which all people should be informed so that prevention strategies that minimize the risk of its development may be implemented. J. Mendiola-Precoma, L. C. Berumen, K. Padilla, and G. Garcia-Alcocer Copyright © 2016 J. Mendiola-Precoma et al. All rights reserved. Virological and Immunological Status of the People Living with HIV/AIDS Undergoing ART Treatment in Nepal Thu, 28 Jul 2016 14:01:50 +0000 Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has increased the life span of the people living with HIV (PLHIV), but their virological and immunological outcomes are not well documented in Nepal. The study was conducted at a tertiary care center including 826 HIV-1 seropositive individuals undergoing ART for at least six months. Plasma viral load (HIV-1 RNA) was detected by Real Time PCR and CD4+ T-lymphocyte (CD4+) counts were estimated by flow cytometry. The mean CD4+ count of patients was 501 (95% CI = 325–579) cells/cumm, but about 35% of patients had CD4+ T cell counts below 350 cells/cumm. With increasing age, average CD4+ count was found to be decreasing (). Of the total cases, 82 (9.92%) were found to have virological failure (viral load: >1000 copies/ml). Tenofovir/Lamivudine/Efavirenz (TDF/3TC/EFV), the frequently used ART regimen in Nepal, showed virological failure in 11.34% and immunological failure in 37.17% of patients. Virological failure rate was higher among children < 15 years (14.5%) (); however, no association was observed between ART outcomes and gender or route of transmission. The study suggests there are still some chances of virological and immunological failures despite the success of highly active ART (HAART). Chet Raj Ojha, Geeta Shakya, and Shyam Prakash Dumre Copyright © 2016 Chet Raj Ojha et al. All rights reserved. Iontophoresis-Assisted Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking with Epithelial Debridement: Preliminary Results Thu, 28 Jul 2016 09:56:58 +0000 Purpose. To report the early outcomes of iontophoresis-assisted corneal collagen cross-linking procedure with epithelial debridement (I-SCXL). Methods. Twenty eyes of twenty patients with progressive keratoconus were included in this prospective clinical study. Best spectacle corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), sphere and cylinder refraction, corneal topography, Scheimpflug tomography, aberrometry, anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT), and endothelial cell count were assessed at baseline and at 1, 3, and 6 months of follow-up. The parameters considered to establish keratoconus progression were always proven with differential maps as change in curvature in the cone area of at least 1 diopter obtained with an instantaneous map. Results. Functional parameters showed a significant improvement () of BSCVA after 3 and 6 months of follow-up. Morphological parameters indicated stabilization of the corneal ectasia during the follow-up; however, a positive trend was noted with a mean flattening of 1.73 D. Minimum pachymetry values showed thinning that remained constant after the treatment. The demarcation line was clearly visible in all patients, reaching a depth of  μm. None of the patients had continuous progression of keratoconus or had to repeat cross-linking procedures. Endothelial cell counts did not change significantly (). Conclusion. The early results indicate that the I-SCXL may be able to reduce the treatment time and improve the riboflavin diffusion. Paolo Vinciguerra, Vito Romano, Pietro Rosetta, Emanuela F. Legrottaglie, Magdalena Kubrak-Kisza, Claudio Azzolini, and Riccardo Vinciguerra Copyright © 2016 Paolo Vinciguerra et al. All rights reserved. Association between Serum Ferritin and Contrast-Induced Nephropathy in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Thu, 28 Jul 2016 09:56:49 +0000 Background and Aims. CIN is a major and serious complication following PCI in patients with ACS. It is unclear whether a higher serum ferritin level is associated with an increased risk of CIN in high-risk patients. Thus, we conducted this study to assess the predictive value of SF for the risk of CIN after PCI. Methods. We prospectively examined SF levels in 548 patients with ACS before undergoing PCI. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the independent risk factors for CIN. The ROC analysis was performed to evaluate the predictive value of SF for CIN. Results. CIN occurred in 96 patients. Baseline SF was higher in patients who developed CIN compared to those who did not ( versus ; ). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that SF was an independent predictor of CIN (OR, 1.008; 95% CI, 1.003–1.013; ). The area under ROC curve for SF was 0.629, and SF > 180.9 μg/L predicted CIN with sensitivity of 80.2% and specificity of 41.4%. Conclusion. Our data show that a higher SF level was significantly associated with an increased risk of CIN after PCI. Boqian Zhu, Jiantong Hou, Yaoyao Gong, Gaoliang Yan, Qingjie Wang, Dong Wang, Yong Qiao, Yifei Chen, and Chengchun Tang Copyright © 2016 Boqian Zhu et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of FDA Approved Kinase Targets to Clinical Trial Ones: Insights from Their System Profiles and Drug-Target Interaction Networks Thu, 28 Jul 2016 07:56:16 +0000 Kinase is one of the most productive classes of established targets, but the majority of approved drugs against kinase were developed only for cancer. Intensive efforts were therefore exerted for releasing its therapeutic potential by discovering new therapeutic area. Kinases in clinical trial could provide great opportunities for treating various diseases. However, no systematic comparison between system profiles of established targets and those of clinical trial ones was conducted. The reveal of probable difference or shift of trend would help to identify key factors defining druggability of established targets. In this study, a comparative analysis of system profiles of both types of targets was conducted. Consequently, the systems profiles of the majority of clinical trial kinases were identified to be very similar to those of established ones, but percentages of established targets obeying the system profiles appeared to be slightly but consistently higher than those of clinical trial targets. Moreover, a shift of trend in the system profiles from the clinical trial to the established targets was identified, and popular kinase targets were discovered. In sum, this comparative study may help to facilitate the identification of the druggability of established drug targets by their system profiles and drug-target interaction networks. Jingyu Xu, Panpan Wang, Hong Yang, Jin Zhou, Yinghong Li, Xiaoxu Li, Weiwei Xue, Chunyan Yu, Yubin Tian, and Feng Zhu Copyright © 2016 Jingyu Xu et al. All rights reserved. Constructing Phylogenetic Networks Based on the Isomorphism of Datasets Thu, 28 Jul 2016 06:41:00 +0000 Constructing rooted phylogenetic networks from rooted phylogenetic trees has become an important problem in molecular evolution. So far, many methods have been presented in this area, in which most efficient methods are based on the incompatible graph, such as the CASS, the LNETWORK, and the BIMLR. This paper will research the commonness of the methods based on the incompatible graph, the relationship between incompatible graph and the phylogenetic network, and the topologies of incompatible graphs. We can find out all the simplest datasets for a topology and construct a network for every dataset. For any one dataset , we can compute a network from the network representing the simplest dataset which is isomorphic to . This process will save more time for the algorithms when constructing networks. Juan Wang, Zhibin Zhang, and Yanjuan Li Copyright © 2016 Juan Wang et al. All rights reserved. Management and Treatment of Human Lice Wed, 27 Jul 2016 13:04:06 +0000 Of the three lice (head, body, and pubic louse) that infest humans, the body louse is the species involved in epidemics of louse-borne typhus, trench fever, and relapsing fever, but all the three cause pediculosis. Their infestations occur today in many countries despite great efforts to maintain high standards of public health. In this review, literature searches were performed through PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, and EBSCOhost, with key search words of “Pediculus humanus”, “lice infestation”, “pediculosis”, and “treatment”; and controlled clinical trials were viewed with great interest. Removing lice by hand or with a lice comb, heating infested clothing, and shaving the scalp were some of the oldest methods of controlling human lice. Despite the introduction of other resources including cresol, naphthalene, sulfur, mercury, vinegar, petroleum, and insecticides, the numbers of lice infestation cases and resistance have increased. To date, viable alternative treatments to replace insecticides have been developed experimentally in vitro. Today, the development of new treatment strategies such as symbiotic treatment and synergistic treatment (antibiotics + ivermectin) in vitro has proved effective and is promising. Here, we present an overview on managing and treating human lice and highlight new strategies to more effectively fight pediculosis and prevent resistance. Abdoul Karim Sangaré, Ogobara K. Doumbo, and Didier Raoult Copyright © 2016 Abdoul Karim Sangaré et al. All rights reserved. Total 3D Airo® Navigation for Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion Wed, 27 Jul 2016 12:53:29 +0000 Introduction. A new generation of iCT scanner, Airo®, has been introduced. The purpose of this study is to describe how Airo facilitates minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF). Method. We used the latest generation of portable iCT in all cases without the assistance of K-wires. We recorded the operation time, number of scans, and pedicle screw accuracy. Results. From January 2015 to December 2015, 33 consecutive patients consisting of 17 men and 16 women underwent single-level or two-level MIS-TLIF operations in our institution. The ages ranged from 23 years to 86 years (mean, 66.6 years). We treated all the cases in MIS fashion. In four cases, a tubular laminectomy at L1/2 was performed at the same time. The average operation time was 192.8 minutes and average time of placement per screw was 2.6 minutes. No additional fluoroscopy was used. Our screw accuracy rate was 98.6%. No complications were encountered. Conclusions. Airo iCT MIS-TLIF can be used for initial planning of the skin incision, precise screw, and cage placement, without the need for fluoroscopy. “Total navigation” (complete intraoperative 3D navigation without fluoroscopy) can be achieved by combining Airo navigation with navigated guide tubes for screw placement. Xiaofeng Lian, Rodrigo Navarro-Ramirez, Connor Berlin, Ajit Jada, Yu Moriguchi, Qiwei Zhang, and Roger Härtl Copyright © 2016 Xiaofeng Lian et al. All rights reserved. Study of Antiobesity Effect through Inhibition of Pancreatic Lipase Activity of Diospyros kaki Fruit and Citrus unshiu Peel Wed, 27 Jul 2016 09:55:17 +0000 Pancreatic lipase is the enzyme responsible for digestion and absorption of triglycerides, being its inhibition one of the widest studied methods used to determine the potential activity of natural products to inhibit dietary fat absorption. Decrease of energy intake from dietary fat through inhibition of this enzyme may be an excellent strategy to prevent and treat obesity. The inhibitory activity on pancreatic lipase enzyme of Diospyros kaki fruit and Citrus unshiu peel mixture extract (PCM) was evaluated in vitro and its antiobesity effects were studied based on the serum lipid parameters analysis from high-fat diet- (HFD-) fed mice in vivo. PCM was orally administered at a dose of 50 and 200 mg/kg body weight for 6 weeks. In addition, the activity of pancreatic lipase was assessed using orlistat (positive control). PCM exhibited inhibitory effect on lipase activity with IC50 value of 507.01 μg/mL. Moreover, serum triacylglycerol, total cholesterol levels, and visceral fat weight were significantly reduced compared to HFD control mice in PCM 200 mg/kg-treated mice (). These results suggest that PCM administration may be a novel potential antiobesity agent for reduction of fat absorption via inhibition of pancreatic lipase. Gyo-Nam Kim, Mi-Rae Shin, Sung Ho Shin, Ah Reum Lee, Joo Young Lee, Bu-Il Seo, Min Yeong Kim, Tae Hoon Kim, Jeong Sook Noh, Man Hee Rhee, and Seong-Soo Roh Copyright © 2016 Gyo-Nam Kim et al. All rights reserved. The Effect of the Duration of Basic Life Support Training on the Learners’ Cardiopulmonary and Automated External Defibrillator Skills Wed, 27 Jul 2016 08:34:31 +0000 Background. Basic life support (BLS) training with hands-on practice can improve performance during simulated cardiac arrest, although the optimal duration for BLS training is unknown. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of various BLS training durations for acquiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and automated external defibrillator (AED) skills. Methods. We randomised 485 South Korean nonmedical college students into four levels of BLS training: level 1 (40 min), level 2 (80 min), level 3 (120 min), and level 4 (180 min). Before and after each level, the participants completed questionnaires regarding their willingness to perform CPR and use AEDs, and their psychomotor skills for CPR and AED use were assessed using a manikin with Skill-Reporter™ software. Results. There were no significant differences between levels 1 and 2, although levels 3 and 4 exhibited significant differences in the proportion of overall adequate chest compressions () and average chest compression depth (). All levels exhibited a greater posttest willingness to perform CPR and use AEDs (all, ). Conclusions. Brief BLS training provided a moderate level of skill for performing CPR and using AEDs. However, high-quality skills for CPR required longer and hands-on training, particularly hands-on training with AEDs. Jin Hyuck Lee, Youngsuk Cho, Ku Hyun Kang, Gyu Chong Cho, Keun Jeong Song, and Chang Hee Lee Copyright © 2016 Jin Hyuck Lee et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of TIVA and Desflurane Added to a Subanaesthetic Dose of Propofol in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery: Evaluation of Haemodynamic and Stress Hormone Changes Wed, 27 Jul 2016 08:27:04 +0000 Introduction. Increased levels of stress hormones are associated with mortality in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Aim. To compare total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) and desflurane added to a subanaesthetic dose of propofol. Material and Methods. Fifty patients were enrolled in this study. Fentanyl (3–5 mcg/kg/h) was started in both groups. Patients were divided into two groups. The PD group () received 1 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) desflurane anaesthesia in addition to propofol infusion (2-3 mg/kg/h), while P group () received propofol infusion (5-6 mg/kg/h) only. Biochemical data, cortisol, and insulin levels were measured preoperatively (T0), after initiation of CPB but before cross-clamping the aorta (T1), after removal of the cross-clamp (T2), and at the 24th postoperative hour (T3). Results. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure levels were significantly higher in PD group than those in P group in T1 and T2 measurements (). CK-MB showed a significant decrease in group P (). When we compared both groups, cortisol levels were significantly higher in PD group than P group (). Conclusion. Stress and haemodynamic responses were better controlled using TIVA than desflurane inhalation added to a subanaesthetic dose of propofol in patients undergoing CABG. Didem Onk, Tülin Akarsu Ayazoğlu, Oruç Alper Onk, Mehmet Aksüt, Murat Günay, Kultigin Turkmen, Aynur Özensoy, Çiğdem Yazıcı Ersoy, and Abdulkadir Çoban Copyright © 2016 Didem Onk et al. All rights reserved. HMBA Enhances Prostratin-Induced Activation of Latent HIV-1 via Suppressing the Expression of Negative Feedback Regulator A20/TNFAIP3 in NF-κB Signaling Wed, 27 Jul 2016 08:15:07 +0000 In the past decade, much emphasis has been put on the transcriptional activation of HIV-1, which is proposed as a promised strategy for eradicating latent HIV-1 provirus. Two drugs, prostratin and hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA), have shown potent effects as inducers for releasing HIV-1 latency when used alone or in combination, although their cellular target(s) are currently not well understood, especially under drug combination. Here, we have shown that HMBA and prostratin synergistically release HIV-1 latency via different mechanisms. While prostratin strongly stimulates HMBA-induced HIV-1 transcription via improved P-TEFb activation, HMBA is capable of boosting NF-κB-dependent transcription initiation by suppressing prostratin-induced expression of the deubiquitinase A20, a negative feedback regulator in the NF-κB signaling pathway. In addition, HMBA was able to increase prostratin-induced phosphorylation and degradation of NF-κB inhibitor IκBα, thereby enhancing and prolonging prostratin-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB, a prerequisite for stimulation of transcription initiation. Thus, by blocking the negative feedback circuit, HMBA functions as a signaling enhancer of the NF-κB signaling pathway. Duchu Chen, Huiping Wang, Jude Juventus Aweya, Yanheng Chen, Meihua Chen, Xiaomeng Wu, Xiaonan Chen, Jing Lu, Ruichuan Chen, and Min Liu Copyright © 2016 Duchu Chen et al. All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “Plasma Albumin Induces Cytosolic Calcium Oscilations and DNA Synthesis in Human Cultured Astrocytes” Wed, 27 Jul 2016 07:22:09 +0000 Lorena Vega-Zelaya, Ivan Herrera-Peco, Guillermo J. Ortega, Rafael G. Sola, and Jesús Pastor Copyright © 2016 Lorena Vega-Zelaya et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis of Novel Pyrimethanil Grafted Chitosan Derivatives with Enhanced Antifungal Activity Wed, 27 Jul 2016 06:45:24 +0000 In this study, three pyrimethanil grafted chitosan (PML-g-CS) derivatives were obtained. The structures of the conjugates were confirmed by FT-IR, 1H NMR, and EA. The grafting ratios were measured by HPLC. Antifungal properties of pyrimethanil grafted chitosan (PML-g-CS) derivatives against the plant pathogenic fungi Rhizoctonia solani and Gibberella zeae were investigated at concentrations of 100, 200, and 400 mg/L. The PML-g-CS derivatives showed enhanced antifungal activity in comparison with chitosan. The PML-g-CS-1 showed the best antifungal activity against R. solani, whose antifungal index was 58.32%. The PML-g-CS-2 showed the best antifungal activity against G. zeae, whose antifungal index was 53.48%. The conjugation of chitosan and pyrimethanil showed synergistic effect. The PML-g-CS derivatives we developed showed potential for further study and application in crop protection. Yan Li, Song Liu, Yukun Qin, Ronge Xing, Xiaolin Chen, Kecheng Li, and Pengcheng Li Copyright © 2016 Yan Li et al. All rights reserved. Overexpression of β-Catenin Induces Cisplatin Resistance in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Wed, 27 Jul 2016 06:18:41 +0000 Abnormal expression of -catenin contributes to tumor development, progression, and metastasis in various cancers. However, little is known about the relationship between abnormal expression of -catenin and cisplatin chemotherapy in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The present study aimed to investigate the effect of -catenin on OSCC cisplatin resistance and evaluated the drug susceptibility of stable cell lines with -catenin knockin and knockdown. In this study, we found that higher expression level of -catenin can be observed in CDDP-treated cell lines as compared with the control group. Furthermore, the expression levels of -catenin increased in both a concentration- and time-dependent manner with the cisplatin treatment. More importantly, the nuclear translocation of -catenin could also be observed by confocal microscope analysis. Stable cell lines with CTNNB1 knockin and knockdown were established to further investigate the potential role and mechanism of -catenin in the chemoresistance of OSCC in vitro and in vivo. Our findings indicated that overexpression of -catenin promoted cisplatin resistance in OSCC in vitro and in vivo. We confirmed that GSK-3β, C-myc, Bcl-2, P-gp, and MRP-1 were involved in -catenin-mediated drug resistance. Our findings indicate that the Wnt/-catenin signaling pathway may play important roles in cisplatin resistance in OSCC. Long Li, Hai-Chao Liu, Cheng Wang, Xiqiang Liu, Feng-Chun Hu, Nan Xie, Lanhai Lü, Xiaohua Chen, and Hong-Zhang Huang Copyright © 2016 Long Li et al. All rights reserved. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Pattern Evaluation Based on Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition Filter via Nonlinear Approaches Tue, 26 Jul 2016 15:45:40 +0000 Good quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is the mainstay of treatment for managing patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Assessment of the quality of the CPR delivered is now possible through the electrocardiography (ECG) signal that can be collected by an automated external defibrillator (AED). This study evaluates a nonlinear approximation of the CPR given to the asystole patients. The raw ECG signal is filtered using ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD), and the CPR-related intrinsic mode functions (IMF) are chosen to be evaluated. In addition, sample entropy (SE), complexity index (CI), and detrended fluctuation algorithm (DFA) are collated and statistical analysis is performed using ANOVA. The primary outcome measure assessed is the patient survival rate after two hours. CPR pattern of 951 asystole patients was analyzed for quality of CPR delivered. There was no significant difference observed in the CPR-related IMFs peak-to-peak interval analysis for patients who are younger or older than 60 years of age, similarly to the amplitude difference evaluation for SE and DFA. However, there is a difference noted for the CI (). The results show that patients group younger than 60 years have higher survival rate with high complexity of the CPR-IMFs amplitude differences. Muammar Sadrawi, Wei-Zen Sun, Matthew Huei-Ming Ma, Chun-Yi Dai, Maysam F. Abbod, and Jiann-Shing Shieh Copyright © 2016 Muammar Sadrawi et al. All rights reserved. Differences in Brain Metabolic Impairment between Chronic Mild/Moderate TBI Patients with and without Visible Brain Lesions Based on MRI Tue, 26 Jul 2016 09:25:06 +0000 Introduction. Many patients with mild/moderate traumatic brain injury (m/mTBI) in the chronic stage suffer from executive brain function impairment. Analyzing brain metabolism is important for elucidating the pathological mechanisms associated with their symptoms. This study aimed to determine the differences in brain glucose metabolism between m/mTBI patients with and without visible traumatic brain lesions based on MRI. Methods. Ninety patients with chronic m/mTBI due to traffic accidents were enrolled and divided into two groups based on their MRI findings. Group A comprised 50 patients with visible lesions. Group B comprised 40 patients without visible lesions. Patients underwent FDG-PET scans following cognitive tests. FDG-PET images were analyzed using voxel-by-voxel univariate statistical tests. Results. There were no significant differences in the cognitive tests between Group A and Group B. Based on FDG-PET findings, brain metabolism significantly decreased in the orbital gyrus, cingulate gyrus, and medial thalamus but increased in the parietal and occipital convexity in Group A compared with that in the control. Compared with the control, patients in Group B exhibited no significant changes. Conclusions. These results suggest that different pathological mechanisms may underlie cognitive impairment in m/mTBI patients with and without organic brain damage. Keiichi Ito, Yoshitaka Asano, Yuka Ikegame, and Jun Shinoda Copyright © 2016 Keiichi Ito et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of Postoperative Events between Spinal Anesthesia and General Anesthesia in Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials Mon, 25 Jul 2016 16:33:03 +0000 Background. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is usually carried out under general anesthesia. There were a few studies which have found spinal anesthesia as a safe alternative. We aimed to evaluate the postoperative events between spinal anesthesia and general anesthesia in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods. We searched PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library (from inception to January 2016) for eligible studies. The primary outcome was the visual analogue scale score. Secondary outcomes included postoperative nausea and vomiting and urine retention 24 hours postoperatively. We calculated pooled risk ratios and 95% confidence interval using random- or fixed-effects models. Results. Eight trials involving 723 patients were listed. Meta-analysis showed that patients in spinal anesthesia groups have lower visual analogue scale score 24 hours postoperatively. There were significant decreases in the occurrence of postoperative nausea and vomiting in spinal anesthesia group when compared with general anesthesia group (odds ratios: 0.38, 95% confidence interval: 0.19–0.76; ) with heterogeneity accepted (; ), while urine retention rate was increased in patients with spinal anesthesia (odds ratios: 4.95, 95% confidence interval: 1.24–19.71; ) without any heterogeneity (; ). Conclusions. Spinal anesthesia may be associated with less postoperative pain and postoperative nausea and vomiting compared with general anesthesia. Xian-Xue Wang, Quan Zhou, Dao-Bo Pan, Hui-Wei Deng, Ai-Guo Zhou, Hua-Jing Guo, and Fu-Rong Huang Copyright © 2016 Xian-Xue Wang et al. All rights reserved. Phosphorylated and Nonphosphorylated PfMAP2 Are Localized in the Nucleus, Dependent on the Stage of Plasmodium falciparum Asexual Maturation Mon, 25 Jul 2016 14:29:16 +0000 Plasmodium falciparum mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, a family of enzymes central to signal transduction processes including inflammatory responses, are a promising target for antimalarial drug development. Our study shows for the first time that the P. falciparum specific MAP kinase 2 (PfMAP2) is colocalized in the nucleus of all of the asexual erythrocytic stages of P. falciparum and is particularly elevated in its phosphorylated form. It was also discovered that PfMAP2 is expressed in its highest quantity during the early trophozoite (ring form) stage and significantly reduced in the mature trophozoite and schizont stages. Although the phosphorylated form of the kinase is always more prevalent, its ratio relative to the nonphosphorylated form remained constant irrespective of the parasites’ developmental stage. We have also shown that the TSH motif specifically renders PfMAP2 genetically divergent from the other plasmodial MAP kinase activation sites using Neighbour Joining analysis. Furthermore, TSH motif-specific designed antibody is crucial in determining the location of the expression of the PfMAP2 protein. However, by using immunoelectron microscopy, PPfMAP2 were detected ubiquitously in the parasitized erythrocytes. In summary, PfMAP2 may play a far more important role than previously thought and is a worthy candidate for research as an antimalarial. Farah Aida Dahalan, Hasidah Mohd Sidek, Mogana Das Murtey, Mohammed Noor Embi, Jamaiah Ibrahim, Lim Fei Tieng, Nurul Aiezzah Zakaria, and Noraishah Mydin Abdul-Aziz Copyright © 2016 Farah Aida Dahalan et al. All rights reserved. Macleaya cordata Extract Decreased Diarrhea Score and Enhanced Intestinal Barrier Function in Growing Piglets Mon, 25 Jul 2016 13:03:41 +0000 Macleaya cordata extract is of great scientific and practical interest to researchers, due to its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory responses within experimental animals. This study was designed to determine the diarrhea score and innate immunity of growing piglets after they had received Macleaya cordata extract supplements. A total of 240 growing pigs were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments, with 8 replicates per treatment and 10 piglets per replicate. All pigs received a basal diet containing similar amounts of nutrients. The three treatments were a control (no additive), an antibiotic (200 mg/kg colistin), and the Macleaya cordata extract supplement group (40 mg/kg Macleaya cordata extract). The diarrhea score was calculated after D 28. The jejunal samples were obtained from five piglets selected randomly from each treatment on D 28. In comparison with the control group, the dietary Macleaya cordata extract and colistin group demonstrated a substantially decreased diarrhea score. The introduction of Macleaya cordata extract supplements to the diet significantly increased volumes of ZO-1 and claudin-1, particularly in comparison with the pigs in the control group (). The findings indicate that Macleaya cordata extract does enhance intestinal barrier function in growing piglets and that it could be used as a viable substitute for antibiotics. Gang Liu, Guiping Guan, Jun Fang, Yordan Martínez, Shuai Chen, Peng Bin, Veeramuthu Duraipandiyan, Ting Gong, Myrlene Carine B. Tossou, Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi, and Yulong Yin Copyright © 2016 Gang Liu et al. All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “Prognostic Factors of Returning to Work after Sick Leave due to Work-Related Common Mental Disorders: A One- and Three-Year Follow-Up Study” Mon, 25 Jul 2016 12:37:34 +0000 Bo Netterstrøm, Nanna Hurwitz Eller, and Marianne Borritz Copyright © 2016 Bo Netterstrøm et al. All rights reserved. Quantitative Biomedical Imaging: Techniques and Clinical Applications Mon, 25 Jul 2016 12:36:15 +0000 Guang Jia, Steven B. Heymsfield, Jinyuan Zhou, Guang Yang, and Yukihisa Takayama Copyright © 2016 Guang Jia et al. All rights reserved. Chemopreventive Properties and Toxicity of Kelulut Honey in Sprague Dawley Rats Induced with Azoxymethane Mon, 25 Jul 2016 10:01:28 +0000 Ethnopharmacological Relevance. Colon cancer has been a major problem worldwide. Kelulut honey (KH) is produced by the stingless bees from Trigona species and has strong antioxidant activities that could be one of the potential chemopreventive agents from natural resources. Aim of This Study. This study investigated the chemopreventive properties and toxicity of KH in Sprague Dawley rats induced with azoxymethane (AOM). Material and Method. Twenty-four male Sprague Dawley rats aged 5 weeks were divided into 4 groups: (G1) untreated group not induced with AOM, (G2) untreated group induced with AOM, (G3) treated group induced with AOM, and (G4) treated group not induced with AOM. Injection of AOM (15 mg/kg) was via intraperitoneal route once a week for two subsequent weeks. The treatment groups were given oral administration of KH (1183 mg/kg body weight) twice daily for 8 weeks. Results. Treatment with KH significantly reduced the total number of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and aberrant crypts (AC) and crypt multiplicity. KH was not toxic to the animals since the level of blood profile parameters, liver enzymes, and kidney functions was in normal range. Conclusions. The current finding shows that KH has chemopreventive properties in rats induced with colorectal cancer and also was found not toxic towards the animals. Latifah Saiful Yazan, Muhamad Firdaus Shyfiq Muhamad Zali, Razana Mohd Ali, Nurul Amira Zainal, Nurulaidah Esa, Sarah Sapuan, Yong Sze Ong, Yin Sim Tor, Banulata Gopalsamy, Fui Ling Voon, and Sharifah Sakinah Syed Alwi Copyright © 2016 Latifah Saiful Yazan et al. All rights reserved. Luteolin Prevents H2O2-Induced Apoptosis in H9C2 Cells through Modulating Akt-P53/Mdm2 Signaling Pathway Mon, 25 Jul 2016 09:53:07 +0000 Introduction. Luteolin, a falconoid compound in many Chinese herbs and formula, plays important roles in cardiovascular diseases. The underlying mechanism of luteolin remains to be further elaborated. Methods. A model of hydrogen peroxide- (H2O2-) induced H9C2 cells apoptosis was established. Cell viabilities were examined with an MTT assay. ,-Dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA) and flow cytometry were used to detect ROS level and apoptosis rate, respectively. The expressions of signaling proteins related to apoptosis were analyzed by western blot and mRNA levels were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Quercetin was applied as positive drug. Results. Incubation with various concentrations of H2O2 (0, 50, 100, and 200 μM) for 1 h caused dose-dependent loss of cell viability and 100 μM H2O2 reduced the cell viability to approximately 50%. Treatments with luteolin and quercetin protected cells from H2O2-induced cytotoxicity and reduced cellular ROS level and apoptosis rate. Moreover, luteolin could downregulate the expressions of Bax, caspase-8, cleaved-caspase-3, and p53 in apoptotic signaling pathway. Further study showed that the expressions of Akt, Bcl-2, and Mdm2 were upregulated by luteolin. Conclusion. Luteolin protects H9C2 cells from H2O2-induced apoptosis. The protective and antiapoptotic effects of luteolin could be mediated by regulating the Akt-P53/Mdm2 apoptotic pathway. Hong Chang, Chun Li, Kuiyuan Huo, Qiyan Wang, Linghui Lu, Qian Zhang, Yong Wang, and Wei Wang Copyright © 2016 Hong Chang et al. All rights reserved. Alzheimer’s Disease and Cognitive Frailty: Novel Therapeutic Technologies Mon, 25 Jul 2016 08:47:33 +0000 Grazia D’Onofrio, Zhuowei Yu, and Orestes V. Forlenza Copyright © 2016 Grazia D’Onofrio et al. All rights reserved. Genotypes-Independent Optimization of Nitrogen Supply for Isolated Microspore Cultures in Barley Mon, 25 Jul 2016 06:48:40 +0000 To establish a high-efficiency system of isolated microspore culture for different barley genotypes, we investigated the effects of nitrogen sources and concentrations on callus induction and plant regeneration in different barley genotypes. The results showed that the organic nitrogen sources greatly increased the callus induction, and the great reduction of total nitrogen sources would significantly decrease the callus induction. And the further optimization experiments revealed that the increasing of organic nitrogen sources was much important in callus induction while it seemed different in plant regeneration. Based on the great effects of organic nitrogen on callus induction, the medium of N6-ANO1/4-2000 might be the best choice for the microspore culture system. In addition, the phylogenetic analysis indicated that there were clear differences of genetic backgrounds among these barley genotypes, and it also suggested that this medium for microspore culture had widespread utilization in different barley genotypes. Ruiju Lu, Zhiwei Chen, Runhong Gao, Ting He, Yifei Wang, Hongwei Xu, Guimei Guo, Yingbo Li, Chenghong Liu, and Jianhua Huang Copyright © 2016 Ruiju Lu et al. All rights reserved. CBCT-Aided Microscopic and Ultrasonic Treatment for Upper or Middle Thirds Calcified Root Canals Mon, 25 Jul 2016 06:08:39 +0000 Root canal calcification is considered a great challenge during root canal treatment. Although the application of ultrasonic instruments and dental operating microscope (DOM) has advantages, dealing with calcified root canals still suffers a great risk of failure because of limited information about the location, length, and direction of obliteration on periapical radiographs. In this work, a cone-beam computed tomography- (CBCT-) aided method aimed at solving complicated calcified root canals in which conventional approaches could not work was proposed. Thirteen teeth with sixteen calcified canals (12 calcified in the upper third, 4 calcified in the middle third), which cannot be negotiated with conventional methods, were treated with the aid of CBCT. The location of calcification and depth of instrumentation and operating direction were calculated and assessed in three dimensions with ultrasonic instruments under DOM. In all thirteen teeth, canals with upper and middle thirds calcification were treated successfully. Finally, a guideline was proposed to help achieve consistent apical patency in calcified canals. Ying-Ming Yang, Bin Guo, Li-Yang Guo, Yan Yang, Xiao Hong, Hong-Ying Pan, Wen-Ling Zou, and Tao Hu Copyright © 2016 Ying-Ming Yang et al. All rights reserved. aCGH Analysis to Estimate Genetic Variations among Domesticated Chickens Thu, 21 Jul 2016 12:03:57 +0000 Chickens have been familiar to humans since ancient times and have been used not only for culinary purposes but also for cultural purposes including ritual ceremonies and traditional entertainment. The various chicken breeds developed for these purposes often display distinct morphological and/or behavioural traits. For example, the Japanese Shamo is larger and more aggressive than other domesticated chickens, reflecting its role as a fighting cock breed, whereas Japanese Naganakidori breeds, which have long-crowing behaviour, were bred instead for their entertaining and aesthetic qualities. However, the genetic backgrounds of these distinct morphological and behavioural traits remain unclear. Therefore, the question arises as to which genomic regions in these chickens were acted upon by selective pressures through breeding. We compared the entire genomes of six chicken breeds domesticated for various cultural purposes by utilizing array comparative genomic hybridization. From these analyses, we identified 782 regions that underwent insertions, deletions, or mutations, representing man-made selection pressure in these chickens. Furthermore, we found that a number of genes diversified in domesticated chickens bred for cultural or entertainment purposes were different from those diversified in chickens bred for food, such as broilers and layers. Tomoyoshi Komiyama, Mengjie Lin, and Atsushi Ogura Copyright © 2016 Tomoyoshi Komiyama et al. All rights reserved. Clinical Outcomes of Patients with Rare and Heavily Pretreated Solid Tumors Treated according to the Results of Tumor Molecular Profiling Thu, 21 Jul 2016 09:54:07 +0000 Patients with heavily pretreated advanced cancer or with rare tumors are difficult to treat. Molecular profiling (MP) of tumors to identify biomarkers that predict potential outcomes with individual therapies is an emerging strategy to guide treatment decisions. Patients with rare tumors for which standard-of-care therapy was unavailable or more common tumors for which standard-of-care options had been exhausted underwent MP at a single Australian center. Data regarding treating physicians’ choice of therapy, MP results and recommendations, and patient outcomes were collected. Seven patients had received prior standard first-line therapy (PST), 16 had rare tumors, and 31 had been heavily pretreated (HPT; ≥2 prior lines). Most treatments suggested by MP (541/594; 91.1%) were common chemotherapy drugs available in generic formulations. MP-guided therapy recommendations differed from physician’s recommendations in 48 patients (88.9%). MP-guided therapy produced clinical benefit (improved QOL and/or performance status, symptoms, bodyweight, or RECIST) in 19/31 (61.3%), 11/16 (68.8%), and 3/7 (42.9%) patients with HPTs, rare tumors, and PSTs, respectively, and had a PFS ratio ≥1.3 in 22/37 evaluable patients (59.5%; 95% confidence interval 44–76%). The null hypothesis that ≤15% of these patients would have a PFS ratio ≥1.3 was rejected (one-sided ). In conclusion, using MP to guide therapy selection is feasible in clinical practice and may improve patient outcomes. Andrew Dean, Aisling Byrne, Mira Marinova, and Ingrid Hayden Copyright © 2016 Andrew Dean et al. All rights reserved. Influenza Virus Induces Inflammatory Response in Mouse Primary Cortical Neurons with Limited Viral Replication Thu, 21 Jul 2016 08:19:24 +0000 Unlike stereotypical neurotropic viruses, influenza A viruses have been detected in the brain tissues of human and animal models. To investigate the interaction between neurons and influenza A viruses, mouse cortical neurons were isolated, infected with human H1N1 influenza virus, and then examined for the production of various inflammatory molecules involved in immune response. We found that replication of the influenza virus in neurons was limited, although early viral transcription was not affected. Virus-induced neuron viability decreased at 6 h postinfection (p.i.) but increased at 24 h p.i. depending upon the viral strain. Virus-induced apoptosis and cytopathy in primary cortical neurons were not apparent at 24 h p.i. The mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and type I interferons were upregulated at 6 h and 24 h p.i. These results indicate that the influenza virus induces inflammatory response in mouse primary cortical neurons with limited viral replication. The cytokines released in viral infection-induced neuroinflammation might play critical roles in influenza encephalopathy, rather than in viral replication-induced cytopathy. Gefei Wang, Rui Li, Zhiwu Jiang, Liming Gu, Yanxia Chen, Jianping Dai, and Kangsheng Li Copyright © 2016 Gefei Wang et al. All rights reserved.