BioMed Research International: Critical Care http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Acinetobacter baumannii Infection in Prior ICU Bed Occupants Is an Independent Risk Factor for Subsequent Cases of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia Wed, 02 Jul 2014 06:48:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/193516/ Objective. We aimed to evaluate risk factors for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) due to Acinetobacter baumannii (AbVAP) in critically ill patients. Methods. This was a prospective observational study conducted in an intensive care unit (ICU) of a district hospital (6 beds). Consecutive patients were eligible for enrolment if they required mechanical ventilation for 48 hours and hospitalization for 72 hours. Clinical, microbiological, and laboratory parameters were assessed as risk factors for AbVAP by univariate and multivariate analysis. Results. 193 patients were included in the study. Overall, VAP incidence was 23.8% and AbVAP, 11.4%. Previous hospitalization of another patient with Acinetobacter baumannii infection was the only independent risk factor for AbVAP (OR (95% CI) 12.016 (2.282–19.521) ). ICU stay versus , the incidence of other infections (OR (95% CI) 9.485 (1.640–10.466) (urinary tract infection, catheter related infection, and bacteremia), or sepsis (OR (95% CI) 10.400 (3.749–10.466) were significantly increased in patients with AbVAP compared to patients without VAP; no difference was found with respect to ICU mortality. Conclusion. ICU admission or the hospitalization of patients infected by Acinetobacter baumannii increases the risk of AbVAP by subsequent patients. Eirini Tsakiridou, Demosthenes Makris, Zoe Daniil, Efstratios Manoulakas, Vasiliki Chatzipantazi, Odysseas Vlachos, Grigorios Xidopoulos, Olympia Charalampidou, and Epaminondas Zakynthinos Copyright © 2014 Eirini Tsakiridou et al. All rights reserved. Role of AMPKα in Skeletal Muscle Glycometabolism Regulation and Adaptation in relation to Sepsis Sun, 29 Jun 2014 08:32:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/390760/ Background. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) protein always involve disturbance of carbohydrate metabolism. Objective. To determine whether the change of blood glucose in the early stage of septic rat is associated with the alteration of AMPKα protein expression and GLUT4 protein translocation expression. Methods. Animal models of sepsis were induced by tail vein injection of LPS in Wistar rats. The dynamic values of blood glucose within 2 hours after injection of LPS were observed. AMPKα protein and GLUT4 protein translocation in different tissues (such as soleus muscle and extensor digitorum longus) were assessed by western blot. Results. Blood glucose levels appeared to rise at 0.5 h after injection of LPS, arrived the peak value at 1 h, then fell at 1.5 h and 2 h Animals in LPS group experienced the increase of phos-AMPKα protein and GLUT4 protein translocation expression in soleus muscle and extensor digitorum longus. Conclusion. The dynamic change of blood glucose, represented in a form of initiative increase and subsequent decrease in the early stage of sepsis, may be related to glycometabolism disorder in the skeletal muscle, coming down to enhancement of GLUT4 translocation expression promoted by activation of AMPKα. Xia Zheng, Mi Xu, and Qiang Fang Copyright © 2014 Xia Zheng et al. All rights reserved. Admission Cell Free DNA as a Prognostic Factor in Burns: Quantification by Use of a Direct Rapid Fluorometric Technique Sun, 22 Jun 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/306580/ Background. Despite great advances in the treatment of burn patients, useful prognostic markers are sparse. During the past years there has been increasing interest in circulating plasma cell free DNA as a potential marker for tissue injury. We have developed a rapid direct fluorescent assay for cell free DNA quantification that allows obtaining accurate, fast, and inexpensive measurements. Objective. To use this technique for measuring plasma cell free DNA levels in burn patients and to further explore the use of cell free DNA as a potential marker of patient outcome in burns. Methods. Cell free DNA levels obtained from 14 burn victims within 6 hours of injury and 14 healthy controls were quantified by a direct rapid fluorometric assay. Results. Patient admission cell free DNA levels were significantly elevated compared with that of controls (1797 ± 1523 ng/mL versus 374 ± 245 ng/mL, ). There are statistically significant correlations between cell free DNA admission levels and burn degree (Spearman’s correlation = 0.78, ), total body surface area (Spearman’s correlation = 0.61, ), and total burn volume (Spearman’s correlation = 0.64, ). Conclusions. Admission cell free DNA levels can serve as a prognostic factor in burns and future routine use can be made possible by use of our direct rapid fluorometric assay. Yaron Shoham, Yuval Krieger, Zvi H. Perry, Gad Shaked, Alexander Bogdanov-Berezovsky, Eldad Silberstein, Amiram Sagi, and Amos Douvdevani Copyright © 2014 Yaron Shoham et al. All rights reserved. Intensive Insulin Therapy for Septic Patients: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials Wed, 18 Jun 2014 06:40:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/698265/ Background. Studies on the effect of intensive insulin therapy (IIT) in septic patients with hyperglycemia have given inconsistent results. The primary purpose of this meta-analysis was to evaluate whether it is effective in reducing mortality. Methods. We searched PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, clinicaltrials.gov, and relevant reference lists up to September 2013 and including randomized controlled trials that compared IIT with conventional glucose management in septic patients. Study quality was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. And our primary outcome measure was pooled in the random effects model. Results. We identified twelve randomized controlled trials involving 4100 patients. Meta-analysis showed that IIT did not reduce any of the outcomes: overall mortality (risk ratio [RR] = 0.98, 95% CI [0.85, 1.15], ), 28-day mortality (RR = 0.66, 95% CI [0.40, 1.10], ), 90-day mortality (RR = 1.10, 95% CI [0.97, 1.26], ), ICU mortality (RR = 0.94, 95% CI [0.77, 1.14], ), hospital mortality (RR = 0.98, 95% CI [0.86, 1.11], ), severity of illness, and length of ICU stay. Conversely, the incidence of hypoglycemia was markedly higher in the IIT (RR = 2.93, 95% CI [1.69, 5.06], ). Conclusions. For patients with sepsis, IIT and conservative glucose management show similar efficacy, but ITT is associated with a higher incidence of hypoglycemia. Fang Song, Liu-Jun Zhong, Liang Han, Guo-Hao Xie, Cheng Xiao, Bing Zhao, Yao-Qin Hu, Shu-Yan Wang, Chao-Jin Qin, Yan Zhang, Deng-Ming Lai, Ping Cui, and Xiang-Ming Fang Copyright © 2014 Fang Song et al. All rights reserved. Pediatric Index of Mortality and PIM2 Scores Have Good Calibration in a Large Cohort of Children from a Developing Country Sun, 15 Jun 2014 06:21:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/907871/ Objective. Our objective was to validate the Pediatric Index of Mortality (PIM) and PIM2 scores in a large cohort of children from a developing country. Design. Prospective observational study. Setting. Pediatric intensive care unit of a tertiary care teaching hospital. Patients. All children aged <18 years admitted between June 2011 and July 2013. Measurements and Main Results. We evaluated the discriminative ability and calibration as measured by the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit (GOF), and standardized mortality ratio (SMR), respectively. Of the 819 children enrolled, 232 (28%) died. The median (IQR) age of the study subjects was 4 years (0.8, 10). The major reasons for ICU admission as well as mortality were sepsis/severe sepsis. The area under ROC curves for PIM and PIM2 was 0.72 (95% CI: 0.67–0.75) and 0.74 (95% CI: 0.70–0.78), respectively. The goodness-of-fit test showed a good calibration across deciles of risk for the two scores with values being >0.05. The SMR (95% CI) was 0.99 (0.85–1.15) and 1 (0.85–1.16) for PIM and PIM2, respectively. The calibration across different age and diagnostic subgroups was also good. Conclusion. PIM and PIM2 scores had good calibration in our setup. Jhuma Sankar, Archana Singh, M. Jeeva Sankar, Sunil Joghee, Shashikant Dewangan, and Nandkishore Dubey Copyright © 2014 Jhuma Sankar et al. All rights reserved. Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells in Sepsis Tue, 03 Jun 2014 11:15:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/598654/ Sepsis is a systemic, deleterious host response to widespread infection. Patients with sepsis will have documented or suspected infection which can progress to a state of septic shock or acute organ dysfunction. Since sepsis is responsible for nearly 3 million cases per year in China and severe sepsis is a common, expensive fatal condition in America, developing new therapies becomes a significant and worthwhile challenge. Clinical research has shown that sepsis-associated immunosuppression plays a central role in patient mortality, and targeted immune-enhancing therapy may be an effective treatment approach in these patients. As part of the inflammatory response during sepsis, there are elevations in the number of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). MDSCs are a heterogeneous population of immature myeloid cells that possess immunosuppressive activities via suppressing T-cell proliferation and activation. The role of MDSCs in sepsis remains uncertain. Some believe activated MDSCs are beneficial to the sepsis host by increasing innate immune responses and antimicrobial activities, while others think expansion of MDSCs leads to adaptive immune suppression and secondary infection. Herein, we discuss the complex role of MDSCs in immune regulation during sepsis, as well as the potential to target these cells for therapeutic benefit. Dengming Lai, Chaojin Qin, and Qiang Shu Copyright © 2014 Dengming Lai et al. All rights reserved. Complications of Trauma Patients Admitted to the ICU in Level I Academic Trauma Centers in the United States Tue, 03 Jun 2014 08:26:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/473419/ Background. The aims of this study were to evaluate the complications that occur after trauma and the characteristics of individuals who develop complications, to identify potential risk factors that increase their incidence, and finally to investigate the relationship between complications and mortality. Methods. We did a population-based retrospective study of trauma patients admitted to ICUs of a level I trauma center. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine independent predictors for complications. Results. Of the 11,064 patients studied, 3,451 trauma patients developed complications (31.2%). Complications occurred significantly more in younger male patients. Length of stay was correlated with the number of complications . The overall death rate did not differ between patients with or without complications. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) of developing complication for patients over age 75 versus young adults was 0.7 . Among males, traumatic central nervous system (CNS) injury was an important predictor for complications (adjusted OR 1.24). Conclusions. Complications after trauma were found to be associated with age, gender, and traumatic CNS injury. Although these are not modifiable factors, they may identify subjects at high risk for the development of complications, allowing for preemptive strategies for prevention. Stefania Mondello, Amy Cantrell, Domenico Italiano, Vincenzo Fodale, Patrizia Mondello, and Darwin Ang Copyright © 2014 Stefania Mondello et al. All rights reserved. Body Mass Index and Comorbidities in Adult Severe Asthmatics Wed, 28 May 2014 06:53:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/607192/ Both severe asthma and obesity are growing health problems. Severe asthma leads to a poor quality of life. The relationship among BMI, comorbidities, and severe asthma control in adults is still unclear. The aim of the study is to better understand the effect of the comorbidities as atopy, type II diabetes, OSAS, gastroesophageal reflux, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, infections, and psychological factors with BMI on asthma control in a cohort of adult severe asthmatics. One hundred and two patients were enrolled in a cross-sectional study assessing asthma control, treatments, pulmonary function, inflammatory markers, and comorbidities. Patients were divided into 3 classes according to BMI: normal weight, overweight, and obese. We found that the optimal state of asthma control is lower. whereas the score of Asthma Control Questionnaire, the number of asthma exacerbations during last year, the oral corticosteroids requirement during the previous year, and the LABA treatments are higher in obese than in overweight and normal weight severe asthmatics. The number of subjects with type II diabetes and OSAS are higher among obese and overweight patients than in normal weight asthmatics. In conclusion, BMI represents per se a factor for the deterioration in disease control in severe asthma. Andreina Bruno, Elisabetta Pace, Fabio Cibella, and Pascal Chanez Copyright © 2014 Andreina Bruno et al. All rights reserved. A Simple Method to Detect Recovery of Glomerular Filtration Rate following Acute Kidney Injury Tue, 27 May 2014 09:45:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/542069/ In acute kidney injury (AKI), elevated plasma creatinine is diagnostic of an earlier loss of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) but not of the concomitant GFR. Only subsequent creatinine changes will inform if GFR had already recovered or not. We hypothesized that the creatinine excretion rate to production rate ratio would provide this information. A retrospective analysis of 482 critically ill patients from two intensive care units (ICU) is shown. Plasma creatinine was measured on ICU entry and 12 hours later. Four-hour creatinine excretion rates () were measured on entry. Creatinine production rates were estimated (). The ability of the ratio to predict a decrease in plasma creatinine concentration, identify recovered AKI (≥0.3 mg/dL decrease), and predict AKI (≥0.3 mg/dL increase) was assessed by the area under the receiver operator characteristic curves (AUC). There was a linear relationship between reduced creatinine concentration and (; ). predicted a decrease in creatinine (AUC 0.70 (0.65 to 0.74)), identified recovered AKI (0.75 (0.67 to 0.84)), and predicted AKI (0.80 (0.73 to 0.86)). A ratio of the rates of creatinine excretion to estimated production much less than 1 indicated a concomitant GFR below baseline, whereas a ratio much more than 1 indicated a recovering or recovered GFR. John W. Pickering and John Mellas Copyright © 2014 John W. Pickering and John Mellas. All rights reserved. Development of a Murine Model of Early Sepsis in Diet-Induced Obesity Sun, 25 May 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/719853/ Sepsis, a global health issue, is the most common cause of mortality in the intensive care unit. The aim of this study was to develop a new model of sepsis that investigates the impact of prolonged western diet (WD) induced obesity on the response to early sepsis. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed either a high fat WD or normal chow diet (NCD) for 6, 15, or 27 weeks. Septic obese mice at 15 and 27 weeks had significantly lower levels of lung myeloperoxidase (26.3 ± 3.80 U/mg tissue) compared to age matched ad lib (44.1 ± 2.86 U/mg tissue) and diet restricted (63.2 ± 5.60 U/mg tissue) controls. Low levels of lung inflammation were not associated with changes in hepatic cytokines and oxidative stress levels. Obese mice had significantly () larger livers compared to controls. Histological examination of the livers demonstrated that WD fed mice had increased inflammation with pronounced fat infiltration, steatosis, and hepatocyte ballooning. Using this model of prolonged exposure to high fat diet we have data that agree with recent clinical observations suggesting obese individuals are protected from sepsis-induced lung injury. This model will allow us to investigate the links between damage to the hepatic microcirculation, immune response, and lung injury. Momina Khan, Amanda L. Patrick, Alison E. Fox-Robichaud, and The Canadian Critical Care Translational Biology Group Copyright © 2014 Momina Khan et al. All rights reserved. Cortisol Is an Associated-Risk Factor of Brain Dysfunction in Patients with Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock Mon, 28 Apr 2014 07:40:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/712742/ Objectives. To investigate cortisol levels in brain dysfunction in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. Methods. In 128 septic and sedated patients, we studied brain dysfunction including delirium and coma by the evaluation of Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale (RASS), the Confusion Method Assessment in the ICU (CAM-ICU) after sedation withdrawal and the measurement of serum S100B biomarker of brain injury. Serum cortisol and S100B were measured within 12 hours after ICU admission and daily over the next four days. Results. Brain dysfunction was observed in 50% (64/128) before but in 84% (107/128) of patients after sedation withdrawal, and was more common in the patients older than 57 years (P = 0.009). Both cortisol (P = 0.007) and S100B levels (P = 0.028) were higher in patients with than patients without brain dysfunction. Cortisol levels were associated with ICU mortality (hazard ratio = 1.17, P = 0.024). Multivariate logistic regression showed that cortisol (odds ratio (OR): 2.34, 95% CI (2.01, 3.22), P = 0.02) and the combination effect of cortisol with age (OR: 1.004, 95% CI (1.002, 1.93), P = 0.038) but not S100B were associated with brain dysfunction. Conclusions. Cortisol was an associated-risk factor of brain dysfunction in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. Duc Nam Nguyen, Luc Huyghens, Haibo Zhang, Johan Schiettecatte, Johan Smitz, and Jean-Louis Vincent Copyright © 2014 Duc Nam Nguyen et al. All rights reserved. Hydrogen Gas Presents a Promising Therapeutic Strategy for Sepsis Wed, 16 Apr 2014 15:58:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/807635/ Sepsis is characterized by a severe inflammatory response to infection. It remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients despite developments in monitoring devices, diagnostic tools, and new therapeutic options. Recently, some studies have found that molecular hydrogen is a new therapeutic gas. Our studies have found that hydrogen gas can improve the survival and organ damage in mice and rats with cecal ligation and puncture, zymosan, and lipopolysaccharide-induced sepsis. The mechanisms are associated with the regulation of oxidative stress, inflammatory response, and apoptosis, which might be through NF-κB and Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway. In this paper, we summarized the progress of hydrogen treatment in sepsis. Keliang Xie, Lingling Liu, Yonghao Yu, and Guolin Wang Copyright © 2014 Keliang Xie et al. All rights reserved. Optimal Management of the Critically Ill: Anaesthesia, Monitoring, Data Capture, and Point-of-Care Technological Practices in Ovine Models of Critical Care Tue, 25 Mar 2014 12:57:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/468309/ Animal models of critical illness are vital in biomedical research. They provide possibilities for the investigation of pathophysiological processes that may not otherwise be possible in humans. In order to be clinically applicable, the model should simulate the critical care situation realistically, including anaesthesia, monitoring, sampling, utilising appropriate personnel skill mix, and therapeutic interventions. There are limited data documenting the constitution of ideal technologically advanced large animal critical care practices and all the processes of the animal model. In this paper, we describe the procedure of animal preparation, anaesthesia induction and maintenance, physiologic monitoring, data capture, point-of-care technology, and animal aftercare that has been successfully used to study several novel ovine models of critical illness. The relevant investigations are on respiratory failure due to smoke inhalation, transfusion related acute lung injury, endotoxin-induced proteogenomic alterations, haemorrhagic shock, septic shock, brain death, cerebral microcirculation, and artificial heart studies. We have demonstrated the functionality of monitoring practices during anaesthesia required to provide a platform for undertaking systematic investigations in complex ovine models of critical illness. Saul Chemonges, Kiran Shekar, John-Paul Tung, Kimble R. Dunster, Sara Diab, David Platts, Ryan P. Watts, Shaun D. Gregory, Samuel Foley, Gabriela Simonova, Charles McDonald, Rylan Hayes, Judith Bellpart, Daniel Timms, Michelle Chew, Yoke L. Fung, Michael Toon, Marc O. Maybauer, and John F. Fraser Copyright © 2014 Saul Chemonges et al. All rights reserved. Moderate Intra-Abdominal Hypertension Leads to Anaerobic Metabolism in the Rectus Abdominis Muscle Tissue of Critically Ill Patients: A Prospective Observational Study Thu, 13 Mar 2014 13:31:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/857492/ Purpose. We hypothesize that intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) is associated with the presence of anaerobic metabolism in the abdominal rectus muscle (RAM) tissue of critically ill patients. Methods. We included 10 adult, critically ill patients with intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) above 12 mmHg. Microdialysis catheters (CMA 60) were inserted into the RAM tissue. The samples were collected up to 72 hours after enrollment. Results. The patients’ median (IQR) APACHE II at inclusion was 29 (21–37); 7 patients were in shock. IAP was 14.5 (12.5–17.8) mmHg at baseline and decreased significantly over time, concomitantly with arterial lactate and vasopressors requirements. The tissue lactate-to-pyruvate (L/P) ratio was 49 (36–54) at the beginning of the study and decreased significantly throughout the study. Additionally, the tissue lactate, lactate-to-glucose (L/G) ratio, and glutamate concentrations changed significantly during the study. The correlation analysis showed that lower levels of pyruvate and glycerol were associated with higher MAP and abdominal perfusion pressures (APP) and that higher levels of glutamate were correlated to elevated IAP. Conclusions. Moderate IAH leads to RAM tissue anaerobic metabolism suggestive for hypoperfusion in critically ill patients. Correlation analysis supports the concept of using APP as the primary endpoint of resuscitation in addition to MAP and IAP. Liivi Maddison, Juri Karjagin, Jyrki Tenhunen, Ülle Kirsimägi, and Joel Starkopf Copyright © 2014 Liivi Maddison et al. All rights reserved. A New Device to Automate the Monitoring of Critical Patients’ Urine Output Tue, 28 Jan 2014 08:03:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/587593/ Urine output (UO) is usually measured manually each hour in acutely ill patients. This task consumes a substantial amount of time. Furthermore, in the literature there is evidence that more frequent (minute-by-minute) UO measurement could impact clinical decision making and improve patient outcomes. However, it is not feasible to manually take minute-by-minute UO measurements. A device capable of automatically monitoring UO could save precious time of the healthcare staff and improve patient outcomes through a more precise and continuous monitoring of this parameter. This paper presents a device capable of automatically monitoring UO. It provides minute by minute measures and it can generate alarms that warn of deviations from therapeutic goals. It uses a capacitive sensor for the measurement of the UO collected within a rigid container. When the container is full, it automatically empties without requiring any internal or external power supply or any intervention by the nursing staff. In vitro tests have been conducted to verify the proper operation and accuracy in the measures of the device. These tests confirm the viability of the device to automate the monitoring of UO. Abraham Otero, Andrey Apalkov, Roemi Fernández, and Manuel Armada Copyright © 2014 Abraham Otero et al. All rights reserved. Heat Shock Protein 72 Expressing Stress in Sepsis: Unbridgeable Gap between Animal and Human Studies—A Hypothetical “Comparative” Study Sun, 12 Jan 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/101023/ Heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72) exhibits a protective role during times of increased risk of pathogenic challenge and/or tissue damage. The aim of the study was to ascertain Hsp72 protective effect differences between animal and human studies in sepsis using a hypothetical “comparative study” model. Forty-one in vivo (56.1%), in vitro (17.1%), or combined (26.8%) animal and 14 in vivo (2) or in vitro (12) human Hsp72 studies () were enrolled in the analysis. Of the 14 human studies, 50% showed a protective Hsp72 effect compared to 95.8% protection shown in septic animal studies (). Only human studies reported Hsp72-associated mortality (21.4%) or infection (7.1%) or reported results (14.3%) to be nonprotective (). In animal models, any Hsp72 induction method tried increased intracellular Hsp72 (100%), compared to 57.1% of human studies (), reduced proinflammatory cytokines (28/29), and enhanced survival (18/18). Animal studies show a clear Hsp72 protective effect in sepsis. Human studies are inconclusive, showing either protection or a possible relation to mortality and infections. This might be due to the fact that using evermore purified target cell populations in animal models, a lot of clinical information regarding the net response that occurs in sepsis is missing. George Briassoulis, Efrossini Briassouli, Diana-Michaela Fitrolaki, Ioanna Plati, Kleovoulos Apostolou, Theonymfi Tavladaki, and Anna-Maria Spanaki Copyright © 2014 George Briassoulis et al. All rights reserved. Scope of Nursing Care in Polish Intensive Care Units Tue, 31 Dec 2013 14:13:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2013/463153/ Introduction. The TISS-28 scale, which may be used for nursing staff scheduling in ICU, does not reflect the complete scope of nursing resulting from varied cultural and organizational conditions of individual systems of health care. Aim. The objective of the study was an attempt to provide an answer to the question what scope of nursing care provided by Polish nurses in ICU does the TISS-28 scale reflect? Material and Methods. The methods of working time measurement were used in the study. For the needs of the study, 252 hours of continuous observation (day-long observation) and 3.697 time-schedule measurements were carried out. Results. The total nursing time was 4125.79 min. (68.76 hours), that is, 60.15% of the total working time of Polish nurses during the period analyzed. Based on the median test, the difference was observed on the level of between the nurses’ workload resulting from performance of activities qualified into the TISS-28 scale and load resulting from performance of interventions within the scopes of care not considered in this scale in Polish ICUs. Conclusions. The original version of the TISS-28 scale does not fully reflect the workload among Polish nurses employed in ICUs. Mariusz Wysokiński, Anna Ksykiewicz-Dorota, and Wiesław Fidecki Copyright © 2013 Mariusz Wysokiński et al. All rights reserved. Risk Factors for the First Episode of Klebsiella pneumoniae Resistant to Carbapenems Infection in Critically Ill Patients: A Prospective Study Wed, 18 Dec 2013 09:47:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2013/850547/ Objective. To identify risk factors for the first episode of Klebsiella Pneumonia resistant to carbapenems (KPRC) infection in critically ill patients. Design, Setting, and Methods. This prospective cohort study was conducted in a 12-bed general Intensive Care Unit (ICU) in a University Hospital on ICU patients who required mechanical ventilation (MV) for 48 hours during a 12-month period. Clinical and microbiologic data were studied. Characteristics of KPRC patients were compared with those of critically ill patients who presented nonmultidrug resistant (MDR) bacterial infections or no documented infection at all. Results. Twenty-five patients presented KPRC infection, 18 presented non-MDR bacterial infection, and 39 patients presented no infection. Compared to patients without documented infection or infected by non MDR bacteria, patients with KPRC infection had received more frequently or for longer duration antibiotics against Gram-negative bacteria (carbapenems, colistin ). Duration of colistin administration prior to KPRC isolation was independently associated with increased frequency of KPRC infection (odds ratio, 1.156 per day; 95% confidence interval, 1.010 to 1.312; ). KPRC patients stayed longer in the ICU and received mechanical ventilation and sedation for longer periods and presented increased mortality (). Conclusion. KPRC infection is an emerging problem which might be more common in patients with previous use of antibiotics and especially colistin. Konstantinos Mantzarlis, Demosthenes Makris, Efstratios Manoulakas, Marios Karvouniaris, and Epaminondas Zakynthinos Copyright © 2013 Konstantinos Mantzarlis et al. All rights reserved. Interpretation of C-Reactive Protein Concentrations in Critically Ill Patients Mon, 28 Oct 2013 15:08:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2013/124021/ Infection is often difficult to recognize in critically ill patients because of the marked coexisting inflammatory process. Lack of early recognition prevents timely resuscitation and effective antimicrobial therapy, resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. Measurement of a biomarker, such as C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration, in addition to history and physical signs, could facilitate diagnosis. Although frequently measured in clinical practice, few studies have reported on the pathophysiological role of this biomarker and its predictive value in critically ill patients. In this review, we discuss the pathophysiological role of CRP and its potential interpretation in the inflammatory processes observed in critically ill patients. Christophe Lelubre, Sophie Anselin, Karim Zouaoui Boudjeltia, Patrick Biston, and Michaël Piagnerelli Copyright © 2013 Christophe Lelubre et al. All rights reserved. Different Contribution of Splanchnic Organs to Hyperlactatemia in Fecal Peritonitis and Cardiac Tamponade Sun, 20 Oct 2013 15:50:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2013/251084/ Background. Changes in hepatosplanchnic lactate exchange are likely to contribute to hyperlactatemia in sepsis. We hypothesized that septic and cardiogenic shock have different effects on hepatosplanchnic lactate exchange and its contribution to hyperlactatemia. Materials and Methods. 24 anesthetized pigs were randomized to fecal peritonitis (P), cardiac tamponade (CT), and to controls ( per group). Oxygen transport and lactate exchange were calculated during 24 hours. Results. While hepatic lactate influx increased in P and in CT, hepatic lactate uptake remained unchanged in P and decreased in CT. Hepatic lactate efflux contributed 20% (P) and 33% (CT), respectively, to whole body venous efflux. Despite maintained hepatic arterial blood flow, hepatic oxygen extraction did not increase in CT. Conclusions. Whole body venous lactate efflux is of similar magnitude in hyperdynamic sepsis and in cardiogenic shock. Although jejunal mucosal pCO2 gradients are increased, enhanced lactate production from other tissues is more relevant to the increased arterial lactate. Nevertheless, the liver fails to increase hepatic lactate extraction in response to rising hepatic lactate influx, despite maintained hepatic oxygen consumption. In cardiac tamponade, regional, extrasplanchnic lactate production is accompanied by hepatic failure to increase oxygen extraction and net hepatic lactate output, despite maintained hepatic arterial perfusion. José Gorrasi, Anestis Eleftheriadis, Jukka Takala, Sebastian Brandt, Siamak Djafarzadeh, Lukas E. Bruegger, Hendrik Bracht, and Stephan M. Jakob Copyright © 2013 José Gorrasi et al. All rights reserved. Postoperative Adiponectin Levels in Pediatric Patients Undergoing Open Heart Surgery Wed, 09 Oct 2013 18:14:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2013/408680/ Background. Adipose tissue is an important endocrine organ that secretes cytokines, including adiponectin, levels of which are negatively correlated with the severity of the inflammatory process. Aim. To assess the time course of adiponectin levels following open heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass and its correlation with early postoperative outcomes. Materials and Methods. Blood samples were obtained from 24 children undergoing cardiac surgery and analyzed for adiponectin, C-reactive protein, and other inflammatory markers. Results. Baseline adiponectin levels were negatively correlated with patients’ preoperative weight and age. Postoperative adiponectin levels decreased compared to baseline () and correlated negatively with duration of cardiopulmonary bypass (, ), length of stay in the pediatric intensive care unit (, ), and the inotropic score (, ). Adiponectin levels were positively correlated with sVCAM 1 levels; however, there was no correlation between adiponectin levels and sP selectin, tPA, MCP1, and sCD40. Conclusions. The inflammatory response after open heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass is associated with a reduction in adiponectin levels. Prolonged or more complicated surgery induced a more substantial inflammatory process characterized by a significant reduction in adiponectin levels over time and a delayed return to baseline levels. A. Thaler, H. Kanety, T. Avni, D. Mishali, R. Hemi, E. Yissaschar, C. Pariente, G. Paret, and D. Modan-Moses Copyright © 2013 A. Thaler et al. All rights reserved. The Predictive Prognostic Values of Serum TNF-α in Comparison to SOFA Score Monitoring in Critically Ill Patients Thu, 19 Sep 2013 16:51:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2013/258029/ Background. The use of inflammatory markers to follow up critically ill patients is controversial. The short time frame, the need for frequent and serial measurement of biomarkers, the presence of soluble receptor and their relatively high cost are the major drawbacks. Our study’s objective is to compare the prognostic values of serum TNF-α and SOFA score monitoring in critically ill patients. Patients and Methods. A total of ninety patients were included in the study. Forty-five patients developed septic complication (sepsis group). Forty-five patients were critically ill without evidence of infectious organism (SIRS group). Patients’ data include clinical status, central venous pressure, and laboratory analysis were measured. A serum level of TNF-α and SOFA score were monitored. Results. Monitoring of TNF-α revealed significant elevation of TNF-α at 3rd and 5th days of ICU admission in both groups. Monitoring of SOFA score revealed significant elevation of SOFA scores in both groups throughout their ICU stay, particularly in nonsurvivors. Positive predictive ability of SOFA score was demonstrated in critically ill patients. Conclusion. Transient significant increase in serum levels of TNF-α were detected in septic patients. Persistent elevation of SOFA score was detected in nonsurvivor septic patients. SOFA score is an independent prognostic value in critically ill patients. Ayman Abd Al-Maksoud Yousef and Ghada Abdulmomen Suliman Copyright © 2013 Ayman Abd Al-Maksoud Yousef and Ghada Abdulmomen Suliman. All rights reserved. Compression of the Inferior Vena Cava in Bowel Obstruction Sat, 14 Sep 2013 08:49:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2013/469297/ Introduction. We investigated whether (a) the inferior vena cava (IVC) is compressed in bowel obstruction and (b) some tracts are more compressed than others. Methods. Two groups of abdominal computed tomography (CT) examinations were collected retrospectively. Group O () scans were positive for bowel obstruction, group C () scans were negative for diseases. IVC anteroposterior and lateral diameters (APD, LAD) were assessed at seven levels. Results. In group C, IVC section had an elliptic shape (APD/LAD: .76 ± .14), the area of which increased gradually from 1.9 (confluence of the iliac veins) to 3.1 cm2/m2 of BSA (confluence of the hepatic veins) with a significant narrowing in the hepatic section. In group O, bowel obstruction caused a compression of IVC (APD/LAD: .54 ± .17). Along its course, IVC section area increased from 1.3 to 2.5 cm2/m2. At ROC curve analysis, an APD/LAD ratio lower than 0.63 above the confluence of the iliac veins discriminated between O and C groups with sensitivity of 74% and specificity of 96%. Conclusions. Bowel obstruction caused a compression of IVC, which involved its entire course except for the terminal section. APD/LAD ratio may be useful to monitor the degree of compression. Alessandro Cina, Roberto Zamparelli, Sara Venturino, Riccardo Gargaruti, Vittorio Semeraro, and Franco Cavaliere Copyright © 2013 Alessandro Cina et al. All rights reserved. Skeletal Muscle Oxygen Saturation (StO2) Measured by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy in the Critically Ill Patients Wed, 21 Aug 2013 11:25:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2013/502194/ According to current critical care management guidelines, the overall hemodynamic optimization process seeks to restore macrocirculatory oxygenation, pressure, and flow variables. However, there is increasing evidence demonstrating that, despite normalization of these global parameters, microcirculatory and regional perfusion alterations might occur, and persistence of these alterations has been associated with worse prognosis. Such observations have led to great interest in testing new technologies capable of evaluating the microcirculation. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) measures tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) and has been proposed as a noninvasive system for monitoring regional circulation. The present review aims to summarize the existing evidence on NIRS and its potential clinical utility in different scenarios of critically ill patients. J. Mesquida, G. Gruartmoner, and C. Espinal Copyright © 2013 J. Mesquida et al. All rights reserved. Cardiac Contractile Reserve Parameters Are Related to Prognosis in Septic Shock Wed, 17 Jul 2013 10:07:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2013/930673/ Introduction. Cardiac reserve could be defined as the spontaneous magnitude from basal to maximal cardiac power under stress conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of cardiac reserve parameters in resuscitated septic shock patients. Methods. Seventy patients with septic shock were included in a prospective and observational study. Prior to inclusion, patients were resuscitated to reach a mean arterial pressure of 65–75 mmHg with an euvolemic status. General, hemodynamic, and cardiac reserve-related parameters (cardiac index, double product, and cardiac power index) were collected at inclusion and at day 1. Results. Seventy patients were included with 28-day mortality at 38.5%. Ten of the 70 patients died during the first day. In multivariate analysis, independent predictors of death were SAPS II ≥58 (OR: 3.36 [1.11–10.17]; ), a high double product at inclusion (OR [95% IC]: 1.20 [1.00–1.45] per 103 mmHg·min; ), and at day 1, a decrease in cardiac index (1.30 [1.08–1.56] per 0.5 L/min/m2; ) or cardiac power index (1.84 [1.18–2.87] per 0.1 W/m2, ). Conclusion. In the first 24 hours, parameters related to cardiac reserve, such as double product and cardiac index evolution, provide crucial and easy to achieve hemodynamic physiological information, which may impact the outcome. Antoine Kimmoun, Nicolas Ducrocq, Sébastien Mory, Remi Delfosse, Laura Muller, Pierre Perez, Renaud Fay, and Bruno Levy Copyright © 2013 Antoine Kimmoun et al. All rights reserved. Higher Plasma Pyridoxal Phosphate Is Associated with Increased Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Critically Ill Surgical Patients Thu, 30 May 2013 12:18:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2013/572081/ Critically ill patients experience severe stress, inflammation and clinical conditions which may increase the utilization and metabolic turnover of vitamin B-6 and may further increase their oxidative stress and compromise their antioxidant capacity. This study was conducted to examine the relationship between vitamin B-6 status (plasma and erythrocyte PLP) oxidative stress, and antioxidant capacities in critically ill surgical patients. Thirty-seven patients in surgical intensive care unit of Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan, were enrolled. The levels of plasma and erythrocyte PLP, serum malondialdehyde, total antioxidant capacity, and antioxidant enzyme activities (i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione peroxidase) were determined on the 1st and 7th days of admission. Plasma PLP was positively associated with the mean SOD activity level on day 1 (, ), day 7 (, ), and on changes (Δ (day 7 − day 1)) (, ) after adjusting for age, gender, and plasma C-reactive protein concentration. Higher plasma PLP could be an important contributing factor in the elevation of antioxidant enzyme activity in critically ill surgical patients. Chien-Hsiang Cheng, Shih-Chien Huang, Ting-Yu Chiang, Yueching Wong, and Yi-Chia Huang Copyright © 2013 Chien-Hsiang Cheng et al. All rights reserved.