BioMed Research International: Anatomy http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Observational Study on the Occurrence of Muscle Spindles in Human Digastric and Mylohyoideus Muscles Wed, 16 Jul 2014 14:31:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/294263/ Although the occurrence of muscle spindles (MS) is quite high in most skeletal muscles of humans, few MS, or even absence, have been reported in digastric and mylohyoideus muscles. Even if this condition is generally accepted and quoted in many papers and books, observational studies are scarce and based on histological sections of a low number of specimens. The aim of the present study is to confirm previous data, assessing MS number in a sample of digastric and mylohyoideus muscles. We investigated 11 digastric and 6 mylohyoideus muscles from 13 donors. Muscle samples were embedded in paraffin wax, cross-sectioned in a rostrocaudal direction, and stained using haematoxylin-eosin. A mean of 5.1 ± 1.1 (range 3–7) MS was found in digastric muscles and mean of 0.5 ± 0.8 (range 0–2) in mylohyoideus muscles. A significant difference () was found with the control sample, confirming the correctness of the histological procedure. Our results support general belief that the absolute number of spindles is sparse in digastric and mylohyoideus muscles. External forces, such as food resistance during chewing or gravity, do not counteract jaw-opening muscles. It is conceivable that this condition gives them a limited proprioceptive importance and a reduced need for having specific receptors as MS. Daniele Saverino, Amleto De Santanna, Rita Simone, Stefano Cervioni, Erik Cattrysse, and Marco Testa Copyright © 2014 Daniele Saverino et al. All rights reserved. The Tarsal Bone Test: A Basic Test of Health Sciences Students' Knowledge of Lower Limb Anatomy Tue, 08 Jul 2014 08:28:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/939163/ Objectives. The aim of the present study was to design an easy-to-use tool, the tarsal bone test (TBT), to provide a snapshot of podiatry students’ basic anatomical knowledge of the bones of the lower limb. Methods. The study included 254 podiatry students from three different universities, 145 of them were first-year students and 109 were in their fourth and final years. The TBT was administered without prior notice to the participants and was to be completed in 5 minutes. Results. The results show that 97.2% of the subjects correctly labelled all tarsal bones, while the other 2.8% incorrectly labelled at least one bone, that was either the cuboid (7 times) or the navicular (6 times). Although only one fourth-year student inaccurately identified one bone, no significant differences in the distribution of the correct and incorrect responses were found between first and fourth-year students. Conclusions. The TBT seems to be a straightforward and easy-to-apply instrument, and provides an objective view of the level of knowledge acquired at different stages of podiatry studies. José Manuel Castillo-López, Juan Antonio Díaz-Mancha, Alberto Marcos Heredia-Rizo, Lourdes María Fernández-Seguín, Juan Polo-Padillo, Gabriel Domínguez-Maldonado, and Pedro V. Munuera Copyright © 2014 José Manuel Castillo-López et al. All rights reserved. The Establishment of Metabolic Syndrome Model by Induction of Fructose Drinking Water in Male Wistar Rats Wed, 18 Jun 2014 07:14:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/263897/ Background. Metabolic syndrome can be caused by modification of diet by means of consumption of high carbohydrate and high fat diet such as fructose. Aims. To develop a metabolic syndrome rat model by induction of fructose drinking water (FDW) in male Wistar rats. Methods. Eighteen male Wistar rats were fed with FDW 20% and FDW 25% for a duration of eight weeks. The physiological changes with regard to food and fluid intake, as well as calorie intake, were measured. The metabolic changes such as obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, and hyperglycaemia were determined. Data was presented in mean ± SEM subjected to one-way ANOVA. Results. Male Wistar rats fed with FDW 20% for eight weeks developed significant higher obesity parameters compared to those fed with FDW 25%. There was hypertrophy of adipocytes in F20 and F25. There were also systolic hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and hyperglycemia in both groups. Conclusion. We conclude that the metabolic syndrome rat model is best established with the induction of FDW 20% for eight weeks. This was evident in the form of higher obesity parameter which caused the development of the metabolic syndrome. Norshalizah Mamikutty, Zar Chi Thent, Shaiful Ridzwan Sapri, Natasya Nadia Sahruddin, Mohd Rafizul Mohd Yusof, and Farihah Haji Suhaimi Copyright © 2014 Norshalizah Mamikutty et al. All rights reserved. Novelties in the Anatomy of the Central Nervous System and Related Disorders Sun, 15 Jun 2014 11:40:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/514974/ Branislav Filipović, Nevena Radonjic, Igor Jakovcevski, and Milos Petrovic Copyright © 2014 Branislav Filipović et al. All rights reserved. Second-Generation Antipsychotics and Extrapyramidal Adverse Effects Tue, 03 Jun 2014 06:40:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/656370/ Antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal adverse effects are well recognized in the context of first-generation antipsychotic drugs. However, the introduction of second-generation antipsychotics, with atypical mechanism of action, especially lower dopamine receptors affinity, was met with great expectations among clinicians regarding their potentially lower propensity to cause extrapyramidal syndrome. This review gives a brief summary of the recent literature relevant to second-generation antipsychotics and extrapyramidal syndrome. Numerous studies have examined the incidence and severity of extrapyramidal syndrome with first- and second-generation antipsychotics. The majority of these studies clearly indicate that extrapyramidal syndrome does occur with second-generation agents, though in lower rates in comparison with first generation. Risk factors are the choice of a particular second-generation agent (with clozapine carrying the lowest risk and risperidone the highest), high doses, history of previous extrapyramidal symptoms, and comorbidity. Also, in comparative studies, the choice of a first-generation comparator significantly influences the results. Extrapyramidal syndrome remains clinically important even in the era of second-generation antipsychotics. The incidence and severity of extrapyramidal syndrome differ amongst these antipsychotics, but the fact is that these drugs have not lived up to the expectation regarding their tolerability. Nevena Divac, Milica Prostran, Igor Jakovcevski, and Natasa Cerovac Copyright © 2014 Nevena Divac et al. All rights reserved. Suprascapular Notch Asymmetry: A Study on 311 Patients Mon, 12 May 2014 07:23:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/196896/ The most important risk factor of suprascapular nerve entrapment is probably the shape of the suprascapular notch (SSN). The aim of the study was to perform a radiological study of the symmetry of SSN. Included in the study were 311 patients (137 women and 174 men) who underwent standard computed tomography investigation of the chest. A total of 622 computed tomography scans of scapulae were retrospectively analyzed to classify suprascapular notches into five types. Suprascapular notch was recognized as a symmetrical feature in 53.45% of the patients. Symmetry was more frequently seen in females (54.0% versus 52.9%), but not to any significant degree (). Type III was the most commonly noted symmetrical feature (66.9%) and type II was less common (0.6%). Type III was the most symmetrical type of suprascapular notch, occurring significantly more often as a symmetrical feature in comparison with type I (), type II (), or type IV (). Our investigation did not show that the suprascapular notch is a symmetrical feature. However, symmetry was recognized more frequently in the case of type III SSN. No significant differences in symmetry were found with regard to sex. Michał Polguj, Marcin Sibiński, Andrzej Grzegorzewski, Piotr Grzelak, Ludomir Stefańczyk, and Mirosław Topol Copyright © 2014 Michał Polguj et al. All rights reserved. Long-Term Effects of Maternal Deprivation on the Neuronal Soma Area in the Rat Neocortex Thu, 08 May 2014 09:26:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/235238/ Early separation of rat pups from their mothers (separatio a matrem) is considered and accepted as an animal model of perinatal stress. Adult rats, separated early postnatally from their mothers, are developing long-lasting changes in the brain and neuroendocrine system, corresponding to the findings observed in schizophrenia and affective disorders. With the aim to investigate the morphological changes in this animal model we exposed 9-day-old (P9) Wistar rats to a 24 h maternal deprivation (MD). At young adult age rats were sacrificed for morphometric analysis and their brains were compared with the control group bred under the same conditions, but without MD. Rats exposed to MD had a 28% smaller cell soma area in the prefrontal cortex (PFCX), 30% in retrosplenial cortex (RSCX), and 15% in motor cortex (MCX) compared to the controls. No difference was observed in the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein in the neocortex of MD rats compared to the control group. The results of this study demonstrate that stress in early life has a long-term effect on neuronal soma size in cingulate and retrosplenial cortex and is potentially interesting as these structures play an important role in cognition. Milan Aksić, Nevena V. Radonjić, Dubravka Aleksić, Gordana Jevtić, Branka Marković, Nataša Petronijević, Vidosava Radonjić, and Branislav Filipović Copyright © 2014 Milan Aksić et al. All rights reserved. Endodontic and Clinical Considerations in the Management of Variable Anatomy in Mandibular Premolars: A Literature Review Thu, 08 May 2014 06:49:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/512574/ Mandibular premolars are known to have numerous anatomic variations of their roots and root canals, which are a challenge to treat endodontically. The paper reviews literature to detail the various clinically relevant anatomic considerations with detailed techniques and methods to successfully manage these anomalies. An emphasis and detailed description of every step of treatment including preoperative diagnosis, intraoperative identification and management, and surgical endodontic considerations for the successful management of these complex cases have been included. Denzil Albuquerque, Jojo Kottoor, and Mohammad Hammo Copyright © 2014 Denzil Albuquerque et al. All rights reserved. The Urethral Rhabdosphincter, Levator Ani Muscle, and Perineal Membrane: A Review Sun, 27 Apr 2014 11:43:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/906921/ Detailed knowledge of the anatomy of the rhabdosphincter and adjacent tissues is mandatory during urologic surgery to ensure reliable oncologic and functional outcomes. To characterize the levator ani (LA) function for the urethral sphincter, we described connective tissue morphology between the LA and urethral rhabdosphincter. The interface tissue between the LA and rhabdosphincter area in males contained abundant irregularly arrayed elastic fibers and smooth muscles. The male rhabdosphincter was positioned alongside the LA to divide the elevation force and not in-series along the axis of LA contraction. The male perineal membrane was thin but solid and extends along the inferior margin or bottom of the rhabdosphincter area. In contrast, the female rhabdosphincter, including the compressor urethrae and urethrovaginal sphincter muscles, was embedded in the elastic fiber mesh that is continuous with the thick, multilaminar perineal membrane. The inferomedial edge of the female LA was attached to the upper surface of the perineal membrane and not directly attached to the rhabdosphincter. We presented new diagrams showing the gender differences in topographical anatomy of the LA and rhabdosphincter. Nobuyuki Hinata and Gen Murakami Copyright © 2014 Nobuyuki Hinata and Gen Murakami. All rights reserved. Morphometric and Statistical Analysis of the Palmaris Longus Muscle in Human and Non-Human Primates Sun, 13 Apr 2014 15:20:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/178906/ The palmaris longus is considered a phylogenetic degenerate metacarpophalangeal joint flexor muscle in humans, a small vestigial forearm muscle; it is the most variable muscle in humans, showing variation in position, duplication, slips and could be reverted. It is frequently studied in papers about human anatomical variations in cadavers and in vivo, its variation has importance in medical clinic, surgery, radiological analysis, in studies about high-performance athletes, in genetics and anthropologic studies. Most studies about palmaris longus in humans are associated to frequency or case studies, but comparative anatomy in primates and comparative morphometry were not found in scientific literature. Comparative anatomy associated to morphometry of palmaris longus could explain the degeneration observed in this muscle in two of three of the great apes. Hypothetically, the comparison of the relative length of tendons and belly could indicate the pathway of the degeneration of this muscle, that is, the degeneration could be associated to increased tendon length and decreased belly from more primitive primates to those most derivate, that is, great apes to modern humans. In conclusion, in primates, the tendon of the palmaris longus increase from Lemuriformes to modern humans, that is, from arboreal to terrestrial primates and the muscle became weaker and tending to be missing. Roqueline A. G. M. F. Aversi-Ferreira, Rafael Vieira Bretas, Rafael Souto Maior, Munkhzul Davaasuren, Carlos Alberto Paraguassú-Chaves, Hisao Nishijo, and Tales Alexandre Aversi-Ferreira Copyright © 2014 Roqueline A. G. M. F. Aversi-Ferreira et al. All rights reserved. Measurement of Cephalic Indices in Older Children and Adolescents of a Nigerian Population Tue, 08 Apr 2014 06:39:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/527473/ Background. A study on the cephalic index was carried out on subjects from school students in Ogbia tribe of Bayelsa state in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. This study determined the cephalic indices among the school students. In the present study, seven hundred subjects were randomly selected from secondary schools comprising 350 males and 350 females, respectively, with age range from 11–20 years, with both parents and grandparents of Ogbia tribe. The length and breadth of the head were measured using a spreading caliper from standard bony landmarks. The measurable point for head length was measured between the glabella and inions while the head breadth was the widest biparietal diameter. The cephalic index was head breadth divided by the head length and multiplied by 100. The result showed that the mean cephalic index was 76.56. Males had a cephalic index of 77.21, while females had a cephalic index of 76.50. Based on this study, 78.68% of individuals were mesocephalic, 11.4% dolichocephalic, 9.0% Brachycephalic, and 0.43% hyperbrachycephalic. This research showed that the school students have mesocephalic phenotype. The data from this research will be useful in anthropology, genetics, forensic medicine, and clinical practice. Babatunde Olayemi Akinbami Copyright © 2014 Babatunde Olayemi Akinbami. All rights reserved. Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Stem Cells Improve Heat Tolerance and Hypothalamic Damage in Heat Stressed Mice Mon, 07 Apr 2014 13:58:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/685683/ Heatstroke is characterized by excessive hyperthermia associated with systemic inflammatory responses, which leads to multiple organ failure, in which brain disorders predominate. This definition can be almost fulfilled by a mouse model of heatstroke used in the present study. Unanesthetized mice were exposed to whole body heating (41.2°C for 1 hour) and then returned to room temperature (26°C) for recovery. Immediately after termination of whole body heating, heated mice displayed excessive hyperthermia (body core temperature ~42.5°C). Four hours after termination of heat stress, heated mice displayed (i) systemic inflammation; (ii) ischemic, hypoxic, and oxidative damage to the hypothalamus; (iii) hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis impairment (reflected by plasma levels of both adrenocorticotrophic-hormone and corticosterone); (iv) decreased fractional survival; and (v) thermoregulatory deficits (e.g., they became hypothermia when they were exposed to room temperature). These heatstroke reactions can be significantly attenuated by human umbilical cord blood-derived CD34+ cells therapy. Our data suggest that human umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells therapy may improve outcomes of heatstroke in mice by reducing systemic inflammation as well as hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis impairment. Ling-Shu Tseng, Sheng-Hsien Chen, Mao-Tsun Lin, and Ying-Chu Lin Copyright © 2014 Ling-Shu Tseng et al. All rights reserved. Morphological and Radiological Study of Ossified Superior Transverse Scapular Ligament as Potential Risk Factor of Suprascapular Nerve Entrapment Thu, 03 Apr 2014 16:27:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/613601/ The suprascapular notch is covered superiorly by the superior transverse scapular ligament. This region is the most common place of suprascapular nerve entrapment formation. The study was performed on 812 specimens: 86 dry scapulae, 104 formalin-fixed cadaveric shoulders, and 622 computer topography scans of scapulae. In the cases with completely ossified superior transverse scapular ligament, the following measurements were performed: proximal and distal width of the bony bridge, middle transverse and vertical diameter of the suprascapular foramen, and area of the suprascapular foramen. An ossified superior transverse scapular ligament was observed more often in men and in the right scapula. The mean age of the subjects with a completely ossified superior transverse scapular ligament was found to be similar than in those without ossification. The ossified band-shaped type of superior transverse scapular ligament was more common than the fan-shaped type and reduced the space below the ligament to a significantly greater degree. The ossified band-shaped type should be taken into consideration as a potential risk factor in the formation of suprascapular nerve entrapment. It could explain the comparable frequency of neuropathy in various populations throughout the world despite the significant differences between them in occurrence of ossified superior transverse scapular ligament. Michał Polguj, Marcin Sibiński, Andrzej Grzegorzewski, Michał Waszczykowski, Agata Majos, and Mirosław Topol Copyright © 2014 Michał Polguj et al. All rights reserved. Volumetric Analysis of Amygdala, Hippocampus, and Prefrontal Cortex in Therapy-Naive PTSD Participants Thu, 13 Mar 2014 10:01:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/968495/ Objective. In our study we have hypothesized that volume changes of amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex are more pronounced in male posttraumatic stress disorder participants. Material and Methods. We have conducted a study of 79 male participants who underwent MRI brain scanning. PTSD diagnosis was confirmed in 49 participants. After MRI was taken all scans were software based volume computed and statistically processed. Results. We found that left amygdala is the most significant parameter for distinction between PTSD participants and participants without PTSD. There were no significant differences in volumes of hippocampi and prefrontal cortices. Roc curve method outlined left amygdala AUC = 0.898 (95% CI = 0.830–0.967) and right amygdala AUC = 0.882 (95% CI = 0.810–0.954) in the group of PTSD participants which makes both variables highly statistically significant. Conclusion. The present investigation revealed significant volume decrease of left amygdala in PTSD patients. Concerning important functions of the amygdala and her neuroanatomical connections with other brain structures, we need to increase number of participants to clarify the correlation between impared amygdala and possible other different brain structures in participants with PTSD. Ana Starcevic, Srdjan Postic, Zoran Radojicic, Branislav Starcevic, Srdjan Milovanovic, Andrej Ilankovic, Ivan Dimitrijevic, Aleksandar Damjanovic, Milan Aksić, and Vidosava Radonjic Copyright © 2014 Ana Starcevic et al. All rights reserved. Long-Term Effects of Maternal Deprivation on Cholinergic System in Rat Brain Mon, 10 Mar 2014 08:54:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/636574/ Numerous clinical studies have demonstrated an association between early stressful life events and adult life psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. In rodents, early life exposure to stressors such as maternal deprivation (MD) produces numerous hormonal, neurochemical, and behavioral changes and is accepted as one of the animal models of schizophrenia. The stress induces acetylcholine (Ach) release in the forebrain and the alterations in cholinergic neurotransmitter system are reported in schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to examine long-term effects of maternal separation on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in different brain structures and the density of cholinergic fibers in hippocampus and retrosplenial (RS) cortex. Wistar rats were separated from their mothers on the postnatal day (P) 9 for 24 h and sacrificed on P60. Control group of rats was bred under the same conditions, but without MD. Brain regions were collected for AChE activity measurements and morphometric analysis. Obtained results showed significant decrease of the AChE activity in cortex and increase in the hippocampus of MD rats. Density of cholinergic fibers was significantly increased in CA1 region of hippocampus and decreased in RS cortex. Our results indicate that MD causes long-term structure specific changes in the cholinergic system. Branka Marković, Nevena V. Radonjić, Milan Aksić, Branislav Filipović, and Nataša Petronijević Copyright © 2014 Branka Marković et al. All rights reserved. Simple Method for Evaluation of Planum Temporale Pyramidal Neurons Shrinkage in Postmortem Tissue of Alzheimer Disease Patients Tue, 11 Feb 2014 11:40:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/607171/ We measured the length of the pyramidal neurons in the cortical layer III in four subregions of the planum temporale (transitions into superior temporal gyrus, Heschl’s gyrus, insular cortex, and Sylvian fissure) in control group and Alzheimer disease patients. Our hypothesis was that overall length of the pyramidal neurons would be smaller in the Alzheimer disease group compared to controls and also there would be right-left asymmetry in both the control and Alzheimer disease groups. We found pyramidal neuron length asymmetry only in controls—in the transition into the Sylvian fissure—and the rest of the subregions in the control group and Alzheimer disease patients did not show size difference. However, control-Alzheimer disease group pyramidal neuron length comparison revealed (a) no length difference in superior temporal gyrus transition area, (b) reversal of asymmetry in the insular transition area with left insular transition significantly shorter in the Alzheimer disease group compared to the control group, (c) both right and left Heschl’s gyrus transitions significantly shorter in the Alzheimer disease group compared to the control group, and (d) right Sylvian fissure transition significantly shorter in the Alzheimer disease group compared to the control group. This neuronal length measurement method could supplement already existing neuropathological criteria for postmortem Alzheimer disease diagnostics. Martina Kutová, Jana Mrzílková, Denisa Kirdajová, Daniela Řípová, and Petr Zach Copyright © 2014 Martina Kutová et al. All rights reserved. On the Relationships of Postcanine Tooth Size with Dietary Quality and Brain Volume in Primates: Implications for Hominin Evolution Thu, 30 Jan 2014 09:30:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/406507/ Brain volume and cheek-tooth size have traditionally been considered as two traits that show opposite evolutionary trends during the evolution of Homo. As a result, differences in encephalization and molarization among hominins tend to be interpreted in paleobiological grounds, because both traits were presumably linked to the dietary quality of extinct species. Here we show that there is an essential difference between the genus Homo and the living primate species, because postcanine tooth size and brain volume are related to negative allometry in primates and show an inverse relationship in Homo. However, when size effects are removed, the negative relationship between encephalization and molarization holds only for platyrrhines and the genus Homo. In addition, there is no general trend for the relationship between postcanine tooth size and dietary quality among the living primates. If size and phylogeny effects are both removed, this relationship vanishes in many taxonomic groups. As a result, the suggestion that the presence of well-developed postcanine teeth in extinct hominins should be indicative of a poor-quality diet cannot be generalized to all extant and extinct primates. Juan Manuel Jiménez-Arenas, Juan Antonio Pérez-Claros, Juan Carlos Aledo, and Paul Palmqvist Copyright © 2014 Juan Manuel Jiménez-Arenas et al. All rights reserved. The Proteome of the Differentiating Mesencephalic Progenitor Cell Line CSM14.1 In Vitro Thu, 30 Jan 2014 07:59:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/351821/ The treatment of Parkinson's disease by transplantation of dopaminergic (DA) neurons from human embryonic mesencephalic tissue is a promising approach. However, the origin of these cells causes major problems: availability and standardization of the graft. Therefore, the generation of unlimited numbers of DA neurons from various types of stem or progenitor cells has been brought into focus. A source for DA neurons might be conditionally immortalized progenitor cells. The temperature-sensitive immortalized cell line CSM14.1 derived from the mesencephalon of an embryonic rat has been used successfully for transplantation experiments. This cell line was analyzed by unbiased stereology of cell type specific marker proteins and 2D-gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry to characterize the differentially expressed proteome. Undifferentiated CSM14.1 cells only expressed the stem cell marker nestin, whereas differentiated cells expressed GFAP or NeuN and tyrosine hydroxylase. An increase of the latter cells during differentiation could be shown. By using proteomics an explanation on the protein level was found for the observed changes in cell morphology during differentiation, when CSM14.1 cells possessed the morphology of multipolar neurons. The results obtained in this study confirm the suitability of CSM14.1 cells as an in vitro model for the study of neuronal and dopaminergic differentiation in rats. B. Weiss, S. Haas, G. Lessner, S. Mikkat, M. Kreutzer, M. O. Glocker, A. Wree, and O. Schmitt Copyright © 2014 B. Weiss et al. All rights reserved. Ultrastructure and Light Microscope Analysis of Intact Skin after a Varying Number of Low Level Laser Irradiations in Mice Wed, 29 Jan 2014 06:57:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/506051/ Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been used to relieve pain, inflammation, and wound healing processes. Thus, the skin is overexposed to laser and this effect is not completely understood. This study analyzed the effects of the number of laser applications (three, six, and 10) on the intact skin of the masseteric region in mice of strain HRS/J. The animals were equally divided into control (0 J/cm2) and irradiated (20 J/cm2), and each of these groups was further equally divided according to the number of laser applications (three, six, and 10) and underwent LLLT on alternate days. Samples were analyzed by light microscopy and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The animals receiving applications exhibited open channels more dilated between the keratinocytes and photobiomodulation effect on endothelial cells and fibroblasts by TEM. Under the light microscope after 10 laser applications, the type I collagen decreased compared to the three and six applications. Under these experimental conditions, all numbers of applications provided photobiomodulatory effect on the epidermis and dermis, without damage. More studies are needed to standardize the energy density and number of applications recommended for laser therapy to have a better cost-benefit ratio associated with treatment. Mamie Mizusaki Iyomasa, Juliane Caroline Leão, Élen Camargo Rizzi, João Paulo Mardegan Issa, Fernando José Dias, Ii-sei Watanabe, and Daniela Mizusaki Iyomasa Copyright © 2014 Mamie Mizusaki Iyomasa et al. All rights reserved. Modulation of Wolframin Expression in Human Placenta during Pregnancy: Comparison among Physiological and Pathological States Thu, 23 Jan 2014 13:26:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/985478/ The WFS1 gene, encoding a transmembrane glycoprotein of the endoplasmic reticulum called wolframin, is mutated in Wolfram syndrome, an autosomal recessive disorder defined by the association of diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and further organ abnormalities. Disruption of the WFS1 gene in mice causes progressive β-cell loss in the pancreas and impaired stimulus-secretion coupling in insulin secretion. However, little is known about the physiological functions of this protein. We investigated the immunohistochemical expression of wolframin in human placenta throughout pregnancy in normal women and diabetic pregnant women. In normal placenta, there was a modulation of wolframin throughout pregnancy with a strong level of expression during the first trimester and a moderate level in the third trimester of gestation. In diabetic women, wolframin expression was strongly reduced in the third trimester of gestation. The pattern of expression of wolframin in normal placenta suggests that this protein may be required to sustain normal rates of cytotrophoblast cell proliferation during the first trimester of gestation. The decrease in wolframin expression in diabetic placenta suggests that this protein may participate in maintaining the physiologic glucose homeostasis in this organ. Angela Lucariello, Angelica Perna, Carmine Sellitto, Alfonso Baldi, Alessandro Iannaccone, Luigi Cobellis, Antonio De Luca, and Maria De Falco Copyright © 2014 Angela Lucariello et al. All rights reserved. Extended Endoscopic Endonasal Approaches for Cerebral Aneurysms: Anatomical, Virtual Reality and Morphometric Study Sun, 19 Jan 2014 09:51:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/703792/ Introduction. The purpose of the present contribution is to perform a detailed anatomic and virtual reality three-dimensional stereoscopic study in order to test the effectiveness of the extended endoscopic endonasal approaches for selected anterior and posterior circulation aneurysms. Methods. The study was divided in two main steps: (1) simulation step, using a dedicated Virtual Reality System (Dextroscope, Volume Interactions); (2) dissection step, in which the feasibility to reach specific vascular territory via the nose was verified in the anatomical laboratory. Results. Good visualization and proximal and distal vascular control of the main midline anterior and posterior circulation territory were achieved during the simulation step as well as in the dissection step (anterior communicating complex, internal carotid, ophthalmic, superior hypophyseal, posterior cerebral and posterior communicating, basilar, superior cerebellar, anterior inferior cerebellar, vertebral, and posterior inferior cerebellar arteries). Conclusion. The present contribution is intended as strictly anatomic study in which we highlighted some specific anterior and posterior circulation aneurysms that can be reached via the nose. For clinical applications of these approaches, some relevant complications, mainly related to the endonasal route, such as proximal and distal vascular control, major arterial bleeding, postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak, and olfactory disturbances must be considered. Alberto Di Somma, Matteo de Notaris, Vita Stagno, Luis Serra, Joaquim Enseñat, Isam Alobid, Joan San Molina, Joan Berenguer, Paolo Cappabianca, and Alberto Prats-Galino Copyright © 2014 Alberto Di Somma et al. All rights reserved. Site-Specific Distribution of CD68-Positive Microglial Cells in the Brains of Human Midterm Fetuses: A Topographical Relationship with Growing Axons Sun, 29 Dec 2013 10:52:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2013/762303/ Using 5 fetuses of gestational age (GA) of 15-16 weeks and 4 of GA of 22–25 weeks, we examined site- and stage-dependent differences in CD68-positive microglial cell distribution in human fetal brains. CD68 positive cells were evident in the floor of the fourth ventricle and the pons and olive at 15-16 weeks, accumulating in and around the hippocampus at 22–25 weeks. At both stages, the accumulation of these cells was evident around the optic tract and the anterior limb of the internal capsule. When we compared CD68-positive cell distribution with the topographical anatomy of GAP43-positive developing axons, we found that positive axons were usually unaccompanied by CD68-positive cells, except in the transpontine corticofugal tract and the anterior limb of the internal capsule. Likewise, microglial cell distribution did not correspond with habenulointerpeduncular tract. Therefore, the distribution of CD68-positive cells during normal brain development may not reflect a supportive role of these microglia in axonogenesis of midterm human fetuses. Kwang Ho Cho, Jin Sung Cheong, Ji Hyun Kim, Hiroshi Abe, Gen Murakami, and Baik Hwan Cho Copyright © 2013 Kwang Ho Cho et al. All rights reserved. Comparative Anatomy of the Hind Limb Vessels of the Bearded Capuchins (Sapajus libidinosus) with Apes, Baboons, and Cebus capucinus: With Comments on the Vessels' Role in Bipedalism Thu, 12 Dec 2013 14:12:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2013/737358/ Capuchin monkeys are known to exhibit sporadic bipedalism while performing specific tasks, such as cracking nuts. The bipedal posture and locomotion cause an increase in the metabolic cost and therefore increased blood supply to lower limbs is necessary. Here, we present a detailed anatomical description of the capuchin arteries and veins of the pelvic limb of Sapajus libidinosus in comparison with other primates. The arterial pattern of the bearded capuchin hind limb is more similar to other quadrupedal Cebus species. Similarities were also found to the pattern observed in the quadruped Papio, which is probably due to a comparable pelvis and the presence of the tail. Sapajus' traits show fewer similarities when compared to great apes and modern humans. Moreover, the bearded capuchin showed unique patterns for the femoral and the short saphenous veins. Although this species switches easily from quadrupedal to bipedal postures, our results indicate that the bearded capuchin has no specific or differential features that support extended bipedal posture and locomotion. Thus, the explanation for the behavioral differences found among capuchin genera probably includes other aspects of their physiology. Roqueline A. G. M. F. Aversi-Ferreira, Tainá de Abreu, Gabriel A. Pfrimer, Sylla F. Silva, Janine M. Ziermann, Frederico O. Carneiro-e-Silva, Carlos Tomaz, Maria Clotilde H. Tavares, Rafael S. Maior, and Tales A. Aversi-Ferreira Copyright © 2013 Roqueline A. G. M. F. Aversi-Ferreira et al. All rights reserved. Morphogenetic Mechanisms in the Cyclic Regeneration of Hair Follicles and Deer Antlers from Stem Cells Sat, 07 Dec 2013 15:38:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2013/643601/ We have made comparisons between hair follicles (HFs) and antler units (AUs)—two seemingly unrelated mammalian organs. HFs are tiny and concealed within skin, whereas AUs are gigantic and grown externally for visual display. However, these two organs share some striking similarities. Both consist of permanent and cyclic/temporary components and undergo stem-cell-based organogenesis and cyclic regeneration. Stem cells of both organs reside in the permanent part and the growth centres are located in the temporary part of each respective organ. Organogenesis and regeneration of both organs depend on epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Establishment of these interactions requires stem cells and reactive/niche cells (dermal papilla cells for HFs and epidermal cells for AUs) to be juxtaposed, which is achieved through destruction of the cyclic part to bring the reactive cells into close proximity to the respective stem cell niche. Developments of HFs and AUs are regulated by similar endocrine (particularly testosterone) and paracrine (particularly IGF1) factors. Interestingly, these two organs come to interplay during antlerogenesis. In conclusion, we believe that investigators from the fields of both HF and AU biology could greatly benefit from a comprehensive comparison between these two organs. Chunyi Li, Allan Pearson, and Chris McMahon Copyright © 2013 Chunyi Li et al. All rights reserved. Changes in Otx2 and Parvalbumin Immunoreactivity in the Superior Colliculus in the Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptor-β Knockout Mice Mon, 11 Nov 2013 10:49:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2013/848265/ The superior colliculus (SC), a relay nucleus in the subcortical visual pathways, is implicated in socioemotional behaviors. Homeoprotein Otx2 and β subunit of receptors of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGFR-β) have been suggested to play an important role in development of the visual system and development and maturation of GABAergic neurons. Although PDGFR-β-knockout (KO) mice displayed socio-emotional deficits associated with parvalbumin (PV-)immunoreactive (IR) neurons, their anatomical bases in the SC were unknown. In the present study, Otx2 and PV-immunolabeling in the adult mouse SC were investigated in the PDGFR-β KO mice. Although there were no differences in distribution patterns of Otx2 and PV-IR cells between the wild type and PDGFR-β KO mice, the mean numbers of both of the Otx2- and PV-IR cells were significantly reduced in the PDGFR-β KO mice. Furthermore, average diameters of Otx2- and PV-IR cells were significantly reduced in the PDGFR-β KO mice. These findings suggest that PDGFR-β plays a critical role in the functional development of the SC through its effects on Otx2- and PV-IR cells, provided specific roles of Otx2 protein and PV-IR cells in the development of SC neurons and visual information processing, respectively. Juanjuan Zhao, Susumu Urakawa, Jumpei Matsumoto, Ruixi Li, Yoko Ishii, Masakiyo Sasahara, Yuwen Peng, Taketoshi Ono, and Hisao Nishijo Copyright © 2013 Juanjuan Zhao et al. All rights reserved. Anthropometric Measurements of the Human Distal Femur: A Study of the Adult Malay Population Tue, 05 Nov 2013 15:30:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2013/175056/ The distal femurs of 100 subjects (50 men, 50 women) from the Malay population aged between 19 and 38 years were scanned to measure the anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) width. The mean AP values were 64.02 ± 3.38 mm and 57.33 ± 3.26 mm for men and women, respectively, and the mean ML values were 74.91 ± 3.52 mm and 64.53 ± 3.07 mm. We compared our data to that published previously for the Chinese and Indian populations. It was found that the Malay population had smaller distal femur than that of the Chinese but was larger than that of the Indian population (P < 0.05). In conclusion, although it is well established that Asians have a smaller distal femur size than that of the Western population, the variations in different Asian ethnicities may need to be considered when designing the appropriate knee implant. Fitdriyah Hussain, Mohammed Rafiq Abdul Kadir, Ahmad Hafiz Zulkifly, Azlin Sa’at, Azian Abd. Aziz, Md. Golam Hossain, T. Kamarul, and Ardiyansyah Syahrom Copyright © 2013 Fitdriyah Hussain et al. All rights reserved. Cellular and Axonal Diversity in Molecular Layer Heterotopia of the Rat Cerebellar Vermis Thu, 26 Sep 2013 10:56:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2013/805467/ Molecular layer heterotopia of the cerebellar primary fissure are a characteristic of many rat strains and are hypothesized to result from defect of granule cells exiting the external granule cell layer during cerebellar development. However, the cellular and axonal constituents of these malformations remain poorly understood. In the present report, we use histochemistry and immunocytochemistry to identify neuronal, glial, and axonal classes in molecular layer heterotopia. In particular, we identify parvalbumin-expressing molecular layer interneurons in heterotopia as well as three glial cell types including Bergmann glia, Olig2-expressing oligodendrocytes, and Iba1-expressing microglia. In addition, we document the presence of myelinated, serotonergic, catecholaminergic, and cholinergic axons in heterotopia indicating possible spinal and brainstem afferent projections to heterotopic cells. These findings are relevant toward understanding the mechanisms of normal and abnormal cerebellar development. Sarah E. Van Dine, Elsaid Salem, Elizabeth George, Nga Yan Siu, Timothy Dotzler, and Raddy L. Ramos Copyright © 2013 Sarah E. Van Dine et al. All rights reserved. New Morphological Features for Grading Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinomas Thu, 25 Jul 2013 08:34:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2013/175271/ Pathological diagnosis is influenced by subjective factors such as the individual experience and knowledge of doctors. Therefore, it may be interpreted in different ways for the same symptoms. The appearance of digital pathology has created good foundation for objective diagnoses based on quantitative feature analysis. Recently, numerous studies are being done to develop automated diagnosis based on the digital pathology. But there are as of yet no general automated methods for pathological diagnosis due to its specific nature. Therefore, specific methods according to a type of disease and a lesion could be designed. This study proposes quantitative features that are designed to diagnose pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas. In the diagnosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas, the region of interest is a duct that consists of lumen and epithelium. Therefore, we first segment the lumen and epithelial nuclei from a tissue image. Then, we extract the specific features to diagnose the pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma from the segmented objects. The experiment evaluated the classification performance of the SVM learned by the proposed features. The results showed an accuracy of 94.38% in the experiment distinguishing between pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas and normal tissue and a classification accuracy of 77.03% distinguishing between the stages of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas. Jae-Won Song and Ju-Hong Lee Copyright © 2013 Jae-Won Song and Ju-Hong Lee. All rights reserved. Myosin Isoforms and Contractile Properties of Single Fibers of Human Latissimus Dorsi Muscle Mon, 22 Jul 2013 13:10:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2013/249398/ The aim of our study was to investigate fiber type distribution and contractile characteristics of Latissimus Dorsi muscle (LDM). Samples were collected from 18 young healthy subjects (9 males and 9 females) through percutaneous fine needle muscle biopsy. The results showed a predominance of fast myosin heavy chain isoforms (MyHC) with 42% of MyHC 2A and 25% of MyHC 2X, while MyHC 1 represented only 33%. The unbalance toward fast isoforms was even greater in males (71%) than in females (64%). Fiber type distribution partially reflected MyHC isoform distribution with 28% type 1/slow fibers and 5% hybrid 1/2A fibers, while fast fibers were divided into 30% type 2A, 31% type A/X, 4% type X, and 2% type 1/2X. Type 1/slow fibers were not only less abundant but also smaller in cross-sectional area than fast fibers. During maximal isometric contraction, type 1/slow fibers developed force and tension significantly lower than the two major groups of fast fibers. In conclusion, the predominance of fast fibers and their greater size and strength compared to slow fibers reveal that LDM is a muscle specialized mainly in phasic and powerful activity. Importantly, such specialization is more pronounced in males than in females. Antonio Paoli, Quirico F. Pacelli, Pasqua Cancellara, Luana Toniolo, Tatiana Moro, Marta Canato, Danilo Miotti, and Carlo Reggiani Copyright © 2013 Antonio Paoli et al. All rights reserved. Persistent Primitive Olfactory Artery in Serbian Population Sun, 14 Jul 2013 09:41:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2013/903460/ The continuation of the cranial branch of the primitive internal carotid artery is called the primitive olfactory artery (POℓA). It takes this name according to the fact that it is mainly concerned with supplying the developing nasal region. We reported two new cases of the persistent POℓA (PPOℓA) in Serbian population after retrospective analysis of digital images of 200 fetal and 269 adult cases. This PPOℓA originated from the precommunicating part (A1) of the right anterior cerebral artery, coursed along the olfactory tract, and turned on the medial cerebral hemisphere in both male adults. Some vascular variations (fenestration of the A1 and the median artery of the corpus callosum) were associated with this persistent vessel. According to the fact that we did not find aneurysm in our previous and two recent cases, we are of the opinion that PPOℓA is usually asymptomatic in Serbian population. Ljiljana Vasović, Milena Trandafilović, Slobodan Vlajković, Ivan Jovanović, and Slađana Ugrenović Copyright © 2013 Ljiljana Vasović et al. All rights reserved. The Variable Origin of the Recurrent Artery of Heubner: An Anatomical and Morphometric Study Tue, 09 Jul 2013 15:08:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2013/873434/ The recurrent artery of Heubner (RAH) is the largest vessel of the medial lenticulostriate arteries. It supplies many deep structures, mainly the corpus striatum, the globus pallidus, and the anterior crus of the internal capsule. The aim of the present paper was studying the morphological variations of the RAH and its diameter in relation to different areas of origin. The series contained the records from 183 formalin-fixed adult human brains. The calibrated digital images of the studied brains were evaluated and measured by Image J, which can calculate the number of pixels and convert them to metric measures. The RAH arose most often from the postcommunicating part of the anterior cerebral artery (47.81%). It originated from the precommunicating part of the anterior cerebral artery in 3.55% and at the level of the anterior communicating artery in 43.4% of cases. The RAH was missing in 5.19% and doubled in 6.28% of cases. The mean outer diameter of the RAH was 0.6 mm. The maximal measured diameter was 1.34 mm, and the minimal diameter was 0.19 mm. The awareness of the various anatomical and morphometric variations of the RAH is essential in planning the neurosurgical procedures to avoid unexpected neurological complications. Hisham El Falougy, Petra Selmeciova, Eliska Kubikova, and Zora Haviarová Copyright © 2013 Hisham El Falougy et al. All rights reserved. Application of a Low-Level Laser Therapy and the Purified Protein from Natural Latex (Hevea brasiliensis) in the Controlled Crush Injury of the Sciatic Nerve of Rats: A Morphological, Quantitative, and Ultrastructural Study Tue, 02 Jul 2013 10:38:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2013/597863/ This study analyzed the effects of a low-level laser therapy (LLLT, 15 J/cm2, 780 nm wavelength) and the natural latex protein (P1, 0.1%) in sciatic nerve after crush injury (15 Kgf, axonotmesis) in rats. Sixty rats (male, 250 g) were allocated into the 6 groups (): CG—control group; EG—nerve exposed; IG—injured nerve without treatment; LG—crushed nerve treated with LLLT; PG—injured nerve treated with P1; and LPG—injured nerve treated with LLLT and P1. After 4 or 8 weeks, the nerve samples were processed for morphological, histological quantification and ultrastructural analysis. After 4 weeks, the myelin density and morphological characteristics improved in groups LG, PG, and LPG compared to IG. After 8 weeks, PG, and LPG were similar to CG and the capillary density was higher in the LG, PG, and LPG. In the ultrastructural analysis the PG and LPG had characteristics that were similar to the CG. The application of LLLT and/or P1 improved the recovery from the nerve crush injury, and in the long term, the P1 protein was the better treatment used, since only the application of LLLT has not reached the same results, and these treatments applied together did not potentiate the recovery. Fernando José Dias, João Paulo Mardegan Issa, Mamie Mizusaki Iyomasa, Joaquim Coutinho-Netto, Ricardo Alexandre Junqueria Calzzani, Daniela Mizusaki Iyomasa, Luiz Gustavo Sousa, Sonia Regina Yokomizo de Almeida, Diego Pulzatto Cury, and Ii-sei Watanabe Copyright © 2013 Fernando José Dias et al. All rights reserved. Development and Remodeling of the Vertebrate Blood-Gas Barrier Thu, 27 Dec 2012 11:09:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2013/101597/ During vertebrate development, the lung inaugurates as an endodermal bud from the primitive foregut. Dichotomous subdivision of the bud results in arborizing airways that form the prospective gas exchanging chambers, where a thin blood-gas barrier (BGB) is established. In the mammalian lung, this proceeds through conversion of type II cells to type I cells, thinning, and elongation of the cells as well as extrusion of the lamellar bodies. Subsequent diminution of interstitial tissue and apposition of capillaries to the alveolar epithelium establish a thin BGB. In the noncompliant avian lung, attenuation proceeds through cell-cutting processes that result in remarkable thinning of the epithelial layer. A host of morphoregulatory molecules, including transcription factors such as Nkx2.1, GATA, HNF-3, and WNT5a; signaling molecules including FGF, BMP-4, Shh, and TFG-β and extracellular proteins and their receptors have been implicated. During normal physiological function, the BGB may be remodeled in response to alterations in transmural pressures in both blood capillaries and airspaces. Such changes are mitigated through rapid expression of the relevant genes for extracellular matrix proteins and growth factors. While an appreciable amount of information regarding molecular control has been documented in the mammalian lung, very little is available on the avian lung. Andrew Makanya, Aikaterini Anagnostopoulou, and Valentin Djonov Copyright © 2013 Andrew Makanya et al. All rights reserved.