BioMed Research International: Orthopedics The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Bone Formation in a Rat Tibial Defect Model Using Carboxymethyl Cellulose/BioC/Bone Morphogenic Protein-2 Hybrid Materials Sun, 06 Apr 2014 11:10:22 +0000 The objective of this study was to assess whether carboxymethyl cellulose- (CMC-) based hydrogel containing BioC (biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP); tricalcium phosphate (TCP) : hydroxyapatite (Hap) = 70 : 30) and bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2) led to greater bone formation than CMC-based hydrogel containing BioC without BMP-2. In order to demonstrate bone formation at 4 and 8 weeks, plain radiographs, microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) evaluation, and histological studies were performed after implantation of all hybrid materials on an 8 mm defect of the right tibia in rats. The plain radiographs and micro-CT analyses revealed that CMC/BioC/BMP-2 (0.5 mg) led to much greater mineralization at 4 and 8 weeks than did CMC/BioC or CMC/Bio/BMP-2 (0.1 mg). Likewise, bone formation and bone remodeling studies revealed that CMC/BioC/BMP-2 (0.5 mg) led to a significantly greater amount of bone formation and bone remodeling at 4 and 8 weeks than did CMC/BioC or CMC/BioC/BMP-2 (0.1 mg). Histological studies revealed that mineralized bone tissue was present around the whole circumference of the defect site with CMC/BioC/BMP-2 (0.5 mg) but not with CMC/BioC or CMC/BioC/BMP-2 (0.1 mg) at 4 and 8 weeks. These results suggest that CMC/BioC/BMP-2 hybrid materials induced greater bone formation than CMC/BioC hybrid materials. Thus, CMC/BioC/BMP-2 hybrid materials may be used as an injectable substrate to regenerate bone defects. Sang-Heon Song, Young-Pil Yun, Hak-Jun Kim, Kyeongsoon Park, Sung Eun Kim, and Hae-Ryong Song Copyright © 2014 Sang-Heon Song et al. All rights reserved. Primary Stability Recognition of the Newly Designed Cementless Femoral Stem Using Digital Signal Processing Tue, 01 Apr 2014 16:20:20 +0000 Stress shielding and micromotion are two major issues which determine the success of newly designed cementless femoral stems. The correlation of experimental validation with finite element analysis (FEA) is commonly used to evaluate the stress distribution and fixation stability of the stem within the femoral canal. This paper focused on the applications of feature extraction and pattern recognition using support vector machine (SVM) to determine the primary stability of the implant. We measured strain with triaxial rosette at the metaphyseal region and micromotion with linear variable direct transducer proximally and distally using composite femora. The root mean squares technique is used to feed the classifier which provides maximum likelihood estimation of amplitude, and radial basis function is used as the kernel parameter which mapped the datasets into separable hyperplanes. The results showed 100% pattern recognition accuracy using SVM for both strain and micromotion. This indicates that DSP could be applied in determining the femoral stem primary stability with high pattern recognition accuracy in biomechanical testing. Mohd Yusof Baharuddin, Sh-Hussain Salleh, Mahyar Hamedi, Ahmad Hafiz Zulkifly, Muhammad Hisyam Lee, Alias Mohd Noor, Arief Ruhullah A. Harris, and Norazman Abdul Majid Copyright © 2014 Mohd Yusof Baharuddin et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Different rhBMP-2 and TG-VEGF Ratios on the Formation of Heterotopic Bone and Neovessels Mon, 24 Mar 2014 12:25:52 +0000 Bioengineered bone substitutes might represent alternatives to autologous bone grafts in medically compromised patients due to reduced operation time and comorbidity. Due to the lack of an inherent vascular system their dimension is limited to the size of critical bone size defect. To overcome this shortcoming, the experiment tried to create heterotopic bone around vessels. In vivo, a two-component fibrin and thrombin gel containing recombinant bone morphogenic protein (rhBMP-2) and transglutamate vascular endothelial growth factor (TG-VEGF) in different ratios, respectively, was injected into a dimensionally stable membrane tube, wrapped around the femoral vessel bundle in twelve New Zealand white rabbits. Sacrifice occurred eight weeks postoperatively. Microcomputed tomography of the specimens showed significantly increased bone volume in the rhBMP-2 to TG-VEGF ratio of 10 to 1 group. Histology showed new bone formation in close proximity to the vessel bundle. Immunohistochemistry detected increased angiogenesis within the newly formed bone in the rhBMP-2 to TG-VEGF ratios of 3 to 1 and 5 to 1. Heterotopic bone was engineered in vivo around vessels using different rhBMP-2 and TG-VEGF ratios in a fibrin matrix injected into a dimensionally stable membrane tube which prevented direct contact with skeletal muscles. Wei Xin Cai, Li Wu Zheng, Chun Lei Li, Li Ma, Martin Ehrbar, Franz E. Weber, and Roger A. Zwahlen Copyright © 2014 Wei Xin Cai et al. All rights reserved. Matrilin-2 Is a Widely Distributed Extracellular Matrix Protein and a Potential Biomarker in the Early Stage of Osteoarthritis in Articular Cartilage Tue, 11 Mar 2014 06:48:47 +0000 In this study, we first generated and characterized a polyclonal antibody against unique domain of matrlin-2 and then used this specific antibody to assess the expression pattern of matrilin-2 by immunohistochemistry. We found that marilin-2 is widely distributed in the connective tissues of many mouse tissues including heart, colon, penis, esophagus, lung, kidney, tracheal cartilage, developmental bone, and adult bone. The expression level of matrilin-2 was remarkably increased in the tissues of osteoarthritis developmental articular cartilage, compared to normal healthy tissues. Furthermore, we determined matrilin-2 expression in specific epithelial cells in stomach and ductal epithelial cells of salivary gland. In other tissues, the positive signals were mainly located around cardiac muscle cells and Purkinje fibers in the heart; corpus spongiosum in the penis; submucosa in the colon and esophagus; extracellular matrix of cartilage in the tracheal cartilage; and, glomerulus, the basement membrane of distal convoluted tubule and renal matrix in kidney. These observations indicated that the distribution pattern of matrilin-2 is heterogeneous in each tissue. Matrilin-2 may play an important role in the communication of matrix to matrix and matrix to cells and will be used as a potential biomarker in the early stage of osteoarthritis of articular cartilage. Shukun Zhang, Jinwu Peng, Yan Guo, Sara Javidiparsijani, Guirong Wang, Yichun Wang, Honggang Liu, Jingshi Liu, and Junming Luo Copyright © 2014 Shukun Zhang et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Pedicle Screw with Mobile Connection: A Pilot Study Mon, 03 Mar 2014 09:35:09 +0000 To prevent adjacent disc problems after spinal fusion, a pedicle screw with a mobile junction between the head and threaded shaft was newly developed. The threaded shaft of the screw has 10 degrees mobility in all directions, but its structure is to prevent abnormal translation and tilting. This screw was evaluated as follows: (1) endurance test: 106 times rotational stress was applied; (2) biological reactions: novel screws with a mobile head and conventional screws with a fixed head were inserted into the bilateral pedicles of the L3, L4, and L5 in two mini pigs with combination. Eight months after surgery, vertebral units with the screw rod constructs were collected. After CT scan, the soft and bony tissues around the screws were examined grossly and histologically. As a result, none of the screws broke during the endurance test stressing. The mean amount of abrasion wear was 0.0338 g. In the resected mini pig section, though zygapophyseal joints between fixed-head screws showed bony union, the amount of callus in the zygapophyseal joints connected with mobile-head screws was small, and joint space was confirmed by CT. No metalloses were noted around any of the screws. Novel screws were suggested to be highly durable and histologically safe. Yasuaki Tokuhashi, Masashi Oshima, Yasumitsu Ajiro, and Hiroshi Uei Copyright © 2014 Yasuaki Tokuhashi et al. All rights reserved. In Vivo Analysis of Trapeziometacarpal Joint Kinematics during Pinch Tasks Mon, 10 Feb 2014 12:19:11 +0000 This study investigated how the posture of the thumb while performing common pinch movements and the levels of pinch force applied by the thumb affect the arthrokinematics of the trapeziometacarpal joint in vivo. Fifteen subjects performed the pinch tasks at the distal phalange (DP), proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint, and metacarpophalangeal (MP) joint of the index finger with 0%, 50%, and 80% of maximal pinch forces by a single-axis load cell. 3D images of the thumb were obtained using the computed tomography. The results show that the reference points moved from the central region to the dorsal-radial region when changing from pinching the DP to the MP joint without pinching force being applied. Pinching with 80% of the maximum pinching force resulted in reference points being the closest to the volar-ulnar direction. Significant differences were seen between 0% and 50% of maximum pinch force, as well as between 0% and 80%, when pinching the MP joint in the distal-proximal direction. The effects of posture of the thumb and applied pinch force on the arthrokinematics of the joint were investigated with a 3D model of the trapeziometacarpal joint. Pinching with more than 50% of maximum pinch force might subject this joint to extreme displacement. Li-Chieh Kuo, Chien-Ju Lin, Guan-Po Chen, I-Ming Jou, Chien-Kuo Wang, Irina G. Goryacheva, Marat Z. Dosaev, and Fong-Chin Su Copyright © 2014 Li-Chieh Kuo et al. All rights reserved. Measurement of the “Safe Zone” and the “Dangerous Zone” for the Screw Placement on the Quadrilateral Surface in the Treatment of Pelvic and Acetabular Fractures with Stoppa Approach by Computational 3D Technology Wed, 29 Jan 2014 13:29:44 +0000 This study is aimed at definition of the safe and dangerous zone for screw placement with Stoppa approach for rapid identification during operation and a new way for the studies on the “safe zone.” Pelvic CT data of 84 human subjects were recruited to reconstruct the three-dimensional (3D) models. The distances between the edges of the “safe zone,” “dangerous zone,” and specific anatomic landmarks such as the obturator canal and the pelvic brim were precisely measured, respectively. The results show that the absolute “dangerous zone” was from the pelvic brim to 3.07 cm below it and within 2.86 cm of the obturator canal, while the region 3.56 cm below the pelvic brim or 3.85 cm away from the obturator canal was the absolute “safe zone” for screw placement. The region between the absolute “safe zone” and the absolute “dangerous zone” was the relatively “dangerous zone.” As a conclusion, application of computer-assisted 3D modeling techniques aids in the precise measurement of “safe zone” and “dangerous zone” in combination with Stoppa incision. It was not recommended to place screws on the absolute dangerous zone, while, for the relatively “dangerous zone,” it depends on the individual variations in bony anatomy and the fracture type. Sheng Zhang, Wanhan Su, Qiang Luo, Frankie Leung, and Bin Chen Copyright © 2014 Sheng Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Immediate Care of Open Extremity Fractures: Where Can We Improve? Tue, 21 Jan 2014 07:52:53 +0000 Clear guidelines are set by the British Orthopaedic Association (BOA) and British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons (BAPRAS) on the preoperative management of open fractures. This as well as the clinical consequences of poor management of open fractures means the patient workup for surgery is important as well as the timing of surgery. Experience suggests few patients are managed 100% as per the guidelines and we look to test this hypothesis. A retrospective analysis was undertaken of all open long bone fractures (total 133), excluding hand injuries, which presented to a district general hospital over a 5-year period. The implementation of 7 defined key tasks for initial management was recorded. 101 cases were eligible, with the majority of cases (71.4%) having initial orthopaedic assessment outside normal working hours. The mean number of tasks completed was 3.23/7. Assessment out of hours was associated with less tasks being implemented but doctor seniority and the presence of polytrauma made no difference to the quality of acute care. Staff involved in the acute care of open fractures require targeted education to improve the delivery of initial preoperative care. We recommend that other centres assess their performance against this data. R. Walton, J. Manara, S. E. Elamin, I. Braithwaite, and E. Wood Copyright © 2014 R. Walton et al. All rights reserved. Diabetic Ankle Fractures: A Review of the Literature and an Introduction to the Adelaide Fracture in the Diabetic Ankle Algorithm and Score Sun, 05 Jan 2014 09:15:10 +0000 Diabetics who have acquired an ankle fracture may be easily missed given their atypical presentation. As such, it is not infrequently seen that these patients are either initially misdiagnosed or ineffectively managed resulting in unnecessary hospital length of stay and procedures. Multiple review articles and retrospective studies have been previously published in the literature, but complete guidelines to assist in accurate diagnosis and cost-effective management for this complex problem do not currently exist. Through a critical analysis of the current literature, a proposed diagnostic and management algorithm and scoring system that can be used to quantify risks in the surgical management are presented for consideration. Joshua Yee, Anand Pillai, and Linda Ferris Copyright © 2014 Joshua Yee et al. All rights reserved. Autoclaved Tumor Bone for Skeletal Reconstruction in Paediatric Patients: A Low Cost Alternative in Developing Countries Wed, 18 Dec 2013 09:56:04 +0000 We reviewed in this series forty patients of pediatric age who underwent resection for malignant tumors of musculoskeletal system followed by biological reconstruction. Our surgical procedure for reconstruction included (1) wide en bloc resection of the tumor; (2) curettage of tumor from the resected bone; (3) autoclaving for 8 minutes (4) bone grafting from the fibula (both vascularized and nonvascularized fibular grafts used); (5) reimplantation of the autoclaved bone into the host bone defect and fixation with plates. Functional evaluation was done using MSTS scoring system. At final followup of at least 18 months (mean 29.2 months), 31 patients had recovered without any complications. Thirty-eight patients successfully achieved a solid bony union between the graft and recipient bone. Three patients had surgical site infection. They were managed with wound debridement and flap coverage of the defect. Local recurrence and nonunion occurred in two patients each. One patient underwent disarticulation at hip due to extensive local disease and one died of metastasis. For patients with non-union, revision procedure with bone graft and compression plates was successfully used. The use of autoclaved tumor grafts provides a limb salvage option that is inexpensive and independent of external resources and is a viable option for musculoskeletal tumor management in developing countries. Masood Umer, Hafiz Muhammad Umer, Irfan Qadir, Haroon Rashid, Rabia Awan, Raza Askari, and Shamvil Ashraf Copyright © 2013 Masood Umer et al. All rights reserved. Assessment of Normal Sagittal Alignment of the Spine and Pelvis in Children and Adolescents Mon, 09 Dec 2013 18:17:57 +0000 Aim. We aimed to determine spinopelvic balance in 8–19-year-old-people in order to assess pelvic and spinal parameters in sagittal view. Methods. Ninety-eight healthy students aged 8–19 years, who lived in the central parts of Tehran, were assessed. Demographic data, history of present and past diseases, height (cm), and weight (kg) were collected. Each subject was examined by an orthopedic surgeon and spinal radiographs in lateral view were obtained. Eight spinopelvic parameters were measured by 2 orthopedic spine surgeons. Results. Ninety-eight subjects, among which 48 were girls (49%) and 50 boys (51%), with a mean age of years (range: 8–19) were evaluated. Mean height and weight of children were cm and kgs, respectively. Mean TK, LL, TT, LT, and PI of subjects were 37.1 ± 9.9°, 39.6 ± 12.4°, 7.08 ± 4.9°, 12.0 ± 5.9°, and 45.37 ± 10.7°, respectively. Conclusion. Preoperation planning for spinal fusion surgeries via applying PI seems reasonable. Predicating “abnormal” to lordosis and kyphosis values alone without considering overall sagittal balance is incorrect. Mean of SS and TK in our population is slightly less than that in Caucasians. Hasan Ghandhari, Hamid Hesarikia, Ebrahim Ameri, and Abolfazl Noori Copyright © 2013 Hasan Ghandhari et al. All rights reserved. Use of Tekscan K-Scan Sensors for Retropatellar Pressure Measurement Avoiding Errors during Implantation and the Effects of Shear Forces on the Measurement Precision Tue, 03 Dec 2013 10:16:42 +0000 Pressure-sensitive K-Scan 4000 sensors (Tekscan, USA) provide new possibilities for the dynamic measurement of force and pressure in biomechanical investigations. We examined the sensors to determine in particular whether they are also suitable for reliable measurements of retropatellar forces and pressures. Insertion approaches were also investigated and a lateral parapatellar arthrotomy supplemented by parapatellar sutures proved to be the most reliable method. The ten human cadaver knees were tested in a knee-simulating machine at a torque of 30 and 40 Nm. Each test cycle involved a dynamic extension from 120° flexion. All recorded parameters showed a decrease of 1-2% per measurement cycle. Although we supplemented the sensors with a Teflon film, the decrease, which was likely caused by shear force, was significant. We evaluated 12 cycles and observed a linear decrease in parameters up to 17.2% (coefficient of regression 0.69–0.99). In our opinion, the linear decrease can be considered a systematic error and can therefore be quantified and accounted for in subsequent experiments. That will ensure reliable retropatellar usage of Tekscan sensors and distinguish the effects of knee joint surgeries from sensor wear-related effects. A. Wilharm, Ch. Hurschler, T. Dermitas, and M. Bohnsack Copyright © 2013 A. Wilharm et al. All rights reserved. Shelf Acetabuloplasty in the Treatment of Severe Legg-Calvé-Perthes Disease: Good Outcomes at Midterm Follow-Up Wed, 27 Nov 2013 15:52:24 +0000 The aim of the study was to retrospectively review results of operative treatment for coverage deficit of femoral head in children with severe epiphysis displacement in Legg-Calvé-Perthes (LCP) disease. The material included 23 shelf acetabuloplasty procedures for LCP disease. The average age at diagnosis was 8.1 years (range 4–12). Mean follow-up was 5.8 years (range from 2.2 to 11.2 years). Mean Reimer's index decreased statistically significantly from a mean of 32% before surgery to 10.0% at the last follow-up (). The mean Wiberg center-edge angle increased also statistically significantly from a mean of 17.3° before procedure to 32.3° at the last follow-up (). According to the Stulberg classification, type I was observed in 2, type II in 13, type III in 6, and type IV in 2 hips. There were no differences in the range of motion or leg length discrepancy in preoperative and postoperative standing. Partial, not significant, bone graft resorption was noted in 6 cases in the first 6–9 months after surgery. To conclude, shelf acetabuloplasty allows achieving good midterm results in the treatment of severe stages of LCP disease. The procedure improves coverage of femoral head and allows its remodelling. Andrzej Grzegorzewski, Marek Synder, Krysztof Kmieć, Karol Krajewski, Michał Polguj, and Marcin Sibiński Copyright © 2013 Andrzej Grzegorzewski et al. All rights reserved. A Biomechanical Research of Growth Control of Spine by Shape Memory Alloy Staples Sun, 17 Nov 2013 14:17:55 +0000 Shape memory alloy (SMA) staples in nickel titanium with shape memory effect are effective for spinal growth control. This study was designed to evaluate the biomechanical properties of the staples and observe the stability of the fixed segments spine after the staples were implanted. According to the vertical distance of the vertebrae, SMA staples of 5, 6.5, and 8 mm were designed. The recovery stress of 24 SMA staples in three groups was measured. The pullout strength of SMA staples and stainless steel staples in each functional spinal unit was measured. Each of the six fresh specimens was divided into three conditions: normal, single staple, and double staples. Under each condition, the angle and torque of spinal movements in six directions were tested. Results show that the differences in recovery stress and maximum pullout strength between groups were statistically significant. In left and right bending, flextion, and extention, the stability of spine was decreased in conditions of single staple and double staples. Biomechanical function of SMA staples was superior to stainless steel staple. SMA staples have the function of hemiepiphyseal compression and kyphosis and scoliosis model of thoracic vertebrae in goat could be successfully created by the fusionless technique. Wei Zhang, Yonggang Zhang, Guoquan Zheng, Ruyi Zhang, and Yan Wang Copyright © 2013 Wei Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Lithium Chloride Enhances Cathepsin H Expression and BMP-4 Degradation in C3H10T1/2 Cells Sun, 10 Nov 2013 14:07:39 +0000 The effect of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling on chondrogenic differentiation induced by transfection of BMP4 expressing plasmid was analyzed. Lithium chloride (LiCl) which mimics canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling was added to cells transfected with BMP4 expressing plasmid. Although BMP4 mRNA expression was not affected by LiCl, LiCl decreased BMP4 protein accumulation. Gene expression analysis exhibited upregulation of cathepsin H by LiCl treatment. Gene silencing of cathepsin H enhanced BMP4 protein accumulation from BMP4 expressing cells. These results suggested that cathepsin H is regulated by Wnt/β-catenin signaling and plays an important role in the regulation of BMP4 biological activity. Koshi N. Kishimoto and Eiji Itoi Copyright © 2013 Koshi N. Kishimoto and Eiji Itoi. All rights reserved. Percutaneous Vertebroplasty in Adult Degenerative Scoliosis for Spine Support: Study for Pain Evaluation and Mobility Improvement Thu, 24 Oct 2013 16:17:29 +0000 We evaluate the efficacy-safety of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV) as primary treatment in adult degenerative scoliosis. During the last 4 years, PV was performed in 18 adult patients (68 vertebral bodies) with back pain due to degenerative scoliotic spine. Under anaesthesia and fluoroscopy, direct access to most deformed vertebral bodies was obtained by 13G needles, and PMMA for vertebroplasty was injected. Scoliosis’ inner arch was supported. Clinical evaluation included immediate and delayed studies of patient’s general condition and neurological status. An NVS scale helped assessing pain relief, life quality, and mobility improvement. Comparing patients’ scores prior to (mean value  NVS units), the morning after (mean value  NVS units), at 12 (mean value  NVS units), and 24 months after vertebroplasty (mean value  NVS units) treatment, patients presented a mean decrease of  NVS units on terms of life quality improvement and pain relief (). Overall mobility improved in 18/18 (100%) patients. No complications were observed. During follow-up period (mean value 17.66 months), all patients underwent a mean of 1.3 sessions for facet joint and nerve root infiltrations. Percutaneous vertebroplasty in the inner arch seems to be an effective technique for supporting adult degenerative scoliotic spine. Dimitrios K. Filippiadis, Panagiotis Papagelopoulos, Maria Kitsou, Nikolaos Oikonomopoulos, Elias Brountzos, Nikolaos Kelekis, and Alexis Kelekis Copyright © 2013 Dimitrios K. Filippiadis et al. All rights reserved. Use of the Vascularized Iliac-Crest Flap in Musculoskeletal Lesions Tue, 22 Oct 2013 18:41:13 +0000 Bone loss was in the past treated by several methods, such as bone distraction and the use of nonvascularized or tissue-bank bone grafts. With the advent of modern microsurgical techniques, the vascularized bone flap has been used with good results; it resolves local nutritional problems, repairs soft tissue that is often damaged by severe trauma, and treats bone loss due to tumors, pseudarthroses, and osteomyelitis. This paper reports the authors’ experience with the use of vascularized iliac-crest flaps to treat orthopedic pathologies in five patients with traumatic bone loss (<10 cm), three with osteomyelitis, and three with atrophic nonunion. In all cases, the same surgeon obtained a vascularized iliac-crest flap with a pedicle based on the deep iliac circumflex artery. All flaps consolidated within a mean period of 3 months. These findings demonstrate that the use of an iliac-crest flap is a treatment option in cases of bone loss and that it is associated with good functional results and minimal donor-site morbidity. Cristiane Tonoli, Alexandre H. S. Bechara, Roberto Rossanez, William D. Belangero, and Bruno Livani Copyright © 2013 Cristiane Tonoli et al. All rights reserved. An Isolated Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction with Patellar Tendon Autograft Sun, 13 Oct 2013 16:07:26 +0000 The aim of the study was to evaluate the results of the medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction with a medial strip of patellar tendon autograft after a minimum 2-year followup. Ten patients (10 knees) were operated on by one surgeon, according to the modified technique, described by Camanho, without any bone plug at free graft end. The mean age of the patients was 27.2 years (ranging from 18 to 42 years). The mean follow-up period was 3 years and 7 months. All patients were reviewed prospectively. At the last follow-up visit, all the patients demonstrated a significant improvement in terms of patellofemoral joint stability, all aspects of the KOOS questionnaire, and Kujala et al.’s score (59.7 points preoperatively and 84.4 points at the last followup). No patient revealed recurrent dislocation. The SF-36 score revealed a significant improvement in bodily pain, general health, physical role functioning, social role functioning, and physical functioning domains. The described MPFL reconstruction with the use of the medial 1/3rd of patella tendon is an effective procedure that gives satisfactorily patellofemoral joint functions, improves the quality of life, and provides much pain relief. It is relatively simple, surgically not extensive, and economically cost-effective procedure. Dariusz Witoński, Rafał Kęska, Marek Synder, and Marcin Sibiński Copyright © 2013 Dariusz Witoński et al. All rights reserved. Hybrid Total Knee Arthroplasty Revisited: Midterm Followup of Hybrid versus Cemented Fixation in Total Knee Arthroplasty Wed, 25 Sep 2013 14:44:22 +0000 The optimal method of fixation in total knee arthroplasty is still debated. Hybrid total knee arthroplasty (TKA), with cemented tibial and cementless femoral components, is a proposed method of fixation to improve outcomes. Although several studies have shown favorable outcomes, there is still lack of consensus in the literature. We hypothesized that hybrid TKA yields similar clinical, radiographic, and survivorship results compared to fully cemented TKA. The clinical and radiographic outcomes of 304 cruciate retaining TKAs with minimum two-year followup, including 193 hybrid (mean followup of 4.1 years) and fully cemented TKAs (mean followup of 3.2 years) were evaluated. Knee society scores were similar between the two groups. The total number of femoral radiolucencies was also similar between the two groups, while a greater number of femoral Zone 4 radiolucencies were seen in the cemented group (9% versus 1.6%, ). The hybrid group demonstrated a 99.2% survival rate of the femoral component out to seven years for aseptic loosening. No significant difference in survivorship was seen between the groups for all cause or aseptic failure at seven years. We conclude that hybrid fixation leads to similar intermediate-term outcomes as fully cemented components and remains a viable option in total knee arthroplasty. Christopher E. Pelt, Jeremy M. Gililland, Justin Doble, Benjamin M. Stronach, and Christopher L. Peters Copyright © 2013 Christopher E. Pelt et al. All rights reserved. In Vivo Spinal Posture during Upright and Reclined Sitting in an Office Chair Tue, 24 Sep 2013 11:27:39 +0000 Increasing numbers of people spend the majority of their working lives seated in an office chair. Musculoskeletal disorders, in particular low back pain, resulting from prolonged static sitting are ubiquitous, but regularly changing sitting position throughout the day is thought to reduce back problems. Nearly all currently available office chairs offer the possibility to alter the backrest reclination angles, but the influence of changing seating positions on the spinal column remains unknown. In an attempt to better understand the potential to adjust or correct spine posture using adjustable seating, five healthy subjects were analysed in an upright and reclined sitting position conducted in an open, upright MRI scanner. The shape of the spine, as described using the vertebral bodies’ coordinates, wedge angles, and curvature angles, showed high inter-subject variability between the two seating positions. The mean lumbar, thoracic, and cervical curvature angles were °, °, and ° for the upright and °, °, and ° for the reclined sitting positions. Thus, a wide range of seating adaptation is possible through modification of chair posture, and dynamic seating options may therefore provide a key feature in reducing or even preventing back pain caused by prolonged static sitting. Roland Zemp, William R. Taylor, and Silvio Lorenzetti Copyright © 2013 Roland Zemp et al. All rights reserved. Interdisciplinary Approach to Tool-Handle Design Based on Medical Imaging Thu, 19 Sep 2013 14:44:27 +0000 Products are becoming increasingly complex; therefore, designers are faced with a challenging task to incorporate new functionality, higher performance, and optimal shape design. Traditional user-centered design techniques such as designing with anthropometric data do not incorporate enough subject data to design products with optimal shape for best fit to the target population. To overcome these limitations, we present an interdisciplinary approach with medical imaging. The use of this approach is being presented on the development of an optimal sized and shaped tool handle where the hand is imaged using magnetic resonance imaging machine. The obtained images of the hand are reconstructed and imported into computer-aided design software, where optimal shape of the handle is obtained with Boolean operations. Methods can be used to develop fully customized products with optimal shape to provide best fit to the target population. This increases subjective comfort rating, performance and can prevent acute and cumulative trauma disorders. Provided methods are especially suited for products where high stresses and exceptional performance is expected (high performance tools, professional sports, and military equipment, etc.). With the use of these interdisciplinary methods, the value of the product is increased, which also increases the competitiveness of the product on the market. G. Harih and A. Čretnik Copyright © 2013 G. Harih and A. Čretnik. All rights reserved. Effects of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation Combined with Exercises versus an Exercise Program on the Pain and the Function in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Controlled Trial Sat, 14 Sep 2013 08:44:48 +0000 Objectives. To investigate the effect of 8 weeks of NMES + Ex (neuromuscular electrical stimulation combined with exercises) on pain and functional improvement in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) compared to exercise (Ex) alone. Design. Randomized controlled trial. Setting. A specialty outpatient clinic. Participants. Patients (; women = 86, men = 14; age range, 50–75 years) with knee OA. Interventions. Participants were randomly assigned to NMES + Ex or Ex group. Outcome Measures. Numerical Rating Scale 0 to 10 (NRS) and the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test were the primary outcomes. The secondary outcomes used were the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). Results. Following the interventions, a statistically significant improvement in both groups was observed in all outcomes assessed. For the comparison between the groups, no statistically significant difference was found between the NMES + Ex and the Ex groups in NRS (), TUG test (), and aspects of WOMAC: pain (), function (), and stiffness (). Conclusion. The addition of NMES to exercise did not improve the outcomes assessed in knee OA patients. This study was registered at the Australian Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN012607000357459). Aline Mizusaki Imoto, Stella Peccin, Kelson Nonato Gomes da Silva, Lucas Emmanuel Pedro de Paiva Teixeira, Marcelo Ismael Abrahão, and Virgínia Fernandes Moça Trevisani Copyright © 2013 Aline Mizusaki Imoto et al. All rights reserved. The Mode of Inheritance of Scheuermann’s Disease Thu, 12 Sep 2013 13:32:08 +0000 The mode of Scheuermann’s disease inheritance and its phenotypic traits in probands and their relatives were studied in 90 pedigrees (90 probands and 385 relatives). The disorder was identified as a genetically related pathology inherited by autosomal dominant type, controlled by a mutant major gene, as a kyphotic deformity without signs of vertebral bodies’ anomaly and torsion. Morphological and biochemical studies showed disturbance in the structure of vertebral growth plate anterior aspects at the level of deformity, defects in proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes, and change in proteoglycan spectrum in cells and matrix. Twelve candidate genes were studied in chondrocytes isolated from vertebral growth plates of patients with Scheuermann’s disease. The study results included disorder in the IHH gene expression and preservation of the expression of PAX1, two aggrecan isoforms, link protein, types I and II collagen, lumican, versican, growth hormone and growth factor receptor genes, and proliferation gene. Preservation of the SOX9 gene (transcription gene) probably indicates posttranscriptional genetic disorders. The study is under way. A. M. Zaidman, M. N. Zaidman, E. L. Strokova, A. V. Korel, E. V. Kalashnikova, T. V. Rusova, and M. V. Mikhailovsky Copyright © 2013 A. M. Zaidman et al. All rights reserved. Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion Using a Modified Distractor Handle: A Midterm Clinicoradiological Follow-Up Study Mon, 09 Sep 2013 11:21:06 +0000 In current TLIF practice, the choice of the cage size is empirical and primarily depends on the case volume and experience of the surgeon. We used a self-made modified distractor handle in TLIF procedure with the goal of standardizing the intervertebral space tension and determining the proper cage size. Abuduaini Rewuti, Zixian Chen, Zhenzhou Feng, Yuanwu Cao, Xiaoxing Jiang, and Chun Jiang Copyright © 2013 Abuduaini Rewuti et al. All rights reserved. The Effect of Very High versus Very Low Sustained Loading on the Lower Back and Knees in Middle Life Thu, 05 Sep 2013 08:50:04 +0000 To evaluate the effect of the extremes of long term high and low physical activities on musculoskeletal heath in middle age, a historical cohort study was performed. The MRI knee and back findings of 25 randomly selected subjects who were inducted into the armed forces in 1983 and served at least 3 years as elite infantry soldiers were compared 25 years later, with 20 randomly selected subjects who were deferred from army service for full time religious studies at the same time. Both cohorts were from the same common genome. The two primary outcome measures were degenerative lumbar disc disease evaluated by the Pfirrmann score and degenerative knee changes evaluated by the WORMS score. At the 25-year follow up, the mean Pfirrmann score (8.6) for the L1 to S1 level of the elite infantry group was significantly higher than that of the sedentary group (6.7), (). There was no statistically significant difference between the WORMS knee scores between the two cohorts (). In spite of the much greater musculoskeletal loading history of the elite infantry cohort, only their lumbar spines but not their knees showed increased degenerative changes at middle age by MRI criteria. Yael Milgrom, Charles Milgrom, Naama Constantini, Yaakov Applbaum, Denitsa Radeva-Petrova, and Aharon S. Finestone Copyright © 2013 Yael Milgrom et al. All rights reserved. The Utility of Digital Linear Tomosynthesis Imaging of Total Hip Joint Arthroplasty with Suspicion of Loosening: A Prospective Study in 40 Patients Tue, 03 Sep 2013 11:17:15 +0000 Aim. The clinical utility of digital linear tomosynthesis in musculoskeletal applications has been validated in only a few reports. Technical performance and utility in hip prosthesis imaging have been discussed in technical reports, but no clinical evaluation has been reported. The purpose of the current study was to assess the added clinical utility of digital linear tomosynthesis compared to radiography in loosening of total hip joint arthroplasty. Materials and Methods. In a prospective study, radiography and digital tomosynthesis were performed in 40 consecutive patients with total hip arthroplasty referred for suspect prosthesis loosening. Tomosynthesis images were compared to anterior-posterior (AP) and cross-table lateral radiographs regarding demarcation and extent of demineralization and osteolysis. Further noted were skeletal fractures, cement fractures, fragmentation, and artifacts interfering with the diagnosis. Results. Tomosynthesis was superior to radiography with sharper delineation of demineralization and osteolysis in the AP projection. A limitation was the inability to generate lateral tomosynthesis images, with inferior assessment of the area anterior and posterior to the acetabular cup compared to cross-table radiographs. Artifacts interfering with diagnosis were found in one hip. Conclusion. Tomosynthesis improved evaluation of total hip arthroplasty in the AP projection but was limited by the lack of lateral projections. Jan H. Göthlin and Mats Geijer Copyright © 2013 Jan H. Göthlin and Mats Geijer. All rights reserved. Evidence for the Treatment of Osteoporosis with Vitamin D in Residential Care and in the Community Dwelling Elderly Sat, 24 Aug 2013 09:06:27 +0000 Introduction. Vitamin D is common treatment for osteoporosis. Both age >70 years and living in residential care are associated with increased fracture risk. Community dwelling elderly are a heterogeneous group who may have more similatiry with residential care groups than younger community dwelling counterparts. Aims. To review the evidence for cholecalciferol or ergocalciferol tretment of osteoporosis in either community dwelling patients aged ≥70 years of age, or redidential care patients. Secondly endpoints were changes in bone mineral denisty, and in bone turnover markers. Methods. We performed a literature search using search terms for osteoporosis and vitamin D. Treatment for at least one year was required. Results. Only one residential care study using cholecalciferol, showed non-vertebral and hip fracture reduction in vitamin D deficient subjects. In the community setting one quasi randomised study using ergocalciferol showed reduction in total but not hip or non-vertebral fracture, and a second randomised study showed increased hip fracture risk. Three studies reported increases in hip bone mineral denisty. Discussion. A minority of studies demonstrated a fracture benefit form vitamin D and one suggested possible harm in a community setting. Current practice should be to only offer this treatment to subjects identified as deficient. John A. A. Geddes and Charles A. Inderjeeth Copyright © 2013 John A. A. Geddes and Charles A. Inderjeeth. All rights reserved. Degenerative Spondylolisthesis Is Associated with Low Spinal Bone Density: A Comparative Study between Spinal Stenosis and Degenerative Spondylolisthesis Mon, 19 Aug 2013 08:11:29 +0000 Spinal stenosis and degenerative spondylolisthesis share many symptoms and the same treatment, but their causes remain unclear. Bone mineral density has been suggested to play a role. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in spinal bone density between spinal stenosis and degenerative spondylolisthesis patients. 81 patients older than 60 years, who underwent DXA-scanning of their lumbar spine one year after a lumbar spinal fusion procedure, were included. Radiographs were assessed for disc height, vertebral wedging, and osteophytosis. Pain was assessed using the Low Back Pain Rating Scale pain index. -score of the lumbar spine was significantly lower among degenerative spondylolisthesis patients compared with spinal stenosis patients (−1.52 versus −0.52, ). Thirty-nine percent of degenerative spondylolisthesis patients were classified as osteoporotic and further 30% osteopenic compared to only 9% of spinal stenosis patients being osteoporotic and 30% osteopenic (). Pain levels tended to increase with poorer bone status (). Patients treated surgically for symptomatic degenerative spondylolisthesis have much lower bone mass than patients of similar age treated surgically for spinal stenosis. Low BMD might play a role in the development of the degenerative spondylolisthesis, further studies are needed to clarify this. Thomas Andersen, Finn B. Christensen, Bente L. Langdahl, Carsten Ernst, Søren Fruensgaard, Jørgen Østergaard, Jens Langer Andersen, Sten Rasmussen, Bent Niedermann, Kristian Høy, Peter Helmig, Randi Holm, Niels Egund, and Cody Bünger Copyright © 2013 Thomas Andersen et al. All rights reserved. Development of a Detailed Volumetric Finite Element Model of the Spine to Simulate Surgical Correction of Spinal Deformities Wed, 07 Aug 2013 16:08:53 +0000 A large spectrum of medical devices exists; it aims to correct deformities associated with spinal disorders. The development of a detailed volumetric finite element model of the osteoligamentous spine would serve as a valuable tool to assess, compare, and optimize spinal devices. Thus the purpose of the study was to develop and initiate validation of a detailed osteoligamentous finite element model of the spine with simulated correction from spinal instrumentation. A finite element of the spine from T1 to L5 was developed using properties and geometry from the published literature and patient data. Spinal instrumentation, consisting of segmental translation of a scoliotic spine, was emulated. Postoperative patient and relevant published data of intervertebral disc stress, screw/vertebra pullout forces, and spinal profiles was used to evaluate the models validity. Intervertebral disc and vertebral reaction stresses respected published in vivo, ex vivo, and in silico values. Screw/vertebra reaction forces agreed with accepted pullout threshold values. Cobb angle measurements of spinal deformity following simulated surgical instrumentation corroborated with patient data. This computational biomechanical analysis validated a detailed volumetric spine model. Future studies seek to exploit the model to explore the performance of corrective spinal devices. Mark Driscoll, Jean-Marc Mac-Thiong, Hubert Labelle, and Stefan Parent Copyright © 2013 Mark Driscoll et al. All rights reserved. The Age-Related Changes in Cartilage and Osteoarthritis Mon, 22 Jul 2013 08:36:29 +0000 Osteoarthritis (OA) is closely associated with aging, but its underlying mechanism is unclear. Recent publications were reviewed to elucidate the connection between aging and OA. With increasing OA incidence, more senior people are facing heavy financial and social burdens. Age-related OA pathogenesis is not well understood. Recently, it has been realized that age-related changes in other tissues besides articular cartilage may also contribute to OA development. Many factors including senescence-related secretory phenotypes, chondrocytes’ low reactivity to growth factors, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, and abnormal accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) may all play key roles in the pathogenesis of age-related OA. Lately, epigenetic regulation of gene expression was recognized for its impact on age-related OA pathogenesis. Up to now, few studies have been reported about the role of miRNA and long-noncoding RNA (lncRNA) in age-related OA. Research focusing on this area may provide valuable insights into OA pathogenesis. OA-induced financial and social burdens have become an increasingly severe threat to older population. Age-related changes in noncartilage tissue should be incorporated in the understanding of OA development. Growing attention on oxidative stress and epigenetics will provide more important clues for the better understanding of the age-related OA. YongPing Li, XiaoChun Wei, JingMing Zhou, and Lei Wei Copyright © 2013 YongPing Li et al. All rights reserved. Pharmacokinetic Properties and Systemic Safety of Vancomycin-Impregnated Cancellous Bone Grafts in the Treatment of Spondylodiscitis Wed, 17 Jul 2013 10:13:57 +0000 The aim of the present study was to investigate the local pharmacokinetic properties and the systemic safety of vancomycin-impregnated cancellous bone grafts in the treatment of spondylodiscitis. Between 2010 and 2012, 8 patients (5 females, 3 males, mean age 68.75 y.) were treated with this method. Local vancomycin concentrations reached median values of 179 µg/mL (maximum 365 µg/mL) on day 1, decreasing to 98 µg/mL on day 3. The urine vancomycin concentrations showed similar pharmacokinetic properties as those locally determined. On day 1, median values were at 28.05 µg/mL (maximum 287 µg/mL). All serum vancomycin concentrations were in all cases and on every day below <2 µg/mL. The median serum creatinine values were preoperatively 0.87 mg/dL, followed by 0.625 mg/dL, 0.705 mg/dL, and 0.835 mg/dL on day 7, 14, and 28, respectively. No cases of ototoxicity could be observed. At a mean follow-up of 16.5 [4–36] months no cases of reinfections or persistent infections could be seen. In conclusion, the implantation of vancomycin-loaded cancellous bone grafts is an effective option in the treatment of spondylodiscitis with a high infection eradication rate and no risk of any systemic toxicity. The pharmacokinetic properties can be easily monitored locally, in the urine and the serum. Konstantinos Anagnostakos and Katrin Koch Copyright © 2013 Konstantinos Anagnostakos and Katrin Koch. All rights reserved. The Diagnostic Accuracy of Radionuclide Arthrography for Prosthetic Loosening in Hip and Knee Arthroplasty Mon, 15 Jul 2013 07:52:57 +0000 Purpose of Study. Diagnosis of prosthetic loosening in hip and knee arthroplasty remains a challenge. Although there are a number of diagnostic tools, no single test or combination is 100% sensitive or specific. There has been a recent interest in the use of radionuclide arthrography (RNA) for detection of prosthetic loosening. Methods. A retrospective review of 45 consecutive RNA scans from 2005 to 2010 was conducted. RNA findings were compared with intraoperative findings at revision and/or serial radiographic examinations to confirm loosening. A component was considered loose if sequential radiographs demonstrated macromotion, gross subsidence, or progressive radiolucency. Results. There were 26 females and 17 males, with mean age at RNA of 71 years (range of 53–89 years) and mean time from index surgery, 6.4 years (range of 0.5–23 years). There were 23 total knee replacements (TKR) (19 primary and 4 revision) and 20 total hip replacements (THR) (11 primary and 9 revision). 15 patients underwent revision surgery following RNA. Strict inclusion criteria allowed 27 patients for further analysis. Sixteen RNA scans were suggestive of loosening, of which 14 were confirmed loose. Eleven scans were suggestive of a stable prosthesis, of which 10 were confirmed well fixed. RNA had a sensitivity of 93%, specificity of 83%, positive predictive value of 88%, and negative predictive value of 91%. Conclusion. Radionuclide arthrography should be considered a useful adjunct in the diagnosis of prosthetic loosening in the challenging patient. Timothy H. French, Nicholas Russell, and Anand Pillai Copyright © 2013 Timothy H. French et al. All rights reserved. Mean 5-Year Clinical and Radiographic Outcomes of Cementless Total Hip Arthroplasty in Patients under the Age of 30 Mon, 24 Jun 2013 15:54:15 +0000 We performed a retrospective review of 40 consecutive modern cementless THAs with 65-month mean followup in 34 patients under the age of 30 primarily for diagnoses other than inflammatory arthritis. We found acceptable functional improvement and radiographic outcomes at mean 5-year followup. We found a high transfusion rate, dislocation rate (10%), and midterm overall aseptic revision rate (17%). Twenty-eight (67.5%) of hips in this series were metal on metal, with a large percentage of aseptic revisions related to metallosis (57%). When revisions due to metallosis were excluded, the aseptic revision rate was 7.5%. The high prevalence of prior pediatric hip surgery in these patients (50%) may predispose to increased technical difficulty resulting in increased complications and higher revision rates. Although our revision rate was high in these young patients, it is favorable compared to older techniques and consistent with the limited data available with modern cementless techniques in patients of similar age. Cementless THA with modern designs remains a viable option for the treatment of arthritis in the young patient. Jeremy M. Gililland, Lucas A. Anderson, Jill Erickson, Christopher E. Pelt, and Christopher L. Peters Copyright © 2013 Jeremy M. Gililland et al. All rights reserved. Incidence of Heterotopic Ossification after Surface and Conventional Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Comparative Study Using Anterolateral Approach and Indomethacin Prophylaxis Mon, 24 Jun 2013 15:12:10 +0000 The incidence and severity of heterotopic ossification (HO) in two homogeneous groups of patients that received surface replacement arthroplasty (SRA) and conventional total hip arthroplasty (THA) were evaluated retrospectively. Thirty-nine patients undergoing 42 hip resurfacing procedures and 41 primary cementless THAs through an anterolateral approach received a 10-day course of 150 mg/die of indomethacin postoperatively. The median surgical time was 190 minutes and 156 minutes, respectively (). At a minimum 1-year followup, the development of HO was assessed on standard X-ray using Brooker grading. Ectopic bone formation was detected in five cases (11.9%, two Brooker grade I and three grade II) in the SRA group and in 14 hips (34.1%, 12 grade I and two grade II) treated with conventional THA, but the difference was not significant (). No clinically relevant periprosthetic ossification (Brooker III or IV) occurred in both groups. Although the difference was not statistically significant, the incidence of HO after SRA was lower than conventional THA. More extensive soft tissue trauma, bone debris, and longer operative time in hip resurfacing are not likely to be absolute risk factors for HO. Further investigations including larger patient populations are needed to confirm these findings. Dario Regis, Andrea Sandri, and Elena Sambugaro Copyright © 2013 Dario Regis et al. All rights reserved. Fracture of Ceramic Bearing Surfaces following Total Hip Replacement: A Systematic Review Thu, 13 Jun 2013 11:31:03 +0000 Ceramic bearing surfaces are increasingly used for total hip replacement, notwithstanding that concern is still related to ceramic brittleness and its possible mechanical failure. The aim of this systematic review is to answer three questions: (1) Are there risk factors for ceramic component fracture following total hip replacement? (2) Is it possible to perform an early diagnosis of ceramic component failure before catastrophic fracture occurs? (3) Is it possible to draw guidelines for revision surgery after ceramic components failure? A PubMed and Google Scholar search was performed and reference citations from publications identified in the literature search were reviewed. The use of 28 mm short-neck femoral head carries an increased risk of fracture. Acetabular component malposition might increase the risk of ceramic liner fractures. Synovial fluid microanalysis and CT scan are promising in early diagnosis of ceramic head and liner failure. Early revision is suggested in case of component failure; no consensus exists about the better coupling for revision surgery. Ceramic brittleness remains a major concern. Due to the increased number of ceramic on ceramic implants, more revision surgeries and reports on ceramic components failure are expected in the future. An algorithm of diagnosis and treatment for ceramic hip failure is proposed. Francesco Traina, Marcello De Fine, Alberto Di Martino, and Cesare Faldini Copyright © 2013 Francesco Traina et al. All rights reserved. Intraosseous Ganglia: A Series of 17 Treated Cases Thu, 13 Jun 2013 10:25:55 +0000 Background. Intraosseous ganglion is a cystic lesion that contains gelatinous material, most often occurs in middle-aged patients, and is regarded as similar to soft-tissue ganglion. The etiology is unknown, but association with degenerative joint disease has been considered. Materials and Methods. At a single institute, 17 patients (8 men, 9 women) with a mean age of 48.9 years (22–72 years) were surgically treated for an intraosseous ganglion. The lesions were located in 9 long bones (5 tibiae, 2 humeri, 1 ulna, and 1 femur); 4 flat bones (2 scapulae, 2 ilia); and 4 small bones (2 scaphoid, 1 metacarpal bone, and 1 talus). The diagnosis was confirmed based both on the gross intraoperative finding of intralesional gelatinous material and on histopathology. Results. All lesions occurred at the epiphysis or near the joint. The plain radiographs showed a lesion with marginal osteosclerosis. The average lesion size was 22.4 mm (range 6–40 mm). Among the 17 patients, 2 (12%) had osteoarthritis, 3 (18%) had pathological fracture, and 4 (24%) had extraskeletal extension. Discussion and Conclusion. The periosteum and cortex of bone represent physical barriers. Therefore, it seems much more likely that primary bone lesions will spread to the soft tissues. Intraosseous ganglion does not appear to be associated with either soft-tissue ganglion or with osteoarthritis. This clinical information and the appearance on plain radiographs, particularly the marginal osteosclerosis, are of differential diagnostic importance. Akio Sakamoto, Yoshinao Oda, and Yukihide Iwamoto Copyright © 2013 Akio Sakamoto et al. All rights reserved. In Vivo Caprine Model for Osteomyelitis and Evaluation of Biofilm-Resistant Intramedullary Nails Tue, 11 Jun 2013 15:34:38 +0000 Bone infection remains a formidable challenge to the medical field. The goal of the current study is to evaluate antibacterial coatings in vitro and to develop a large animal model to assess coated bone implants. A novel coating consisting of titanium oxide and siloxane polymer doped with silver was created by metal-organic methods. The coating was tested in vitro using rapid screening techniques to determine compositions which inhibited Staphylococcus aureus growth, while not affecting osteoblast viability. The coating was then applied to intramedullary nails and evaluated in vivo in a caprine model. In this pilot study, a fracture was created in the tibia of the goat, and Staphylococcus aureus was inoculated directly into the bone canal. The fractures were fixed by either coated (treated) or non-coated intramedullary nails (control) for 5 weeks. Clinical observations as well as microbiology, mechanical, radiology, and histology testing were used to compare the animals. The treated goat was able to walk using all four limbs after 5 weeks, while the control was unwilling to bear weight on the fixed leg. These results suggest the antimicrobial potential of the hybrid coating and the feasibility of the goat model for antimicrobial coated intramedullary implant evaluation. Nhiem Tran, Phong A. Tran, John D. Jarrell, Julie B. Engiles, Nathan P. Thomas, Matthew D. Young, Roman A. Hayda, and Christopher T. Born Copyright © 2013 Nhiem Tran et al. All rights reserved. Hip Fracture Surgery: Does Type of Anesthesia Matter? Sun, 02 Jun 2013 09:25:58 +0000 Background. Hip fracture surgery is a common procedure, and the geriatric population with its multiple comorbid conditions is at most at risk of developing anesthesia-related complications. Data on the impact of type anesthesia on postoperative morbidity and mortality is limited. The effects of regional and general anesthesia on postoperative outcomes need to be clearly elucidated. Methods. In this study, all patients who underwent dynamic hip screw (DHS) fixation for intertrochanteric fractures, between January 2005 and December 2010, at the Aga Khan University Hospital, were included. Patients were divided into two groups; group A included those patients who received general anesthesia, and group B consisted of patients who had received regional anesthesia. The two groups were compared for differences in morbidity, mortality, and intraoperative complications based on the type of anesthesia administered. Results. During this period, 194 patients underwent DHS fixation. One hundred and seven patients received general anesthesia whereas eighty-seven patients received regional anesthesia. The mean operative time was significantly lower in the group receiving regional anesthesia ( hrs) as compared to those who received general anesthesia ( hrs) (). There were no statistically significant differences in the rates of wound infections, length of hospital stay, postoperative ambulation status, intraoperative blood loss, postoperative complications, and mortality between the regional and general anesthesia groups. Conclusion. Even though administration of regional anesthesia was positively correlated with shorter operative duration, the type of anesthesia was not found to affect surgical outcomes in the two study groups. Based on these results, we recommend that anesthesia should be tailored to individual patient requirements. Rizwan Haroon Rashid, Adil Aijaz Shah, Amarah Shakoor, and Shahryar Noordin Copyright © 2013 Rizwan Haroon Rashid et al. All rights reserved. Measurement of the Silver Ion Concentration in Wound Fluids after Implantation of Silver-Coated Megaprostheses: Correlation with the Clinical Outcome Wed, 29 May 2013 08:45:23 +0000 Background. Tumor patients and patients after traumas are endangered by a reduced immune defense, and a silver coating on their megaprostheses may reduce their risks of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the silver ion concentration directly measured from the periprosthetic tissue and the influence on the clinical outcome. Material and Methods. Silver ions were evaluated in 5 mL wound fluids two days postoperatively and in blood patients 7 and 14 days after surgery using inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry in 18 patients who underwent total joint replacement with a silver-coated megaendoprosthesis. Results. The concentration of silver ions averaged 0.08 parts per million. Patients who showed an increased silver concentration in the blood postoperatively presented a lower silver concentration in the wound fluids and a delayed decrease in C-reactive protein levels. There were significantly fewer reinfections and shorter hospitalization in comparison with a group that did not receive a silver-coated megaprosthesis. Conclusion. An increased concentration of silver in the immediate surroundings of silver-coated prostheses was demonstrated for the first time in cohorts of patients with trauma or tumors. An elevated concentration of silver ions in the direct periprosthetic tissue may have reduced the infection rate. B. Hussmann, I. Johann, M. D. Kauther, S. Landgraeber, Marcus Jäger, and S. Lendemans Copyright © 2013 B. Hussmann et al. All rights reserved. A New Piezoelectric Actuator Induces Bone Formation In Vivo: A Preliminary Study Thu, 31 May 2012 09:00:16 +0000 This in vivo study presents the preliminary results of the use of a novel piezoelectric actuator for orthopedic application. The innovative use of the converse piezoelectric effect to mechanically stimulate bone was achieved with polyvinylidene fluoride actuators implanted in osteotomy cuts in sheep femur and tibia. The biological response around the osteotomies was assessed through histology and histomorphometry in nondecalcified sections and histochemistry and immunohistochemistry in decalcified sections, namely, through Masson's trichrome, and labeling of osteopontin, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase. After one-month implantation, total bone area and new bone area were significantly higher around actuators when compared to static controls. Bone deposition rate was also significantly higher in the mechanically stimulated areas. In these areas, osteopontin increased expression was observed. The present in vivo study suggests that piezoelectric materials and the converse piezoelectric effect may be used to effectively stimulate bone growth. Joana Reis, Clara Frias, Carlos Canto e Castro, Maria Luísa Botelho, António Torres Marques, José António Oliveira Simões, Fernando Capela e Silva, and José Potes Copyright © 2012 Joana Reis et al. All rights reserved. Significance of Nano- and Microtopography for Cell-Surface Interactions in Orthopaedic Implants Thu, 27 Sep 2007 00:00:00 +0000 Cell-surface interactions play a crucial role for biomaterial application in orthopaedics. It is evident that not only the chemical composition of solid substances influence cellular adherence, migration, proliferation and differentiation but also the surface topography of a biomaterial. The progressive application of nanostructured surfaces in medicine has gained increasing interest to improve the cytocompatibility and osteointegration of orthopaedic implants. Therefore, the understanding of cell-surface interactions is of major interest for these substances. In this review, we elucidate the principle mechanisms of nano- and microscale cell-surface interactions in vitro for different cell types onto typical orthopaedic biomaterials such as titanium (Ti), cobalt-chrome-molybdenum (CoCrMo) alloys, stainless steel (SS), as well as synthetic polymers (UHMWPE, XLPE, PEEK, PLLA). In addition, effects of nano- and microscaled particles and their significance in orthopaedics were reviewed. The significance for the cytocompatibility of nanobiomaterials is discussed critically. M. Jäger, C. Zilkens, K. Zanger, and R. Krauspe Copyright © 2007 M. Jäger et al. All rights reserved.