BioMed Research International: Anesthesiology The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Impact of Volatile Anesthetics on Oxidative Stress and Inflammation Mon, 25 May 2015 13:07:41 +0000 The safety of anesthesia, which is an important step for surgery, can be determined by its impact on oxidative stress and inflammation. The effects of volatile anesthetics such as isoflurane and sevoflurane on oxidative stress and inflammation are reviewed in various (1) cell lines, (2) rodents, and (3) human studies. Isoflurane and sevoflurane are reported to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in all cells with exception of neuronal cell lines. In addition, various animal studies have indicated that isoflurane and sevoflurane were not only safe but also reduced oxidative stress and inflammation in rodent models. In human studies, oxidative stress, inflammation, and DNA damage were not affected by isoflurane and sevoflurane in patients undergoing minor incision surgeries. On the other hand, elevated oxidative stress, inflammation, and DNA damage have been observed in patients undergoing major surgeries such as abdominal and orthopedic surgeries, hysterectomy, cholecystectomy, and thoracotomy. Although impact of anesthetics on oxidative stress and inflammation is still not clear due to the variations of patients’ health conditions, types of surgery and the quantities of anesthetics, isoflurane, and sevoflurane can be considered safe anesthetics with respect to their effect on oxidative stress and inflammation in subjects undergoing minor surgery. Continuous effort evaluating the safety of anesthesia in various aspects is required. Yoon-Mi Lee, Byeng Chun Song, and Kyung-Jin Yeum Copyright © 2015 Yoon-Mi Lee et al. All rights reserved. Sevoflurane Induces DNA Damage Whereas Isoflurane Leads to Higher Antioxidative Status in Anesthetized Rats Mon, 25 May 2015 07:30:19 +0000 Taking into account that there are controversial antioxidative effects of inhalational anesthetics isoflurane and sevoflurane and absence of comparison of genotoxicity of both anesthetics in animal model, the aim of this study was to compare DNA damage and antioxidant status in Wistar rats exposed to a single time to isoflurane or sevoflurane. The alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis assay (comet assay) was performed in order to evaluate DNA damage in whole blood cells of control animals (unexposed; n = 6) and those exposed to 2% isoflurane (n = 6) or 4% sevoflurane (n = 6) for 120 min. Plasma antioxidant status was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. There was no statistically significant difference between isoflurane and sevoflurane groups regarding hemodynamic and temperature variables (P > 0.05). Sevoflurane significantly increased DNA damage compared to unexposed animals (P = 0.02). In addition, Wistar rats anesthetized with isoflurane showed higher antioxidative status (MTT) than control group (P = 0.019). There were no significant differences in DNA damage or antioxidant status between isoflurane and sevoflurane groups (P > 0.05). In conclusion, our findings suggest that, in contrast to sevoflurane exposure, isoflurane increases systemic antioxidative status, protecting cells from DNA damage in rats. Thalita L. A. Rocha, Carlos A. Dias-Junior, Jose S. Possomato-Vieira, Victor H. Gonçalves-Rizzi, Flávia R. Nogueira, Kátina M. de Souza, Leandro G. Braz, and Mariana G. Braz Copyright © 2015 Thalita L. A. Rocha et al. All rights reserved. Validation of a Modified Algometer to Measure Mechanical Nociceptive Thresholds in Awake Dogs Tue, 05 May 2015 07:27:16 +0000 This study was conducted to validate the use of a modified algometer device to measure mechanical nociceptive thresholds in six dogs. Dogs were administered morphine intravenously (IV) at 1 mg/kg or saline at equivolume in a crossover design with one-week washout period. Mechanical nociceptive thresholds were determined before, after the administration of treatments at 5 minutes, and hourly for 8 hours. Thresholds were recorded at the carpal pad, metacarpal foot pad, tibia, femur, and abdomen. Heart rates, body temperature, and respiration were recorded at similar time points. Thresholds increased significantly () from baseline values for up to 3 hours at tibia and abdomen, 4 hours at metacarpal pad, and 5 hours at the carpal pad and femur. Hypothermia, bradycardia, and change in respiration were observed in all dogs after morphine injection. Saline did not alter any threshold levels during the eight-hour study period, indicating no evidence of tolerance, learned avoidance, or local hyperaesthesia. The device and methods of testing were well tolerated by all the dogs. Results suggest that the modified algometer and method of application are useful to measure nociceptive mechanical thresholds in awake dogs. Ubedullah Kaka, Hui Cheng Chen, Yong Meng Goh, Adamu Abdul Abubakar, Sharida Fakurazi, and Mahdi Ebrahimi Copyright © 2015 Ubedullah Kaka et al. All rights reserved. Pain Control after Total Knee Arthroplasty: Comparing Intra-Articular Local Anesthetic Injection with Femoral Nerve Block Sun, 03 May 2015 13:09:34 +0000 Background. Direct intra-articular injection of low doses of local anesthetic (IALA) after closure of the joint capsule remains controversial for pain control after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Methods. A retrospective study comparing patients receiving IALA with high doses (0.5% bupivacaine 60 mL) of local anesthetics or FNB in addition to intravenous patient-controlled analgesia with opioids for pain management after TKA was conducted. The primary end point was to compare the analgesic efficacy and early ambulation between the two groups. Results. No significant differences between the two groups in pain intensity, cumulative opioid consumption, incidences of opioid-related side effects, the time interval from the end of operation to the first time the patient could walk assisted with a walker postoperatively, and postoperative hospital stay were identified. Three patients in the IALA group but none in the FNB group walked within 12 hours after the end of operation. Summary. IALA with high doses of local anesthetics provides comparable analgesic efficacy as single-shot FNB after TKA and might be associated with earlier ambulation than FNB postoperatively. Shengchin Kao, Hungchen Lee, Chihwen Cheng, Chingfeng Lin, and Hsini Tsai Copyright © 2015 Shengchin Kao et al. All rights reserved. Supplemental Interscalene Blockade to General Anesthesia for Shoulder Arthroscopy: Effects on Fast Track Capability, Analgesic Quality, and Lung Function Wed, 29 Apr 2015 12:25:39 +0000 Background. After shoulder surgery performed in patients with interscalene nerve block (without general anesthesia), fast track capability and postoperative pain management in the PACU are improved compared with general anesthesia alone. However, it is not known if these evidence-based benefits still exist when the interscalene block is combined with general anesthesia. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed a prospective cohort data set of 159 patients undergoing shoulder arthroscopy with general anesthesia alone () or combined with an interscalene nerve block catheter () for fast track capability time. Moreover, comparisons were made for VAS scores, analgesic consumption in the PACU, pain management, and lung function measurements. Results. The groups did not differ in mean time to fast track capability (22 versus 22 min). Opioid consumption in PACU was significantly less in the interscalene group, who had significantly better VAS scores during PACU stay. Patients receiving interscalene blockade had a significantly impaired lung function postoperatively, although this did not affect postoperative recovery and had no impact on PACU times. Conclusion. The addition of interscalene block to general anesthesia for shoulder arthroscopy did not enhance fast track capability. Pain management and VAS scores were improved in the interscalene nerve block group. Martin Zoremba, Thomas Kratz, Frank Dette, Hinnerk Wulf, Thorsten Steinfeldt, and Thomas Wiesmann Copyright © 2015 Martin Zoremba et al. All rights reserved. The Levels and Duration of Sensory and Motor Blockades of Spinal Anesthesia in Obese Patients That Underwent Urological Operations in the Lithotomy Position Wed, 29 Apr 2015 07:50:48 +0000 Obesity has a significant effect on the cephalic spread of a spinal block (SB) due to a reduction in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). SB is controlled by the tissue blood flow in addition to the CSF. Some positions and techniques of surgery used can cause changes in hemodynamics. We investigated effects of hemodynamic changes that may occur during Transurethral prostate resection (TUR-P) and lithotomy position (LP) at the SB level in obese versus nonobese individuals. Sixty patients who had undergone TUR-P operation under spinal anesthesia were divided into a nonobese ( kg/m2, Group N) or obese ( kg/m2, Group O) group. SB assessments were recorded afterthe LP. SB at 6 and 120 min and the peak SB level were compared between two groups. Hemodynamics were recorded after LP. Peak and 6 min SB levels were similar between the groups, while 120 min SB levels were significantly higher for Group O (). Blood pressure (BP) after the LP was significantly higher for Group N (). LP and TUR-P increased the BP in Group N when compared to Group O. The increase in hemodynamics enhances the blood flow in the spinal cord and may form similar SB levels in nonobese patients to those in obese patients. However, SB time may be longer in obese patients. Taner Ciftci, Ali Bestemi Kepekci, Hatice Pınar Yavasca, Hayrettin Daskaya, and Volkan İnal Copyright © 2015 Taner Ciftci et al. All rights reserved. Does High Thoracic Epidural Analgesia with Levobupivacaine Preserve Myocardium? A Prospective Randomized Study Tue, 31 Mar 2015 06:17:10 +0000 Background. Our study aimed to compare HTEA and intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) in patients undergoing coronary bypass graft surgery (CABG), based on haemodynamic parameters and myocardial functions. Materials and Methods. The study included 34 patients that were scheduled for elective CABG, who were randomly divided into 2 groups. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with total intravenous anesthesia in both groups while intravenous PCA with morphine was administered in Group 1 and infusion of levobupivacaine was administered from the beginning of the anesthesia in Group 2 by thoracic epidural catheter. Blood samples were obtained presurgically, at 6 and 24 hours after surgery for troponin I, creatinine kinase-MB (CK-MB), total antioxidant capacity, and malondialdehyde. Postoperative pain was evaluated every 4 hours until 24 hours via VAS. Results. There were significant differences in troponin I or CK-MB values between the groups at postsurgery 6 h and 24 h. Heart rate and mean arterial pressure in Group 1 were significantly higher than in Group 2 at all measurements. Cardiac index in Group 2 was significantly higher than in Group 1 at all measurements. Conclusion. Patients that underwent CABG and received HTEA had better myocardial function and perioperative haemodynamic parameters than those who did not receive HTEA. Serife Gokbulut Bektas, Sema Turan, Umit Karadeniz, Burcin Ozturk, Soner Yavas, Dilan Biricik, Gul Sevim Saydam, and Ozcan Erdemli Copyright © 2015 Serife Gokbulut Bektas et al. All rights reserved. Chlorhexidine Gluconate Dressings Reduce Bacterial Colonization Rates in Epidural and Peripheral Regional Catheters Mon, 23 Mar 2015 08:34:46 +0000 Introduction. Bacterial colonization of catheter tips is common in regional anesthesia and is a suspected risk factor for infectious complications. This is the first study evaluating the effect of CHG-impregnated dressings on bacterial colonization of regional anesthesia catheters in a routine clinical setting. Methods. In this prospective study, regional anesthesia catheter infection rates were examined in two groups of patients with epidural and peripheral regional catheters. In the first group, regional anesthesia was dressed with a conventional draping. The second group of patients underwent catheter dressing using a CHG-impregnated draping. Removed catheters and the insertion sites were both screened for bacterial colonization. Results. A total of 337 catheters from 308 patients were analysed. There was no significant reduction of local infections in either epidural or peripheral regional anesthesia catheters in both CHG and conventional groups. In the conventional group, 21% of the catheter tips and 41% of the insertion sites showed positive culture results. In the CHG-group, however, only 3% of the catheter tips and 8% of the insertion sites were colonised. Conclusion. CHG dressings significantly reduce bacterial colonization of the tip and the insertion site of epidural and peripheral regional catheters. However, no reductions in rates of local infections were seen. Klaus Kerwat, Leopold Eberhart, Martina Kerwat, Dominik Hörth, Hinnerk Wulf, Thorsten Steinfeldt, and Thomas Wiesmann Copyright © 2015 Klaus Kerwat et al. All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “Regional Anesthesia for Postoperative Pain Control” Mon, 16 Mar 2015 09:02:45 +0000 Ahmet Eroglu, Engin Erturk, Alparslan Apan, and Ozgun Cuvas Apan Copyright © 2015 Ahmet Eroglu et al. All rights reserved. Sample Entropy Analysis of EEG Signals via Artificial Neural Networks to Model Patients’ Consciousness Level Based on Anesthesiologists Experience Sun, 08 Feb 2015 12:55:42 +0000 Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals, as it can express the human brain’s activities and reflect awareness, have been widely used in many research and medical equipment to build a noninvasive monitoring index to the depth of anesthesia (DOA). Bispectral (BIS) index monitor is one of the famous and important indicators for anesthesiologists primarily using EEG signals when assessing the DOA. In this study, an attempt is made to build a new indicator using EEG signals to provide a more valuable reference to the DOA for clinical researchers. The EEG signals are collected from patients under anesthetic surgery which are filtered using multivariate empirical mode decomposition (MEMD) method and analyzed using sample entropy (SampEn) analysis. The calculated signals from SampEn are utilized to train an artificial neural network (ANN) model through using expert assessment of consciousness level (EACL) which is assessed by experienced anesthesiologists as the target to train, validate, and test the ANN. The results that are achieved using the proposed system are compared to BIS index. The proposed system results show that it is not only having similar characteristic to BIS index but also more close to experienced anesthesiologists which illustrates the consciousness level and reflects the DOA successfully. George J. A. Jiang, Shou-Zen Fan, Maysam F. Abbod, Hui-Hsun Huang, Jheng-Yan Lan, Feng-Fang Tsai, Hung-Chi Chang, Yea-Wen Yang, Fu-Lan Chuang, Yi-Fang Chiu, Kuo-Kuang Jen, Jeng-Fu Wu, and Jiann-Shing Shieh Copyright © 2015 George J. A. Jiang et al. All rights reserved. Is Infusion of Subhypnotic Propofol as Effective as Dexamethasone in Prevention of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting Related to Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy? A Randomized Controlled Trial Wed, 28 Jan 2015 12:18:40 +0000 Background. Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is one of common complications in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). Aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of subhypnotic (1 mg/kg/h) infusion of propofol with dexamethasone on PONV in patients undergoing LC. Methods. A total of 120 patients were included in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Patients were randomly assigned to 3 groups; patients of group dexamethasone (group D) were administrated 8 mg dexamethasone before induction of anesthesia, patients of group propofol (group P) were infused to subhypnotic (1 mg/kg/h) propofol during operation and patients of group control (group C) were applied infusion of 10% intralipid. The incidence of PONV and needs for rescue analgesic and antiemetic were recorded in the first 24 h postoperatively. Results. In the 0–24 h, the incidence of PONV was significantly lower in the group D and group P compared with the group C (37.5%, 40%, and 72.5%, resp.). There was no significant difference in the incidence of PONV and use of antiemetics and analgesic between group D and group P. Conclusion. We concluded that infusion of propofol 1 mg/kg/h is as effective as dexamethasone for the prevention of PONV during the first 24 hours after anesthesia in patients undergoing LC. Mine Celik, Aysenur Dostbil, Mehmet Aksoy, Ilker Ince, Ali Ahiskalioglu, Mehmet Comez, and Ali Fuat Erdem Copyright © 2015 Mine Celik et al. All rights reserved. Electroencephalographic Changes Associated with Antinociceptive Actions of Lidocaine, Ketamine, Meloxicam, and Morphine Administration in Minimally Anaesthetized Dogs Wed, 28 Jan 2015 07:20:53 +0000 Effects of ketamine and lidocaine on electroencephalographic (EEG) changes were evaluated in minimally anaesthetized dogs, subjected to electric stimulus. Six dogs were subjected to six treatments in a crossover design with a washout period of one week. Dogs were subjected to intravenous boluses of lidocaine 2 mg/kg, ketamine 3 mg/kg, meloxicam 0.2 mg/kg, morphine 0.2 mg/kg and loading doses of lidocaine 2 mg/kg followed by continuous rate infusion (CRI) of 50 and 100 mcg/kg/min, and ketamine 3 mg/kg followed by CRI of 10 and 50 mcg/kg/min. Electroencephalogram was recorded during electrical stimulation prior to any drug treatment (before treatment) and during electrical stimulation following treatment with the drugs (after treatment) under anaesthesia. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with halothane at a stable concentration between 0.85 and 0.95%. Pretreatment median frequency was evidently increased () for all treatment groups. Lidocaine, ketamine, and morphine depressed the median frequency resulting from the posttreatment stimulation. The depression of median frequency suggested evident antinociceptive effects of these treatments in dogs. It is therefore concluded that lidocaine and ketamine can be used in the analgesic protocol for the postoperative pain management in dogs. Ubedullah Kaka, Chen Hui Cheng, Goh Yong Meng, Sharida Fakurazi, Asmatullah Kaka, Atique Ahmed Behan, and Mahdi Ebrahimi Copyright © 2015 Ubedullah Kaka et al. All rights reserved. Cardiac Emergencies in Neurosurgical Patients Mon, 26 Jan 2015 06:21:05 +0000 Perioperative safety concerns are a major area of interest in recent years. Severe cardiac perturbation such as cardiac arrest is one of the most dreaded complications in the intraoperative period; however, little is known about the management of these events in the patients undergoing elective neurosurgery. This special group needs further attention, as it is often neither feasible nor appropriate to apply conventional advanced cardiac life support algorithms in patients undergoing neurosurgery. Factors such as neurosurgical procedure and positioning can also have a significant effect on the occurrence of cardiac arrest. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to describe the various causes and management of cardiac emergencies with special reference to cardiac arrest during elective neurosurgical procedures, including discussion of position-related factors and resuscitative considerations in these situations. This will help to formulate possible guidelines for management of such events. Tumul Chowdhury, Andrea Petropolis, and Ronald B. Cappellani Copyright © 2015 Tumul Chowdhury et al. All rights reserved. Prophylactic Antiarrhythmic Effect of Anesthetics at Subanesthetic Concentration on Epinephrine-Induced Arrhythmias in Rats after Brain Death Wed, 14 Jan 2015 14:18:32 +0000 The present study using brain death model of rats was designed to examine whether prophylactic administration of volatile anesthetics and propofol prevent the epinephrine-induced arrhythmias. A Fogarty catheter was placed intracranially for induction of brain death. After brain death, the rats were randomly assigned to five groups: the control group (no anesthetics), the sevoflurane group (0.8%), the isoflurane group (0.5%), the halothane group (0.3%), and the propofol group (195 μg·kg−1·min−1). These anesthetics were about 30% of of each anesthetic. The arrhythmogenic dose of epinephrine was determined in each anesthetic group. In addition, we examined left ventricular levels of connexin 43 phosphorylation 30 min after administration of each anesthetic with Western blot analysis. The arrhythmogenic dose of epinephrine in the sevoflurane group was significantly higher than that in the control group, while the arrhythmogenic dose of epinephrine in any other anesthetic group was not different. On the other hand, the ratio of phosphorylated-connexin 43/total connexin 43 was also similar among the study groups. Thus, prophylactic administration of subanesthetic dose of sevoflurane is effective in preventing epinephrine-induced arrhythmias after brain death, but phosphorylation of connexin is not involved in the antiarrhythmic property of sevoflurane. Yuka Miyata, Mitsuo Iwasaki, Hiroo Yamanaka, Masanori Sato, Takahiko Kamibayashi, Yuji Fujino, and Yukio Hayashi Copyright © 2015 Yuka Miyata et al. All rights reserved. Performance Analysis of Extracted Rule-Base Multivariable Type-2 Self-Organizing Fuzzy Logic Controller Applied to Anesthesia Sun, 21 Dec 2014 11:42:17 +0000 We compare type-1 and type-2 self-organizing fuzzy logic controller (SOFLC) using expert initialized and pretrained extracted rule-bases applied to automatic control of anaesthesia during surgery. We perform experimental simulations using a nonfixed patient model and signal noise to account for environmental and patient drug interaction uncertainties. The simulations evaluate the performance of the SOFLCs in their ability to control anesthetic delivery rates for maintaining desired physiological set points for muscle relaxation and blood pressure during a multistage surgical procedure. The performances of the SOFLCs are evaluated by measuring the steady state errors and control stabilities which indicate the accuracy and precision of control task. Two sets of comparisons based on using expert derived and extracted rule-bases are implemented as Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Results indicate that type-2 SOFLCs outperform type-1 SOFLC while handling the various sources of uncertainties. SOFLCs using the extracted rules are also shown to outperform those using expert derived rules in terms of improved control stability. Yan-Xin Liu, Faiyaz Doctor, Shou-Zen Fan, and Jiann-Shing Shieh Copyright © 2014 Yan-Xin Liu et al. All rights reserved. Coapplication of Lidocaine and Membrane-Impermeable Lidocaine Derivative QX-222 Produces Divergent Effects on Evoked and Spontaneous Nociceptive Behaviors in Mice Mon, 24 Nov 2014 12:36:54 +0000 The present study was aimed at investigating the analgesic properties of a combination of lidocaine and QX-222 and its effects on evoked pain behavior (complete Freund’s adjuvant-induced allodynia and hyperalgesia in inflammatory condition) and spontaneous pain behavior (formalin-induced acute pain) in mice. Drugs were injected adjacent to sciatic nerve or into plantar. Motor function, thermal withdrawal latency, mechanical withdrawal threshold, and licking/biting were evaluated by behavioral tests. A combination of lidocaine and QX-222 adjacent sciatic nerve injection produced the long-lasting sensory-specific nerve block, and intraplantar injection inhibited spontaneous pain in the formalin-treated mice but did not detectably attenuated hyperalgesia and allodynia in the complete Freund’s adjuvant- (CFA-) treated mice. Our results suggest that a combination of lidocaine and QX-222 achieves a long-lasting differential block (sensory selective) and produces divergent effects on evoked and spontaneous pain behaviors in mice. Si-Ping Hu, Jing-Jing Zhao, Wei-Xing Wang, Yang Liu, He-Fen Wu, Chao Chen, Liang Yu, and Jing-Bing Gui Copyright © 2014 Si-Ping Hu et al. All rights reserved. Erratum to “Evidence for the Use of Isoflurane as a Replacement for Chloral Hydrate Anesthesia in Experimental Stroke: An Ethical Issue” Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Maud Pétrault, Thavarak Ouk, Cédrick Lachaud, Michèle Bastide, Vincent Bérézowski, Olivier Pétrault, and Régis Bordet Copyright © 2014 Maud Pétrault et al. All rights reserved. A Miracle That Accelerates Operating Room Functionality: Sugammadex Thu, 14 Aug 2014 11:23:53 +0000 Background. Sugammadex offers a good alternative to the conventional decurarisation process currently performed with cholinesterase inhibitors. Sugammadex, which was developed specifically for the aminosteroid-structured rocuronium and vecuronium neuromuscular blockers, is a modified cyclodextrin made up of 8 glucose monomers arranged in a cylindrical shape. Methods. In this study, the goal was to investigate the efficacy of sugammadex. Sugammadex was used when there was insufficient decurarisation following neostigmine. This study was performed on 14 patients who experienced insufficient decurarisation (TOF ) with neostigmine after general anaesthesia in the operating rooms of a university and a state hospital between June, 2012, and January, 2014. A dose of 2 mg/kg of sugammadex was administered. Results. Time elapsed until sugammadex administration following neostigmine min, following sugammadex it took min to reach TOF , and the extubation time was min. No statistically significant differences were detected in the hemodynamic parameters before and after sugammadex application. From the time of administration of sugammadex to the second postoperative hour, no side effects or complications occurred. None of the patients experienced acute respiratory failure or residual block during this time period. Conclusion. Sugammadex was successfully used to reverse rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block in patients where neostigmine was insufficient. Erdal Dogan, Mehmet Salim Akdemir, Abdulmenap Guzel, Mehmet Besir Yildirim, Zeynep Baysal Yildirim, Mahir Kuyumcu, Abdurrahman Gümüş, and Hakan Akelma Copyright © 2014 Erdal Dogan et al. All rights reserved. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Caudal Block as Compared to Noncaudal Regional Techniques for Inguinal Surgeries in Children Tue, 05 Aug 2014 08:50:46 +0000 This systematic review and meta-analysis were designed to compare the analgesic effectiveness and adverse effects with the use of caudal analgesia as compared to noncaudal regional analgesia techniques in children undergoing inguinal surgeries. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL (Cochrane) databases were searched for randomized control trials published in English language from 1946 up to 2013. Use of rescue analgesia and adverse effects were considered as primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. Outcomes were pooled using random effects model and reported as risk ratio (RR) with 95% CI. Out of 3240 hits and 24 reports for final selection, 17 were included in this review. Caudal analgesia was found to be better in both early (RR = 0.81 [0.66, 0.99], ) and late (RR = 0.81 [0.69, 0.96], ) periods, but with a significant risk of motor block and urinary retention. According to GRADE, the quality of evidence was moderate. Although potentially superior, caudal analgesia increases the chance of motor block and urinary retention. There are limited studies to demonstrate that the technical superiority using ultrasound translates into better clinical success with the inguinal nerve blocks. Harsha Shanthanna, Balpreet Singh, and Gordon Guyatt Copyright © 2014 Harsha Shanthanna et al. All rights reserved. Predicting Postoperative Vomiting for Orthopedic Patients Receiving Patient-Controlled Epidural Analgesia with the Application of an Artificial Neural Network Tue, 05 Aug 2014 08:29:03 +0000 Patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) was used in many patients receiving orthopedic surgery to reduce postoperative pain but is accompanied with certain incidence of vomiting. Predictions of the vomiting event, however, were addressed by only a few authors using logistic regression (LR) models. Artificial neural networks (ANN) are pattern-recognition tools that can be used to detect complex patterns within data sets. The purpose of this study was to develop the ANN based predictive model to identify patients with high risk of vomiting during PCEA used. From January to March 2007, the PCEA records of 195 patients receiving PCEA after orthopedic surgery were used to develop the two predicting models. The ANN model had a largest area under curve (AUC) in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The areas under ROC curves of ANN and LR models were 0.900 and 0.761, respectively. The computer-based predictive model should be useful in increasing vigilance in those patients most at risk for vomiting while PCEA is used, allowing for patient-specific therapeutic intervention, or even in suggesting the use of alternative methods of analgesia. Cihun-Siyong Alex Gong, Lu Yu, Chien-Kun Ting, Mei-Yung Tsou, Kuang-Yi Chang, Chih-Long Shen, and Shih-Pin Lin Copyright © 2014 Cihun-Siyong Alex Gong et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of the Effects of Low Volume Prilocaine and Alkalinized Prilocaine for the Regional Intravenous Anesthesia Technique in Hand and Wrist Surgery Tue, 15 Jul 2014 09:55:01 +0000 Aim. Comparing the effectivity of prilocaine and prilocaine alkalinized with 8.4% NaHCO3 in terms of sensory and motor block onset and termination durations in RIVA technique considering patients’ satisfaction and tolerance with application of tourniquet undergoing hand-wrist surgery. Materials and Methods. 64 patients were randomised into two groups. First group (Group P) was administered prilocaine and second group (Group PN) was administered prilocaine + %8.4 NaHCO3. Sensory and motor block onset and termination times and onset of tourniquet pain were recorded. Results. No significant difference was found between the two groups in terms of onset and termination of sensory block and the onset of motor block. The duration of the motor block was longer in Group PN than in Group P . Tourniquet pain was more intense in Group P . In Group PN, the use of additional drugs was recorded at a lower rate and patients’ satisfaction was higher than Group P. Conclusion. In the present study, it was established that alkalinization of prilocaine had no effect on the duration of sensory block and it prolonged the duration of motor block, increased patients’ satisfaction, and decreased tourniquet pain. It is our suggestion that future studies should be carried out on the issue by using different volumes. Ozlem Kapusuz, Guldeniz Argun, Murat Arikan, Guray Toğral, Aysun Basarir, and Nihal Kadiogullari Copyright © 2014 Ozlem Kapusuz et al. All rights reserved. The Effects of Intravenous Fosaprepitant and Ondansetron for the Prevention of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in Neurosurgery Patients: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blinded Study Mon, 23 Jun 2014 13:06:40 +0000 The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is 30–50% after surgery. PONV occurs frequently, especially after craniotomy. In this study, we investigated the preventive effects on PONV in a randomized study by comparing patients who had been administered fosaprepitant, a neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptor antagonist, or ondansetron intravenously. Sixty-four patients undergoing craniotomy were randomly allocated to receive fosaprepitant 150 mg i.v. (NK1 group, n = 32) or ondansetron 4 mg i.v. (ONS group, n = 32) before anesthesia. The incidence of vomiting was significantly less in the NK1 group, where 2 of 32 (6%) patients experienced vomiting compared to 16 of 32 (50%) patients in the ONS group during the first 24 and 48 hours following surgery. Additionally, the incidence of complete response (no vomiting and no rescue antiemetic use) was significantly higher in the NK1 group than in the ONS group, and was 66% versus 41%, respectively, during the first 24 hours, and 63% versus 38%, respectively, during the first 48 hours. In patients undergoing craniotomy, fosaprepitant is more effective than ondansetron in increasing the rate of complete response and decreasing the incidence of vomiting at 24 and 48 hours postoperatively. Yasuo M. Tsutsumi, Nami Kakuta, Tomohiro Soga, Katsuyoshi Kume, Eisuke Hamaguchi, Rie Tsutsumi, and Katsuya Tanaka Copyright © 2014 Yasuo M. Tsutsumi et al. All rights reserved. Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury and Anesthesia Thu, 19 Jun 2014 05:08:19 +0000 Alexander Zarbock, Ahmet Eroglu, Engin Erturk, Can Ince, and Martin Westphal Copyright © 2014 Alexander Zarbock et al. All rights reserved. Regional Anesthesia for Postoperative Pain Control Wed, 18 Jun 2014 12:19:04 +0000 Corrigendum to “Regional Anesthesia for Postoperative Pain Control” Ahmet Eroglu, Engin Erturk, Alparslan Apan, Urs Eichenberger, and Ozgun Cuvas Apan Copyright © 2014 Ahmet Eroglu et al. All rights reserved. 1-1-12 One-Step Wash-In Scheme for Desflurane-Nitrous Oxide Low-Flow Anesthesia: Rapid and Predictable Induction Wed, 04 Jun 2014 07:23:03 +0000 Background. We propose a 1-1-12 wash-in scheme for desflurane-nitrous oxide (N2O) low-flow anesthesia. The objective of our study was to determine the time to achieve alveolar concentration of desflurane () at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6%. Methods. We enrolled 106 patients scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia. After induction and intubation, wash-in was started with a fresh gas flow (FGF) of N2O : O2 1 : 1 L min−1 and vaporizer concentration of desflurane (FD) of 12%. Ventilation was controlled to maintain at 30–35 mmHg. Results. The rose rapidly from 0 to 4% in 2 min in a linear manner in 0.5 min increments. An of 6% was achieved in 4 min in a linear fashion from of 4% but in 1 min increments. An of 1 to 6% occurred at 0.6, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, and 4 min. Heart rate during wash-in showed a statistically, albeit not clinically, significant pattern of increase. By contrast, blood pressure slightly decreased during this period. Conclusions. We developed a 1-1-12 wash-in scheme using a FGF of N2O : O2 1 : 1 L min−1 and FD of 12% for desflurane-nitrous oxide low-flow anesthesia. A respective of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6% can be expected at 0.6, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, and 4 min. Thepakorn Sathitkarnmanee, Sirirat Tribuddharat, Chakthip Suttinarakorn, Duangthida Nonlhaopol, Maneerat Thananun, Wilawan Somdee, and Sunchai Theerapongpakdee Copyright © 2014 Thepakorn Sathitkarnmanee et al. All rights reserved. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Children under Anesthesia: The Relationship between the Degree of Information Provided to Parents and Parents’ Anxiety Scores Sun, 25 May 2014 12:48:31 +0000 Background. We aimed to investigate the correlation between the anxiety scores of parents whose children are administered anesthesia for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the level of information provided to them before the MRI. The study included 146 children and their parents. The demographic information of the children and their parents was recorded. The parents were divided into two groups. In Group I, the patient’s medical history and physical exam findings were recorded on a standard consultation form by an anesthesiologist. In Group II, the parents were additionally provided with more detailed information on how the anesthesia would be administered and the drugs to be used and their side effects and complications. The anxiety scores of the parents were found to be lower in Group II. A higher level of education was associated with higher anxiety scores. Intergroup comparison detected lower anxiety scores for Group II parents whose education levels were up to high school. However, no change upon receiving detailed information was detected in the anxiety scores of parents with higher education levels. In conclusion, this may lower the anxiety scores in parents informed about details of anesthesia administration and may raise parents’ sense of confidence in the doctor. Abdulmenap Güzel, Abdullah Atlı, Erdal Doğan, Feyzi Çelik, Adnan Tüfek, Abdurrahim Dusak, Velat Şen, and Zeynep Baysal Yıldırım Copyright © 2014 Abdulmenap Güzel et al. All rights reserved. Patient-Controlled Epidural Levobupivacaine with or without Fentanyl for Post-Cesarean Section Pain Relief Mon, 19 May 2014 10:55:45 +0000 Purpose. The purpose of this study was to compare the analgesic properties of levobupivacaine with or without fentanyl for patient-controlled epidural analgesia after Cesarean section in a randomized, double-blinded study. Methods. We enrolled American Society of Anesthesiologists class I/II, full-term pregnant women at National Taiwan University Hospital who received patient-controlled epidural analgesia after Cesarean section between 2009 and 2010. Eighty women were randomly assigned into two groups. In group A, the 40 subjects received drug solutions made of 0.6 mg/ml levobupivacaine plus 2 mcg/ml fentanyl, and in group B the 40 subjects received 1 mg/ml levobupivacaine. Maintenance was self-administered boluses and a continuous background infusion. Results. There were no significant differences in the resting and dynamic pain scales and total volume of drug used between the two groups. Patient satisfaction was good in both groups. Conclusion. Our study showed that pure epidural levobupivacaine can provide comparative analgesic properties to the levobupivacaine-fentanyl combination after Cesarean section. Pure levobupivacaine may serve as an alternative pain control regimen to avoid opioid-related adverse events in parturients. Shin-Yan Chen, Feng-Lin Liu, Yih-Giun Cherng, Shou-Zen Fan, Barbara L. Leighton, Hung-Chi Chang, and Li-Kuei Chen Copyright © 2014 Shin-Yan Chen et al. All rights reserved. Does the Addition of Tramadol and Ketamine to Ropivacaine Prolong the Axillary Brachial Plexus Block? Tue, 06 May 2014 07:11:20 +0000 Background and Objectives. A prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trial to assess the effect of tramadol and ketamine, 50 mg, added to ropivacaine in brachial plexus anesthesia. Methods. Thirty-six ASA physical statuses I and II patients, between 18 and 60 years of age, scheduled for forearm and hand surgery under axillary brachial plexus block, were allocated to 3 groups. Group R received 0.375% ropivacaine in 40 mL, group RT received 0.375% ropivacaine in 40 mL with 50 mg tramadol, and group RK received 0.375% ropivacaine in 40 mL with 50 mg ketamine for axillary brachial plexus block. The onset times and the duration of sensory and motor blocks, duration of analgesia, hemodynamic parameters, and adverse events (nausea, vomiting, and feeling uncomfortable) were recorded. Results. The onset time of sensorial block was the fastest in ropivacaine + tramadol group. Duration of sensorial and motor block was the shortest in the ropivacaine + tramadol group. Duration of analgesia was significantly longer in ropivacaine + tramadol group. Conclusion. We conclude that when added to brachial plexus analgesia at a dose of 50 mg, tramadol extends the onset and duration time of the block and improves the quality of postoperative analgesia without any side effects. Ahmet Can Senel, Ozlem Ukinc, and Alper Timurkaynak Copyright © 2014 Ahmet Can Senel et al. All rights reserved. The Effects of Single-Dose Rectal Midazolam Application on Postoperative Recovery, Sedation, and Analgesia in Children Given Caudal Anesthesia Plus Bupivacaine Mon, 05 May 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Background. This study aimed to compare the effects of rectal midazolam addition after applying bupivacaine and caudal anesthesia on postoperative analgesia time, the need for additional analgesics, postoperative recovery, and sedation and to find out its adverse effects in children having lower abdominal surgery. Methods. 40 children between 2 and 10 years of ASA I-II were randomized, and they received caudal anesthesia under general anesthesia. Patients underwent the application of caudal block in addition to saline and 1 mL/kg bupivacaine 0.25%. In the postoperative period, Group C (n = 20) was given 5 mL saline, and Group M (n = 20) was given 0.30 mg/kg rectal midazolam diluted with 5 mL saline. Sedation scale and postoperative pain scale (CHIPPS) of the patients were evaluated. The patients were observed for their analgesic need, first analgesic time, and adverse effects for 24 hours. Results. Demographic and hemodynamic data of the two groups did not differ. Postoperative sedation scores in both groups were significantly lower compared with the preoperative period. There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of sedation and sufficient analgesia. Conclusions. We conclude that caudal anesthesia provided sufficient analgesia in peroperative and postoperative periods, and rectal midazolam addition did not create any differences. This trial is registered with NCT02127489. Sedat Saylan, Ahmet Eroglu, and Davut Dohman Copyright © 2014 Sedat Saylan et al. All rights reserved. Gabapentin in Acute Postoperative Pain Management Mon, 14 Apr 2014 08:48:49 +0000 Gabapentin (1-aminomethyl-cyclohexaneacetic acid) is an amino acid that has the structure of the neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). It is a novel drug used for the treatment of postoperative pain with antihyperalgesic properties and a unique mechanism of action. Gabapentin and the related, more potent compound pregabalin have been shown to be beneficial in the treatment of neuropathic pain as well as postoperative pain following spinal surgery and hysterectomy. This study reviews five aspects of gabapentin: (1) chemical and structural characteristics; (2) pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics; (3) application in acute pain management; (4) adverse effects; and (5) drug safety. Overall, gabapentin has been reported to be a safe and efficacious drug for the treatment of postoperative pain. Connie Y. Chang, Chaitanya K. Challa, Janki Shah, and Jean Daniel Eloy Copyright © 2014 Connie Y. Chang et al. All rights reserved. Development of an Open-Heart Intraoperative Risk Scoring Model for Predicting a Prolonged Intensive Care Unit Stay Thu, 10 Apr 2014 14:17:53 +0000 Background. Based on a pilot study with 34 patients, applying the modified sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score intraoperatively could predict a prolonged ICU stay, albeit with only 4 risk factors. Our objective was to develop a practicable intraoperative model for predicting prolonged ICU stay which included more relevant risk factors. Methods. An extensive literature review identified 6 other intraoperative risk factors affecting prolonged ICU stay. Another 168 patients were then recruited for whom all 10 risk factors were extracted and analyzed by logistic regression to form the new prognostic model. Results. The multivariate logistic regression analysis retained only 6 significant risk factors in the model: age ≥ 60 years, PaO2/FiO2 ratio ≤ 200 mmHg, platelet count ≤ 120,000/mm3, requirement for inotrope/vasopressor ≥ 2 drugs, serum potassium ≤ 3.2 mEq/L, and atrial fibrillation grading ≥2. This model was then simplified into the Open-Heart Intraoperative Risk (OHIR) score, comprising the same 6 risk factors for a total score of 7—a score of ≥3 indicating a likely prolonged ICU stay (AUC for ROC of 0.746). Conclusions. We developed a new, easy to calculate OHIR scoring system for predicting prolonged ICU stay as early as 3 hours after CPB. It comprises 6 risk factors, 5 of which can be manipulated intraoperatively. Sirirat Tribuddharat, Thepakorn Sathitkarnmanee, Kriangsak Ngamsangsirisup, Somrat Charuluxananan, Cameron P. Hurst, Suparit Silarat, and Ganjana Lertmemongkolchai Copyright © 2014 Sirirat Tribuddharat et al. All rights reserved. Efficacy of Continuous Epidural Analgesia versus Total Intravenous Analgesia on Postoperative Pain Control in Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair: A Retrospective Case-Control Study Mon, 07 Apr 2014 13:37:48 +0000 We reviewed our experience to compare the effectiveness of epidural analgesia and total intravenous analgesia on postoperative pain control in patients undergoing endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Records of 32 patients during a 2-year period were retrospectively investigated. TIVA group () received total intravenous anesthesia, and EA group () received epidural anesthesia and sedation. Pain assessment was performed on all patients on a daily basis during rest and activity on postoperative days until discharge from ward using the numeric rating scale. Data for demographic variables, required anesthetic level, perioperative hemodynamic variables, postoperative pain, and morbidities were recorded. There were no relevant differences concerning hospital stay (TIVA group: 14.1 ± 7.0, EA group: 13.5 ± 7.1), perioperative blood pressure variability (TIVA group: 15.6 ± 18.1, EA group: 14.8 ± 11.5), and perioperative hemodynamic complication rate (TIVA group: 17%, EA group: 14%). Postoperative pain scores differed significantly (TIVA group: 5.4 ± 0.9, EA group: 1.8 ± 0.8, ). Epidural anesthesia and postoperative epidural analgesia better reduce postoperative pain better compared with general anesthesia and systemic analgesia, with similar effects on hemodynamic status. Ahmet Şen, Başar Erdivanlı, Abdullah Özdemir, Hızır Kazdal, and Ersagun Tuğcugil Copyright © 2014 Ahmet Şen et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of the Effect of Lidocaine Adding Dexketoprofen and Paracetamol in Intravenous Regional Anesthesia Mon, 31 Mar 2014 10:14:29 +0000 Objective. Comparison of dexketoprofen and paracetamol added to the lidocaine in Regional Intravenous Anesthesia in terms of hemodynamic effects, motor and sensorial block onset times, intraoperative VAS values, and analgesia requirements. Method. The files of 73 patients between 18 and 65 years old in the ASA I-II risk group who underwent hand and forearm surgery were analyzed and 60 patients were included in the study. Patients were divided into 3 groups: Group D (), 3 mg/kg 2% lidocaine and 50 mg/2 mL dexketoprofen trometamol; Group P (), 3 mg/kg 2% lidocaine and 3 mg/kg paracetamol; Group K (), 3 mg/kg 2% lidocaine. Demographic data, motor and sensorial block times, heart rate, mean blood pressure, VAS values, and intraoperative and postoperative analgesia requirements were recorded. Results. Sensorial and motor block onset durations of Group K were significantly longer than other groups. Motor block termination duration was found to be significantly longer in Group D than in Group K. VAS values of Group K were found higher than other groups. There was no significant difference in VAS values between Group D and Group P. Analgesia requirement was found to be significantly more in Group K than in Group P. There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of heart rates and mean arterial pressures. Conclusion. We concluded that the addition of 3 mg/kg paracetamol and 50 mg dexketoprofen to lidocaine as adjuvant in Regional Intravenous Anesthesia applied for hand and/or forearm surgery created a significant difference clinically. Ali Akdogan and Ahmet Eroglu Copyright © 2014 Ali Akdogan and Ahmet Eroglu. All rights reserved. Investigation of an Intelligent System for Fiber Optic-Based Epidural Anesthesia Thu, 20 Mar 2014 12:24:54 +0000 Even though there have been many approaches to assist the anesthesiologists in performing regional anesthesia, none of the prior arts may be said as an unrestricted technique. The lack of a design that is with sufficient sensitivity to the targets of interest and automatic indication of needle placement makes it difficult to all-round implementation of field usage of objectiveness. In addition, light-weight easy-to-use realization is the key point of portability. This paper reports on an intelligent system of epidural space identification using optical technique, with particular emphasis on efficiency-enhanced aspects. Statistical algorithms, implemented in a dedicated field-programmable hardware platform along with an on-platform application-specific integrated chip, used to advance real-time self decision making in needle advancement are discussed together with the feedback results. Clinicians' viewpoint of improving the correct rate of our technique is explained in detail. Our study demonstrates not only that the improved system is able to behave as if it is a skillful anesthesiologist but also it has potential to bring promising assist into clinical use under varied conditions and small amount of sample, provided that several concerns are addressed. Cihun-Siyong Alex Gong and Chien-Kun Ting Copyright © 2014 Cihun-Siyong Alex Gong and Chien-Kun Ting. All rights reserved. The Effect of Intravenous Magnesium Sulfate Infusion on Sensory Spinal Block and Postoperative Pain Score in Abdominal Hysterectomy Wed, 19 Mar 2014 09:59:39 +0000 Aim. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of i.v. infusion of magnesium sulphate during spinal anesthesia on duration of spinal block and postoperative pain. Methods. Forty ASA physical status I and status II, aged between 18 and 65, female patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy under spinal anesthesia were enrolled in this study. Patients in the magnesium group (Group M, n = 20) received magnesium sulphate 65 mg kg−1 infusion in 250 mL 5% dextrose at 3.5 mL/min rate, and control group (Group C, n = 20) received at the same volume of saline during operation in a double-blind randomized manner. Duration of sensory and motor block, systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressures, heart rates, pain scores (VAS values), and side effects were recorded for each patient. Blood and CSF samples were taken for analysis of magnesium concentrations. Results. Regression of sensorial block was longer in Group M when compared with that in Group C (175 ± 39 versus 136 ± 32 min) (P < 0.01). The VAS scores were lower in Group M than those in Group C at the 2 time points postoperatively (P < 0.01). Conclusion. 65 mg kg−1 of magnesium sulphate i.v. infusion under spinal anesthesia prolongs spinal sensorial block duration and decreases pain VAS scores without complication in patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy. Fatih Kahraman and Ahmet Eroglu Copyright © 2014 Fatih Kahraman and Ahmet Eroglu. All rights reserved. The Effects on Sensorial Block, Motor Block, and Haemodynamics of Levobupivacaine at Different Temperatures Applied in the Subarachnoid Space Tue, 18 Mar 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Aim. To evaluate the effects of 0.5% levobupivacaine at 37°C preheated from room temperature, on sensorial block, motor block, and haemodynamics in patients undergoing transurethral prostate resection (TUR-P). Material and Method. The patients were randomly allocated to two groups: Group I patients were injected with 3 mL 0.5% levobupivacaine solution which had been kept at room temperature for at least 24 hours and Group II patients were injected with 3 mL 0.5% levobupivacaine solution which had been kept at 37°C for at least 24 hours. The patients were examined in terms of sensorial block, motor block, haemodynamic profile, and incidence of side effects. Results. No significant difference was found between the groups in terms of demographic data. The time to reach T10 sensory block and the time of starting motor block were found to be significantly shorter in Group II . The duration of sensory block over T10 and T6, the duration of L1 regression, the duration of the sensory block, and the regression time of the motor blocks from 3 to 2 were found to be longer in Group II. Conclusion. The use of 0.5% levobupivacaine spinal anaesthesia heated to 37°C accelerated the start of sensory and motor block. Bahittin Nazli, Huseyin Oguzalp, Eyup Horasanli, Mehmet Gamli, Beyazit Dikmen, and Nermin Gogus Copyright © 2014 Bahittin Nazli et al. All rights reserved. The Effectiveness of Preemptive Thoracic Epidural Analgesia in Thoracic Surgery Thu, 13 Mar 2014 13:32:24 +0000 Background. The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of preemptive thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA) comparing conventional postoperative epidural analgesia on thoracotomy. Material and Methods. Forty-four patients were randomized in to two groups (preemptive: Group P, control: Group C). Epidural catheter was inserted in all patients preoperatively. In Group P, epidural analgesic solution was administered as a bolus before the surgical incision and was continued until the end of the surgery. Postoperative patient controlled epidural analgesia infusion pumps were prepared for all patients. Respiratory rates (RR) were recorded. Patient’s analgesia was evaluated with visual analog scale at rest (VASr) and coughing (VASc). Number of patient’s demands from the pump, pump’s delivery, and additional analgesic requirement were also recorded. Results. RR in Group C was higher than in Group P at postoperative 1st and 2nd hours. Both VASr and VASc scores in Group P were lower than in Group C at postoperative 1st, 2nd, and 4th hours. Patient’s demand and pump’s delivery count for bolus dose in Group P were lower than in Group C in all measurement times. Total analgesic requirements on postoperative 1st and 24th hours in Group P were lower than in Group C. Conclusion. We consider that preemptive TEA may offer better analgesia after thoracotomy. Engin Erturk, Ferdane Aydogdu Kaya, Dilek Kutanis, Ahmet Besir, Ali Akdogan, Sükran Geze, and Ersagun Tugcugil Copyright © 2014 Engin Erturk et al. All rights reserved. Peri- and Postanalgesic Properties of Lidokain, Lornoxicam, and Nitroglycerine Combination at Intravenous Regional Anesthesia Sun, 09 Mar 2014 07:47:59 +0000 Background. This study was conducted to compare and evaluate the effect of adding lornoxicam or nitroglycerine as adjuncts to lidocaine in intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA). Methods. 60 patients were randomly separated into three groups, lidocaine group (group L), lidocaine + lornoxicam group (group LL), and lidocaine + lornoxicam + transdermal nitroglycerine group (group LL-N). Hemodynamic parameters, sensory and motor blocks onset, and recovery times were recorded. Analgesic consumption for tourniquet pain and postoperative period were recorded. Results. Sensory block onset times and motor block onset times were shorter in the LL-N and LL groups compared with L group. Sensory block recovery time and motor block recovery time were prolonged in the LL and LL-N groups compared with group L. The amount of fentanyl required for tourniquet pain was less in group LL and group LL-N when compared with group L. VAS scores of tourniquet pain were higher in group L compared with the other study groups. Postoperative VAS scores were higher for the first 4 hours in group L compared with the other study groups. Conclusion. The adjuvant drugs (lornoxicam or TNG) when added to lidocaine in IVRA were effective in improving the overall quality of anesthesia, reducing tourniquet pain, increasing tourniquet tolerance, and improving the postoperative analgesia. Biricik Melis Cakmak, Gokhan Cakmak, Elif Akpek, Gulnaz Arslan, and Mehmet Sukru Sahin Copyright © 2014 Biricik Melis Cakmak et al. All rights reserved. Evidence for the Use of Isoflurane as a Replacement for Chloral Hydrate Anesthesia in Experimental Stroke: An Ethical Issue Thu, 27 Feb 2014 11:57:42 +0000 Since an ethical issue has been raised regarding the use of the well-known anesthetic agent chloral hydrate, owing to its mutagenic and carcinogenic effects in animals, attention of neuroscientists has turned to finding out an alternative agent able to meet not only potency, safety, and analgesic efficacy, but also reduced neuroprotective effect for stroke research. The aim of this study was to compare the potential of chloral hydrate and isoflurane for both modulating the action of the experimental neuroprotectant MK801 and exerting analgesia. After middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats, no difference was observed in 24 h survival rate, success of ischemia, or infarct volume reduction between both anesthetics. However, isoflurane exerted a more pronounced analgesic effect than chloral hydrate as evidenced by formalin test 3 hours after anesthesia onset, thus encouraging the use of isoflurane in experimental stroke models. Pétrault Maud, Ouk Thavarak, Lachaud Cédrick, Bastide Michèle, Bérézowski Vincent, Pétrault Olivier, and Bordet Régis Copyright © 2014 Pétrault Maud et al. All rights reserved. Spinal Anesthesia for Knee Arthroscopy Using Isobaric Bupivacaine and Levobupivacaine: Anesthetic and Neuroophthalmological Assessment Thu, 20 Feb 2014 12:25:58 +0000 Introduction. The aim of the study was to compare the sensory, motor, and neuroophthalmological effects of isobaric levobupivacaine and bupivacaine when intrathecally administered. Materials and Methods. A prospective, double-blind, randomized study with 60 ASA grade I-II patients aged 18–65 years awaiting knee arthroscopy under spinal anesthesia. Patients received 12.5 mg of isobaric bupivacaine or levobupivacaine. Several features were recorded. Results. No significant intergroup differences were observed for ASA classification, time to micturate, demographic data, surgery duration, and patient/surgeon satisfaction. Similar hemodynamic parameters and sensory/motor blockade duration were found for both groups. There were no neuroophthalmological effects in either group. Sensory () and motor blockade onset () was faster in the bupivacaine group. T6 (T2–T12) and T3 (T2–T12) were the highest sensory block levels for the levobupivacaine and bupivacaine groups, respectively (). It took less time to regain maximum motor blockade in the bupivacaine group (), and the levobupivacaine group required use of analgesia earlier (). Conclusions. Isobaric bupivacaine and levobupivacaine are analogous and well-tolerated anesthetics for knee arthroscopy. However, for bupivacaine, sensory and motor blockade onset was faster, and greater sensory blockade with a longer postoperative painless period was achieved. Monica del-Rio-Vellosillo, Jose Javier Garcia-Medina, Antonio Abengochea-Cotaina, Maria Dolores Pinazo-Duran, and Manuel Barbera-Alacreu Copyright © 2014 Monica del-Rio-Vellosillo et al. All rights reserved. The Effects of Spinal, Inhalation, and Total Intravenous Anesthetic Techniques on Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Arthroscopic Knee Surgery Thu, 20 Feb 2014 07:24:20 +0000 Purpose. To compare the effects of different anesthesia techniques on tourniquet-related ischemia-reperfusion by measuring the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) and neuromuscular side effects. Methods. Sixty ASAI-II patients undergoing arthroscopic knee surgery were randomised to three groups. In Group S, intrathecal anesthesia was administered using levobupivacaine. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with sevoflurane in Group I and TIVA with propofol in Group T. Blood samples were obtained before the induction of anesthesia (), 30 min after tourniquet inflation (), immediately before (), and 5 min (), 15 min (), 30 min (), 1 h (), 2 h (), and 6 h () after tourniquet release. Results. MDA and IMA levels increased significantly compared with baseline values in Group S at and . MDA levels in Group T and Group I were significantly lower than those in Group S at and . IMA levels in Group T were significantly lower than those in Group S at . Postoperatively, a temporary 1/5 loss of strength in dorsiflexion of the ankle was observed in 3 patients in Group S and 1 in Group I. Conclusions. TIVA with propofol can make a positive contribution in tourniquet-related ischemia-reperfusion. Müge Koşucu, İlker Coşkun, Ahmet Eroglu, Dilek Kutanis, Ahmet Menteşe, S. Caner Karahan, Emre Baki, Servet Kerimoğlu, and Murat Topbas Copyright © 2014 Müge Koşucu et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Supplemental Oxygen on Maternal and Neonatal Oxygenation in Elective Cesarean Section under Spinal Anesthesia: A Randomized Controlled Trial Thu, 20 Feb 2014 00:00:00 +0000 The use of supplemental oxygen in uncomplicated cesarean deliveries under spinal anesthesia has been thoroughly investigated during recent decades. The aim of this study was to determine the benefits for both mother and infant of administering supplemental, low-dose oxygen via a nasal cannula versus having no supplement (i.e., room air only). Healthy parturients at term undergoing elective cesarean section under spinal anesthesia were randomly allocated into two groups: an oxygen group (), who received 3 LPM oxygen via a nasal cannula; and a room-air group (), who were assigned to breathe room air. Maternal oxygen saturation was measured continuously by using pulse oximeter. The desaturation was determined by oxygen saturation <94% over 30 seconds. Umbilical cord gases and Apgar scores were collected followed delivery of the infant. All maternal desaturation events occurred in 12 parturients assigned to the room-air group. Most events were concurrent with hypotension. The umbilical venous partial pressure of oxygen was significantly higher in the oxygen group. The other blood gas measurements and Apgar scores were not significantly different between the two groups. Based on our findings, the use of supplemental oxygen could prevent maternal desaturation resulting from receiving sedation and intraoperative hypotension. Arunotai Siriussawakul, Namtip Triyasunant, Akarin Nimmannit, Sopapan Ngerncham, Promphon Hirunkanokpan, Sasiwalai Luang-Aram, Nusaroch Pechpaisit, Aungsumat Wangdee, and Pornpimol Ruangvutilert Copyright © 2014 Arunotai Siriussawakul et al. All rights reserved. Investigation of the Effects of Preoperative Hydration on the Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting Mon, 20 Jan 2014 07:48:40 +0000 Introduction. Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) after laparoscopic cholecystectomy operations still continue to be a serious problem. Intravenous fluid administration has been shown to reduce PONV. Some patients have higher risk for PONV described by APFEL score. In this study, our aim was to determine the effects of preoperative intravenous hydration on postoperative nausea and vomiting in high Apfel scored patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy surgery. Patients and Methods. This study is performed with 50 female patients who had APFEL score 3-4 after ethics committee approval and informed consent was taken from patients. The patients were divided into 2 groups: group 1 (P1): propofol + preoperative hydration and group 2 (P2): propofol + no preoperative hydration. Results. When the total nausea VAS scores of groups P1 and P2 to which hydration was given or not given were compared, a statistically significant difference was detected at 8th and 12th hours ( and ). It was observed that in group P1, which was given hydration, the nausea VAS score was lower. When the total number of patients who had nausea and vomiting in P1 and P2, more patients suffered nausea in P2 group. Discussion. Preoperative hydration may be effective in high Apfel scored patients to prevent postoperative nausea. M. Selçuk Yavuz, Dilek Kazancı, Sema Turan, Bahar Aydınlı, Gökçe Selçuk, Ayşegül Özgök, and Ahmet Coşar Copyright © 2014 M. Selçuk Yavuz et al. All rights reserved. Role of Ethyl Pyruvate in Systemic Inflammatory Response and Lung Injury in an Experimental Model of Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Sun, 19 Jan 2014 15:32:31 +0000 Objectıve. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of ethyl pyruvate (EP) on systemic inflammatory response and lung injury in an experimental rat model of ruptured abdominal aortic anurysm (RAAA). Methods. Anaesthetized 30 Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomized to sham (Sh ) (Sh + EP ) or shock and clamp (S/C) groups (S/C ) (S/C + EP ). In the S/C and S/C + EP groups, hemorrhagic shock, lower torso ischemia, and reperfusion were created, S/C group was given 1 mL saline and S/C + EP group was given 40 mg/kg EP. At the end of reperfusion process some biochemical and histological parameters were studied in serum and lung tissues. Results. An increase was observed in all parameters except interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the S/C group in comparison to the sham groups. In the S/C + EP group, serum myeloperoxydase (MPO), malondialdehyde (MDA), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) as well as lung MPO and MDA values decreased significantly (). In the lung tissues, histological injury scores and lung tissue wet/dry ratio were significantly decreased in the S/C + EP group as compared to the S/C group (). Conclusions. Ethyl pyruvate may reduce systemic inflammatory response and lung injury which resulted from shock and ischemia/reperfusion in an experimental model of RAAA. Zerrin Pulathan, Gökalp Altun, Doğuş Hemşinli, Ahmet Menteşe, Esin Yuluğ, and Ali Civelek Copyright © 2014 Zerrin Pulathan et al. All rights reserved. A Standardized Method for 4D Ultrasound-Guided Peripheral Nerve Blockade and Catheter Placement Sun, 19 Jan 2014 09:31:02 +0000 We present a standardized method for using four-dimensional ultrasound (4D US) guidance for peripheral nerve blocks. 4D US allows for needle tracking in multiple planes simultaneously and accurate measurement of the local anesthetic volume surrounding the nerve following injection. Additionally, the morphology and proximity of local anesthetic spread around the target nerve is clearly seen with the described technique. This method provides additional spatial information in real time compared to standard two-dimensional ultrasound. N. J. Clendenen, C. B. Robards, and S. R. Clendenen Copyright © 2014 N. J. Clendenen et al. All rights reserved. Adalimumab Ameliorates Abdominal Aorta Cross Clamping Which Induced Liver Injury in Rats Thu, 16 Jan 2014 07:42:28 +0000 The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective effects of adalimumab (ADA) on cell damage in rat liver tissue during ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury of infrarenal abdominal aorta. Thirty male Wistar-albino rats were divided into three groups: control, I/R, and I/R+ADA, each group containing 10 animals. Laparotomy without I/R injury was performed in the control group animals. Laparotomy in the I/R group was followed by two hours of infrarenal abdominal aortic cross ligation and then two hours of reperfusion. ADA (50 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally as a single dose, to the I/R+ADA group, five days before I/R. The tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-) (pg/mg protein) and nitric oxide (NO) (mol/g protein) levels in the I/R group (430.8 ± 70.1, 8.0 ± 1.1, resp.) were significantly higher than those in the I/R+ADA group (338.0 ± 71.6, ; 6.3 ± 1.2, ) and the control group (345.5 ± 53.3, ; 6.5 ± 1.5, , resp.). I/R causes severe histopathological injury to the liver tissue, but ADA leads to much less histopathological changes. ADA treatment significantly decreased the severity of liver I/R injury. ADA pretreatment may have protective effects on experimental liver injury. Erkan Cure, Medine Cumhur Cure, Levent Tumkaya, Yildiray Kalkan, Ibrahim Aydin, Aynur Kirbas, Arif Yilmaz, Suleyman Yuce, and Ahmet Fikret Yücel Copyright © 2014 Erkan Cure et al. All rights reserved. The Effect of Intravenous Anesthetics on Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury Thu, 16 Jan 2014 07:15:22 +0000 The effects of intravenous anesthetics on ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) have been investigated in both animals and clinical studies. The protective effects and the dosages of the intravenous anesthetics on IRI were discussed in this paper. The prevention of the tissue injury after the IRI was demonstrated with intravenous anesthetics in some studies. In the future, the studies should be focused on the dosage of the anesthetics related to diminishing the tissue injuries. Further studies might be required in order to investigate the effects of the anesthetics on molecular levels. Ahmet Eroglu Copyright © 2014 Ahmet Eroglu. All rights reserved. Premedication with Oral Alprazolam and Melatonin Combination: A Comparison with Either Alone—A Randomized Controlled Factorial Trial Sun, 12 Jan 2014 00:00:00 +0000 We assessed if the addition of melatonin to alprazolam has superior premedication effects compared to either drug alone. A prospective, double blind placebo controlled trial randomly assigned 80 adult patients (ASA 1&2) with a Visual Analogue Score (VAS) for anxiety ≥3 to receive a tablet containing a combination of alprazolam 0.5 mg and melatonin 3 mg, alprazolam 0.5 mg, melatonin 3 mg, or placebo orally 90 min before a standard anesthetic. Primary end points were change in anxiety and sedation score at 15, 30, and 60 min after premedication, and number of patients with loss of memory for the five pictures shown at various time points when assessed after 24 h. One-way ANOVA, Friedman repeated measures analysis of variance, Kruskal Wallis and chi square tests were used as relevant. Combination drug produced the maximum reduction in anxiety VAS (3 (1.0–4.3)) from baseline at 60 min (). Sedation scores at various time points and number of patients not recognizing the picture shown at 60 min after premedication were comparable between combination drug and alprazolam alone. Addition of melatonin to alprazolam had superior anxiolysis compared with either drugs alone or placebo. Adding melatonin neither worsened sedation score nor the amnesic effect of alprazolam alone. This study was registered, approved, and released from Identifier number: NCT01486615. Krishna Pokharel, Mukesh Tripathi, Pramod Kumar Gupta, Balkrishna Bhattarai, Sindhu Khatiwada, and Asish Subedi Copyright © 2014 Krishna Pokharel et al. All rights reserved. The Effects of Remote Ischemic Preconditioning and N-Acetylcysteine with Remote Ischemic Preconditioning in Rat Hepatic Ischemia Reperfusion Injury Model Wed, 08 Jan 2014 07:53:23 +0000 Background. Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIP) and pharmacological preconditioning are the effective methods that can be used to prevent ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of RIP and N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) with RIP in the rat hepatic IR injury model. Materials and Methods. 28 rats were divided into 4 groups. Group I (sham): only laparotomy was performed. Group II (IR): following 30 minutes of hepatic pedicle occlusion, 4 hours of reperfusion was performed. Group III (RIP + IR): following 3 cycles of RIP, hepatic IR was performed. Group IV (RIP + NAC + IR): following RIP and intraperitoneal administration of NAC (150 mg/kg), hepatic IR was performed. All the rats were sacrificed after blood samples were taken for the measurements of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels and liver was processed for conventional histopathology. Results. The hepatic histopathological injury scores of RIP + IR and RIP + NAC + IR groups were significantly lower than IR group (, , resp.). There were no significant differences in AST and ALT values between the IR, RIP + IR, and RIP + NAC + IR groups. Conclusions. In the present study, it was demonstrated histopathologically that RIP and RIP + NAC decreased hepatic IR injury significantly. Ali Ihsan Uysal, Elvan Ocmen, Mert Akan, Sevda Ozkardesler, Bekir Ugur Ergur, Ensari Guneli, Tuncay Kume, Uğur Koca, and Belgin Unal Togrul Copyright © 2014 Ali Ihsan Uysal et al. All rights reserved. The Effect of Dexmedetomidine on Oxidative Stress during Pneumoperitoneum Wed, 08 Jan 2014 07:48:53 +0000 Purpose. This study was intended to investigate the effect of dexmedetomidine on oxidative stress response in pneumoperitoneum established in rats. Methods. Animals were randomized into three groups, group S: with no pneumoperitoneum, group P: with pneumoperitoneum established, and group D: given 100 mcg intraperitoneal dexmedetomidine 30 min before establishment of pneumoperitoneum. Plasma total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant status (TAS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) activity were measured 30 min after conclusion of pneumoperitoneum. Results. The mean TOS level was significantly higher in group P than in the other two groups, and the TOS level was significantly higher in group D than in group S (). Plasma TAS level was found to be lower in group P than in the other two groups, and the TAS level was lower in group D than in group S (). Consequently, the OSI was significantly higher in group P than in groups D and S (). Conclusions. Ischemia-reperfusion phenomenon that occurs during pneumoperitoneum causes oxidative stress and consumption of plasma antioxidants. Dexmedetomidine decreases oxidative stress caused by pneumoperitoneum and strengthens the antioxidant defense system. Bahanur Cekic, Sukran Geze, Gulsum Ozkan, Ahmet Besir, Mehmet Sonmez, S. Caner Karahan, and Ahmet Mentese Copyright © 2014 Bahanur Cekic et al. All rights reserved. The Comparison of the Effects of Sevoflurane Inhalation Anesthesia and Intravenous Propofol Anesthesia on Oxidative Stress in One Lung Ventilation Sun, 05 Jan 2014 12:54:23 +0000 Background. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of sevoflurane and propofol on one lung ventilation (OLV) induced ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) by determining the blood gas, ischemia-modified albumin (IMA), and malonyldialdehyde (MDA). Material and Methods. Forty-four patients undergoing thoracic surgery with OLV were randomized in two groups (sevoflurane Group S, propofol Group P). Anesthesia was inducted with thiopental and was maintained with 1–2.5% of sevoflurane within the 40/60% of O2/N2O mixture in Group S. In Group P anesthesia was inducted with propofol and was maintained with infusion of propofol and remifentanil. Hemodynamic records and blood samples were obtained before anesthesia induction (), 1 min before two lung ventilation (), 30 min after two lung ventilation (), and postoperative sixth hours (). Results. Heart rate at and in Group P was significantly lower than that in Group S. While there were no significant differences in terms of pH and pCO2, pO2 at and in Group S was significantly lower than that in Group P. IMA levels at in Group S were significantly lower than those in Group P. Conclusion. Sevoflurane may offer protection against IRI after OLV in thoracic surgery. Engin Erturk, Selma Topaloglu, Davut Dohman, Dilek Kutanis, Ahmet Beşir, Yucel Demirci, Selcuk Kayir, and Ahmet Mentese Copyright © 2014 Engin Erturk et al. All rights reserved. Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury and Volatile Anesthetics Thu, 02 Jan 2014 15:36:14 +0000 Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is induced as a result of reentry of the blood and oxygen to ischemic tissue. Antioxidant and some other drugs have protective effect on IRI. In many surgeries and clinical conditions IRI is counteract inevitable. Some anesthetic agents may have a protective role in this procedure. It is known that inhalational anesthetics possess protective effects against IRI. In this review the mechanism of preventive effects of volatile anesthetics and different ischemia-reperfusion models are discussed. Engin Erturk Copyright © 2014 Engin Erturk. All rights reserved. Complex Assessment of the Incidence and Risk Factors of Delirium in a Large Cohort of Cardiac Surgery Patients: A Single-Center 6-Year Experience Sun, 22 Dec 2013 14:50:24 +0000 Background. Previous reports provided inconsistent data on the occurrence of postoperative delirium and emphasized its considerable impact on outcome. This study sought to evaluate the incidence and predictors of delirium, together with its relation to cerebral ischemia in a large cohort of cardiac surgery patients in a tertiary high-volume center. Methods and Results. Consecutive patients () were prospectively enrolled from 2003 to 2008. Exclusion criteria were history of psychiatric disorders, use of psychoactive drugs, alcohol abuse, and data incompleteness. Finally, 5781 patients were analyzed in terms of 100 perioperative patient-specific and treatment variables. The incidence of postoperative delirium (DSM IV criteria) was 4.1% and it coexisted with cerebral ischemia in 1.1% of patients. In bivariate analysis, 49 variables were significantly linked to postoperative delirium. Multivariate analysis confirmed that delirium was independently associated with postoperative stroke (logistic odds ratio (logOR) = 2.862, ), any blood transfusions (logOR = 4.178, ), age > 65 years (logOR = 2.417, ), carotid artery stenosis (logOR = 2.15, ), urgent/emergent surgery (logOR = 1.982, ), fasting glucose level, intraoperative oxygen partial pressure fluctuations, and hematocrit. Area under ROC curve for the model was 0.8933. Conclusions. Early identification of nonpsychiatric perioperative determinants of delirium facilitates its diagnosis and might help develop preventive strategies to improve long-term outcome after cardiac surgery procedures. Łukasz J. Krzych, Maciej T. Wybraniec, Irena Krupka-Matuszczyk, Michał Skrzypek, Anna Bolkowska, Mirosław Wilczyński, and Andrzej A. Bochenek Copyright © 2013 Łukasz J. Krzych et al. All rights reserved. Efficacy and Safety of Hepatectomy Performed with Intermittent Portal Triad Clamping with Low Central Venous Pressure Thu, 12 Dec 2013 09:13:39 +0000 Background. This retrospective study was designed to investigate the efficacy and safety of intermittent portal triad clamping (PTC) with low central venous pressure (CVP) in liver resections. Methods. Between January 2007 and August 2013, 115 patients underwent liver resection with intermittent PTC. The patients’ data were retrospectively analyzed. Results. There were 58 males and 57 females with a mean age of 55 years (±13.7). Cirrhosis was found in 23 patients. Resections were performed for malignant disease in 62.6% () and for benign disease in 37.4% (). Major hepatectomy was performed in 26 patients (22.4%). Mean liver ischemia period was 27.1 min (±13.9). The mortality rate was 1.7% and the morbidity rate was 22.6%. Cumulative clamping time (, ) and operation time (, ) were significantly correlated with AST alterations (D-AST). Cumulative clamping time (, ) was significantly correlated with D-ALT. Operation time (, ) was significantly correlated with D-LDH. Conclusions. Intermittent PTC under low CVP was performed with low morbidity and mortality. Intermittent PTC can be safely applied up to 60 minutes in both normal and impaired livers. Serdar Topaloglu, Kıymet Yesilcicek Calik, Adnan Calik, Coskun Aydın, Sema Kocyigit, Huseyin Yaman, Dilek Kutanis, Erdem Karabulut, Davut Dohman, Asim Orem, and Mithat Kerim Arslan Copyright © 2013 Serdar Topaloglu et al. All rights reserved. Ropivacaine-Induced Contraction Is Attenuated by Both Endothelial Nitric Oxide and Voltage-Dependent Potassium Channels in Isolated Rat Aortae Wed, 20 Nov 2013 17:32:22 +0000 This study investigated endothelium-derived vasodilators and potassium channels involved in the modulation of ropivacaine-induced contraction. In endothelium-intact rat aortae, ropivacaine concentration-response curves were generated in the presence or absence of the following inhibitors: the nonspecific nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), the neuronal NOS inhibitor Nω-propyl-L-arginine hydrochloride, the inducible NOS inhibitor 1400W dihydrochloride, the nitric oxide-sensitive guanylyl cyclase (GC) inhibitor ODQ, the NOS and GC inhibitor methylene blue, the phosphoinositide-3 kinase inhibitor wortmannin, the cytochrome p450 epoxygenase inhibitor fluconazole, the voltage-dependent potassium channel inhibitor 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), the calcium-activated potassium channel inhibitor tetraethylammonium (TEA), the inward-rectifying potassium channel inhibitor barium chloride, and the ATP-sensitive potassium channel inhibitor glibenclamide. The effect of ropivacaine on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells was examined by western blotting. Ropivacaine-induced contraction was weaker in endothelium-intact aortae than in endothelium-denuded aortae. L-NAME, ODQ, and methylene blue enhanced ropivacaine-induced contraction, whereas wortmannin, Nω-propyl-L-arginine hydrochloride, 1400W dihydrochloride, and fluconazole had no effect. 4-AP and TEA enhanced ropivacaine-induced contraction; however, barium chloride and glibenclamide had no effect. eNOS phosphorylation was induced by ropivacaine. These results suggest that ropivacaine-induced contraction is attenuated primarily by both endothelial nitric oxide and voltage-dependent potassium channels. Seong-Ho Ok, Jeong Yeol Han, Hui-Jin Sung, Seong Min Yang, Jungchul Park, Seong-Chun Kwon, Mun-Jeoung Choi, and Ju-Tae Sohn Copyright © 2013 Seong-Ho Ok et al. All rights reserved. Cerebral Activation during Von Frey Filament Stimulation in Subjects with Endothelin-1-Induced Mechanical Hyperalgesia: A Functional MRI Study Wed, 18 Sep 2013 11:47:30 +0000 Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is an endogenously expressed potent peptide vasoconstrictor. There is growing evidence that ET-1 plays a role in the pain signaling system and triggers overt nociception in humans. The underlying neuronal pathways are still a matter of great debate. In the present study, we applied an intradermal ET-1 sensitization model to induce mechanical hyperalgesia in healthy subjects. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to tease out the cortical regions associated with the processing of ET-1-induced punctate hyperalgesia, as compared to a nonnoxious mechanical stimulation of the contralateral arm. Von Frey hair testing revealed the presence of increased responsiveness to punctate stimulation in all subjects. Activational patterns between nonpainful control stimulation and hyperalgesic stimulation were compared. Two major observations were made: (1) all cortical areas that showed activation during the control stimulation were also present during hyperalgesic stimulation, but in addition, some areas showed bilateral activation only during hyperalgesic stimulation, and (2) some brain areas showed significantly higher signal changes during hyperalgesic stimulation. Our findings suggest that injection of ET-1 leads to a state of punctate hyperalgesia, which in turn causes the activation of multiple brain regions. This indicates that ET-1 activates an extended neuronal pathway. Guy H. Hans, Everhard Vandervliet, Kristof Deseure, and Paul M. Parizel Copyright © 2013 Guy H. Hans et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Repeated Central Administration of Endothelin Type A Receptor Antagonist on the Development of Neuropathic Pain in Rats Thu, 29 Aug 2013 16:01:45 +0000 Endothelin-1 (ET-1) predominates in the endothelin family effectively in vascular tone control, mitogenesis, and neuromodulation. Its receptors are widespread in the central nervous system (CNS) associated with endogenous pain control, suggesting an important role of ET-1 in central pain processing. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of central ET-1 on the development of neuropathic pain behaviour by repeated intrathecal administration of endothelin type A receptor (ETAR) antagonist (BQ-123) in a sciatic nerve ligation (SNL) animal model. BQ-123 was administered intrathecally to rats at dosages 15 μg, 20 μg, 25 μg, and 30 μg, daily for 3 days. Mechanical allodynia was assessed daily 30 minutes before/after injection, 1 hour after injection of BQ-123 from post-SNL day 4 to day 6, and once on day 7 (without BQ-123 administration) before rats were sacrificed. Increasing trends of mechanical threshold were observed, and they reached significance at all dosages on post-SNL day 7 ( at dosage 15 μg and at dosages 20 μg, 25 μg, and 30 μg) in comparison to control group. BQ-123 at dosage 30 μg showed the most stable and significant mechanical threshold rise. Repeated central administration of BQ-123 alleviated mechanical allodynia after SNL. Our results provide insight into the therapeutic strategies, including timing, against neuropathic pain development with ETAR antagonist. Lydia W. Tai, Victor K. L. Hung, Wei Mei, Qiu Qiu, Sookja K. Chung, and C. W. Cheung Copyright © 2013 Lydia W. Tai et al. All rights reserved. Evaluating Compliance with Institutional Preoperative Testing Guidelines for Minimal-Risk Patients Undergoing Elective Surgery Sun, 07 Jul 2013 10:22:14 +0000 Background. Few investigations preoperatively are important for low-risk patients. This study was designed to determine the level of compliance with preoperative investigation guidelines for ASA I patients undergoing elective surgery. Secondary objectives included the following: to identify common inappropriate investigations, to evaluate the impact of abnormal testing on patient management, to determine factors affecting noncompliant tests, and to estimate unnecessary expenditure. Methods. This retrospective study was conducted on adult patients over a one-year period. The institute’s guidelines recommend tests according to the patients’ age groups: a complete blood count (CBC) for those patients aged 18–45; CBC, chest radiograph (CXR) and electrocardiography (ECG) for those aged 46–60; and CBC, CXR, ECG, electrolytes, blood glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine (Cr) for patients aged 61–65. Results. The medical records of 1,496 patients were reviewed. Compliant testing was found in only 12.1% (95% CI, 10.5–13.9). BUN and Cr testings were the most frequently overprescribed tests. Overinvestigations tended to be performed on major surgery and younger patients. Overall, overinvestigation incurred an estimated cost of US 200,000 dollars during the study period. Conclusions. The need to utilize the institution’s preoperative guidelines should be emphasized in order to decrease unnecessary testing and the consequential financial burden. Arunotai Siriussawakul, Akarin Nimmannit, Sirirat Rattana-arpa, Siritda Chatrattanakulchai, Puttachard Saengtawan, and Aungsumat Wangdee Copyright © 2013 Arunotai Siriussawakul et al. All rights reserved. Inhalation Anesthesia with Sevoflurane during Intravitreal Bevacizumab Injection in Infants with Retinopathy of Prematurity Thu, 06 Jun 2013 08:49:50 +0000 Bacground. To investigate the anesthetic management in premature infants with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) treated with intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) injections. Methods. A retrospective chart review was performed for the patients with ROP who had IVB injection. Clinical characteristics, demographic variables, anesthetic medications, operation techniques, time intervals, and complications were recorded. Results. Sixty-six eyes of 33 patients (23 males, 10 females) with type 1 ROP who were treated with IVB were included. A total of 66 anesthetic applications were performed. Mean gestational age at birth was 28.3 weeks (range 25–33). Mean birth weight was 1300 g (range 600–1850). Serious ocular and systemic complications were not observed in any infant. Conclusion. Inhalation anesthesia with sevoflurane during IVB treatment in premature infants with ROP may be appropriate for anesthetic management. Orhan Tokgöz, Alparslan Şahin, Adnan Tüfek, Yasin Çınar, Abdülmenap Güzel, Taner Çiftçi, Feyzi Çelik, and Harun Yüksel Copyright © 2013 Orhan Tokgöz et al. All rights reserved. Vasoconstriction Potency Induced by Aminoamide Local Anesthetics Correlates with Lipid Solubility Sun, 17 Jun 2012 19:07:50 +0000 Aminoamide local anesthetics induce vasoconstriction in vivo and in vitro. The goals of this in vitro study were to investigate the potency of local anesthetic-induced vasoconstriction and to identify the physicochemical property (octanol/buffer partition coefficient, pKa, molecular weight, or potency) of local anesthetics that determines their potency in inducing isolated rat aortic ring contraction. Cumulative concentration-response curves to local anesthetics (levobupivacaine, ropivacaine, lidocaine, and mepivacaine) were obtained from isolated rat aorta. Regression analyses were performed to determine the relationship between the reported physicochemical properties of local anesthetics and the local anesthetic concentration that produced 50% (ED50) of the local anesthetic-induced maximum vasoconstriction. We determined the order of potency (ED50) of vasoconstriction among local anesthetics to be levobupivacaine > ropivacaine > lidocaine > mepivacaine. The relative importance of the independent variables that affect the vasoconstriction potency is octanol/buffer partition coefficient > potency > pKa > molecular weight. The ED50 in endothelium-denuded aorta negatively correlated with the octanol/buffer partition coefficient of local anesthetics (𝑟2=0.9563; 𝑃<0.001). The potency of the vasoconstriction in the endothelium-denuded aorta induced by local anesthetics is determined primarily by lipid solubility and, in part, by other physicochemical properties including potency and pKa. Hui-Jin Sung, Seong-Ho Ok, Jin-Young Sohn, Yong Hyeok Son, Jun Kyu Kim, Soo Hee Lee, Jeong Yeol Han, Dong Hoon Lim, Il-Woo Shin, Heon-Keun Lee, Young-Kyun Chung, Mun-Jeoung Choi, and Ju-Tae Sohn Copyright © 2012 Hui-Jin Sung et al. All rights reserved.