BioMed Research International: Toxicology The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Histopathological, Ultrastructural, and Immunohistochemical Assessment of Hippocampus Structures of Rats Exposed to TCDD and High Doses of Tocopherol and Acetylsalicylic Acid Tue, 24 Mar 2015 09:53:04 +0000 The effect of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on central nervous system consists of changing expression of estrogen receptors, whereas the result of chronic inflammatory reaction caused by dioxin is occurrence of destructive changes in various organs connected with disturbed metabolism of connective tissue and damage of cells. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of dioxins on function, ultrastructure, and cytological and histological structure of hippocampus, particularly on expression of estrogen receptors in central nervous system as well as to define protective influence of tocopherol (TCP) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) on the decrease in activity of proinflammatory effects in central nervous system. It was shown that TCDD contributes to destructive and inflammatory changes along with demyelization of myelin sheaths and atrophy of estrogen receptors in hippocampus. Dioxin contributes to atrophy of estrogen receptors in hippocampus, in which also destructive and inflammatory changes were found along with demyelination of myelin sheaths. Histopathological and ultrastructural image of hippocampus areas in rats, in which both TCP and ASA were used, is characterized by poorly expressed degenerative changes and smaller inflammatory reactivity. Using both TCP and ASA has a protective effect on functions of central nervous system. Joanna Rosińczuk, Robert Dymarek, and Ireneusz Całkosiński Copyright © 2015 Joanna Rosińczuk et al. All rights reserved. Acute and Chronic Toxicity, Cytochrome P450 Enzyme Inhibition, and hERG Channel Blockade Studies with a Polyherbal, Ayurvedic Formulation for Inflammation Tue, 17 Mar 2015 09:03:58 +0000 Ayurvedic plants are known for thousands of years to have anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic effect. We have recently shown that BV-9238, a proprietary formulation of Withania somnifera, Boswellia serrata, Zingiber officinale, and Curcuma longa, inhibits LPS-induced TNF-alpha and nitric oxide production from mouse macrophage and reduces inflammation in different animal models. To evaluate the safety parameters of BV-9238, we conducted a cytotoxicity study in RAW 264.7 cells (0.005–1 mg/mL) by MTT/formazan method, an acute single dose (2–10 g/kg bodyweight) toxicity study and a 180-day chronic study with 1 g and 2 g/kg bodyweight in Sprague Dawley rats. Some sedation, ptosis, and ataxia were observed for first 15–20 min in very high acute doses and hence not used for further chronic studies. At the end of 180 days, gross and histopathology, blood cell counts, liver and renal functions were all at normal levels. Further, a modest attempt was made to assess the effects of BV-9238 (0.5 µg/mL) on six major human cytochrome P450 enzymes and 3H radioligand binding assay with human hERG receptors. BV-9238 did not show any significant inhibition of these enzymes at the tested dose. All these suggest that BV-9238 has potential as a safe and well tolerated anti-inflammatory formulation for future use. Debendranath Dey, Sunetra Chaskar, Nitin Athavale, and Deepa Chitre Copyright © 2015 Debendranath Dey et al. All rights reserved. Natural Antioxidant Betanin Protects Rats from Paraquat-Induced Acute Lung Injury Interstitial Pneumonia Thu, 12 Mar 2015 14:13:28 +0000 The effect of betanin on a rat paraquat-induced acute lung injury (ALI) model was investigated. Paraquat was injected intraperitoneally at a single dose of 20 mg/kg body weight, and betanin (25 and 100 mg/kg/d) was orally administered 3 days before and 2 days after paraquat administration. Rats were sacrificed 24 hours after the last betanin dosage, and lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were collected. In rats treated only with paraquat, extensive lung injury characteristic of ALI was observed, including histological changes, elevation of lung : body weight ratio, increased lung permeability, increased lung neutrophilia infiltration, increased malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, reduced claudin-4 and zonula occluden-1 protein levels, increased BALF interleukin (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels, reduced BALF IL-10 levels, and increased lung nuclear factor kappa (NF-κB) activity. In rats treated with betanin, paraquat-induced ALI was attenuated in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, our results indicate that betanin attenuates paraquat-induced ALI possibly via antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Thus, the potential for using betanin as an auxilliary therapy for ALI should be explored further. Junyan Han, Deshun Ma, Miao Zhang, Xuelian Yang, and Dehong Tan Copyright © 2015 Junyan Han et al. All rights reserved. The Mechanism of Melanocytes-Specific Cytotoxicity Induced by Phenol Compounds Having a Prooxidant Effect, relating to the Appearance of Leukoderma Thu, 12 Mar 2015 11:05:18 +0000 Specific phenol compounds including rhododendrol (RD), a skin-brightening ingredient in cosmetics, are reported to induce leukoderma, inducing a social problem, and the elucidation of mechanism of leukoderma is strongly demanded. This study investigated the relationship among the cytotoxicities of six phenol compounds on B16F10 melanoma cells and HaCaT keratinocytes and generated reactive oxygen species (ROS). As a result, the cytotoxicity of RD on B16F10 cells was higher than that on HaCaT cells, and RD significantly increased intracellular ROS and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels in B16F10 cells. Furthermore, although raspberry ketone (RK), RD derivative, also increased intracellular ROS in B16F10 cells, increase in ROS was suppressed by disodium dihydrogen ethylenediaminetetraacetate dehydrate (EDTA). The amounts of increased ROS with RK in HaCaT cells without melanocyte were further increased by tyrosinase. Therefore, tyrosinase, a metalloprotein having copper, was speculated to be one of causative agents allowing phenol compounds to work as a prooxidant. Hydroxyl radical was generated by adding a mixture of tyrosinase and H2O2 to RD, and the amount of the radical was further increased by UVB, indicating that RD cytotoxicity was caused by intracellularly increased ROS, which possibly related to phenol induced prooxidants. Takeshi Nagata, Shinobu Ito, Kazuyoshi Itoga, Hideko Kanazawa, and Hitoshi Masaki Copyright © 2015 Takeshi Nagata et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Toxic, Cytotoxic, Mutagenic, and Antimutagenic Activities of Natural and Technical Cashew Nut Shell Liquids Using the Allium cepa and Artemia salina Bioassays Tue, 10 Mar 2015 12:29:10 +0000 The cashew nut releases a substance that is known as cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL). There are both natural (iCNSL) and technical (tCNSL) cashew nut shell liquids. This study used an Artemia salina bioassay to evaluate the toxic effects of iCNSL and tCNSL cashew nut shell liquids. It also evaluated the toxicity, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity of CNSL and its effects on the damage induced by copper sulfate (CuSO4·5H2O) on the meristems’ root of Allium cepa. Effects of the damage induced by CuSO4·5H2O were evaluated before (pre-), during (co-), and after (post-) treatments. The iCNSL contained 94.5% anacardic acid, and the tCNSL contained 91.3% cardanol. The liquids were toxic to A. salina. Toxicity, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity were observed with iCNSL compared with the negative control. Similarly, iCNSL failed to inhibit the toxicity and cytotoxicity of CuSO4·5H2O. The tCNSL was not toxic, cytotoxic, or mutagenic in any of the concentrations. However, the lowest iCNSL concentrations and all of the tCNSL concentrations had preventive, antimutagenic, and reparative effects on micronuclei and on chromosomal aberrations in the A. cepa. Therefore, protective, modulating, and reparative effects may be observed in the A. cepa, depending on the concentration and type of CNSL used. Aracelli de Sousa Leite, Alisson Ferreira Dantas, George Laylson da Silva Oliveira, Antonio L. Gomes Júnior, Sidney Gonçalo de Lima, Antônia Maria das Graças Lopes Citó, Rivelilson M. de Freitas, Ana Amélia de C. Melo-Cavalcante, and José Arimateia Dantas Lopes Copyright © 2015 Aracelli de Sousa Leite et al. All rights reserved. Protective and Curative Effects of the Sea Cucumber Holothuria atra Extract against DMBA-Induced Hepatorenal Diseases in Rats Mon, 02 Mar 2015 09:18:29 +0000 Oxidative stress is a common mechanism contributing to the initiation and progression of hepatic damage. Hence there is a great demand for the development of agents with potent antioxidant effect. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the efficacy of Holothuria atra extract (HaE) as an antioxidant against 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene- (DMBA-) induced hepatorenal dysfunction. Experimental animals were divided into two main groups: protective and curative. Each group was then divided into five subgroups pre- or posttreated either with distilled water (DMBA subgroups) or with HaE (200 mg/kg body weight) for seven and fourteen days. Single oral administration of DMBA (15 mg/kg body weight) to Wistar rats resulted in a significant increase in the serum liver enzymes and kidney function’s parameters. DMBA increased level of liver malondialdehyde (MDA), decreased levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) in the liver tissue, and induced liver histopathological alterations. Pre- or posttreatment with HaE orally for 14 days significantly reversed the hepatorenal alterations induced following DMBA administration. In conclusion, HaE exhibits good hepatoprotective, curative, and antioxidant potential against DMBA-induced hepatorenal dysfunction in rats that might be due to decreased free radical generation. Ahmed I. Dakrory, Sohair R. Fahmy, Amel M. Soliman, Ayman S. Mohamed, and Sayed A. M. Amer Copyright © 2015 Ahmed I. Dakrory et al. All rights reserved. Chronic Ingestion of High Dosed Phikud Navakot Extraction Induces Mesangiolysis in Rats with Alteration of AQP1 and Hsp60 Expressions Sun, 01 Mar 2015 07:53:04 +0000 Phikud Navakot (PN) is commonly used in Thai traditional medicine for alleviation of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular symptoms; however little is known about the chronic toxicity effects of the extracts from the herbs in PN. Repeated extraction doses of 10, 100, and 1,000 mg/kg/day were randomly administered to both male and female Sprague Dawley rats for 12 months. Histopathological study revealed that mesangiolysis was predominately found at the highest dose. Aquaporin 1 (AQP1) expression in the mesangiolytic glomeruli was significantly lower than in the intact glomeruli. This may be relevant to an imbalance of vascular function manifested by AQP1 alteration. In the mesangiolytic glomeruli, 60 kDa heat shock protein (Hsp60) was significantly upregulated on the endothelial lining cells of aneurysm and vascular cyst. Hsp60 increase may be related to endothelial cell damage due to its intracellular protective role. Blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels remained within their normal range indicating well-functioning renal reserve function. In conclusion, high dosed PN may affect the endothelium leading to inability of vascular permeability and consequence to mesangiolysis. Our results suggest that only a high dose of chronic oral administration of PN is relatively toxic in association with mesangiolysis. The NOAEL was determined to be 100 mg/kg/day. Kanchana Kengkoom and Sumate Ampawong Copyright © 2015 Kanchana Kengkoom and Sumate Ampawong. All rights reserved. Environmental Lead Exposure, Catalase Gene, and Markers of Antioxidant and Oxidative Stress Relation to Hypertension: An Analysis Based on the EGAT Study Sun, 22 Feb 2015 14:36:13 +0000 Lead has been linked to the development of hypertension via oxidative stress. Catalase plays an important role in the disposal of hydrogen peroxide in erythrocyte and its activity was determined by CAT gene. The aims of this study were to investigate (1) the association between blood levels of antioxidant markers such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, oxidative stress-marker (malondialdehyde), and blood lead level and (2) the influence of genetic polymorphism of CAT gene (rs769217) on change in blood pressure in general population of EGAT study project. This is a cross-sectional study of 332 normotensive, 432 prehypertensive, and 222 hypertensive male subjects. Hypertensive subjects had significantly higher blood lead level (5.28 μg/dL) compared to normotensive (4.41 μg/dL) and prehypertensive (4.55 μg/dL) subjects (). These significant findings are also found in MDA levels. Moreover, individuals with TT genotype in hypertensive group had significantly higher blood lead and MDA levels (6.06 μg/dL and 9.67 μmol/L) than those with CC genotype (5.32 μg/dL and 8.31 μmol/L, ). Our findings suggested that decreased blood catalase activity in this polymorphism together with low level lead exposure induced lipid peroxidation may be responsible for hypertension. Jintana Sirivarasai, Sukhumpun Kaojarern, Suwannee Chanprasertyothin, Pachara Panpunuan, Krittaya Petchpoung, Aninthita Tatsaneeyapant, Krongtong Yoovathaworn, Thunyachai Sura, Sming Kaojarern, and Piyamit Sritara Copyright © 2015 Jintana Sirivarasai et al. All rights reserved. Comment on “Effectiveness of Naltrexone in the Prevention of Delayed Respiratory Arrest in Opioid-Naive Methadone-Intoxicated Patients” Sun, 22 Feb 2015 14:08:36 +0000 Abbas Aghabiklooei, Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam, and Nasim Zamani Copyright © 2015 Abbas Aghabiklooei et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Sodium Benzoate Preservative on Micronucleus Induction, Chromosome Break, and Ala40Thr Superoxide Dismutase Gene Mutation in Lymphocytes Tue, 17 Feb 2015 10:54:39 +0000 Sodium benzoate is food preservative that inhibits microbial growth. The effects of sodium benzoate preservative on micronucleus induction, chromosome break, and Ala40Thr superoxide dismutase gene mutation in lymphocytes were studied. Sodium benzoate concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mg/mL were treated in lymphocyte cell line for 24 and 48 hrs, respectively. Micronucleus test, standard chromosome culture technique, PCR, and automated sequencing technique were done to detect micronucleus, chromosome break, and gene mutation. The results showed that, at 24- and 48-hour. incubation time, sodium benzoate concentrations of 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mg/mL increased micronucleus formation when comparing with the control group (). At 24- and 48-hour. incubation time, sodium benzoate concentrations of 2.0 mg/mL increased chromosome break when comparing with the control group (). Sodium benzoate did not cause Ala40Thr (GCGACG) in superoxide dismutase gene. Sodium benzoate had the mutagenic and cytotoxic toxicity in lymphocytes caused by micronucleus formation and chromosome break. Malinee Pongsavee Copyright © 2015 Malinee Pongsavee. All rights reserved. DNaseI Protects against Paraquat-Induced Acute Lung Injury and Pulmonary Fibrosis Mediated by Mitochondrial DNA Wed, 11 Feb 2015 11:42:38 +0000 Background. Paraquat (PQ) poisoning is a lethal toxicological challenge that served as a disease model of acute lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis, but the mechanism is undetermined and no effective treatment has been discovered. Methods and Findings. We demonstrated that PQ injures mitochondria and leads to mtDNA release. The mtDNA mediated PBMC recruitment and stimulated the alveolar epithelial cell production of TGF-β1 in vitro. The levels of mtDNA in circulation and bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were elevated in a mouse of PQ-induced lung injury. DNaseI could protect PQ-induced lung injury and significantly improved survival. Acute lung injury markers, such as TNFα, IL-1β, and IL-6, and marker of fibrosis, collagen I, were downregulated in parallel with the elimination of mtDNA by DNaseI. These data indicate a possible mechanism for PQ-induced, mtDNA-mediated lung injury, which may be shared by other causes of lung injury, as suggested by the same protective effect of DNaseI in bleomycin-induced lung injury model. Interestingly, increased mtDNA in the BALF of patients with amyopathic dermatomyositis-interstitial lung disease can be appreciated. Conclusions. DNaseI targeting mtDNA may be a promising approach for the treatment of PQ-induced acute lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis that merits fast tracking through clinical trials. Guo Li, Li Yuzhen, Chen Yi, Chen Xiaoxiang, Zhou Wei, Zhu Changqing, and Ye Shuang Copyright © 2015 Guo Li et al. All rights reserved. PEGylated Carbon Nanotubes Impair Retrieval of Contextual Fear Memory and Alter Oxidative Stress Parameters in the Rat Hippocampus Mon, 09 Feb 2015 13:24:31 +0000 Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are promising materials for biomedical applications, especially in the field of neuroscience; therefore, it is essential to evaluate the neurotoxicity of these nanomaterials. The present work assessed the effects of single-walled CNT functionalized with polyethylene glycol (SWCNT-PEG) on the consolidation and retrieval of contextual fear memory in rats and on oxidative stress parameters in the hippocampus. SWCNT-PEG were dispersed in water at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.1 mg/mL and infused into the rat hippocampus. The infusion was completed immediately after training and 30 min before testing of a contextual fear conditioning task, resulting in exposure times of 24 h and 30 min, respectively. The results showed that a short exposure to SWCNT-PEG impaired fear memory retrieval and caused lipid peroxidation in the hippocampus. This response was transient and overcome by the mobilization of antioxidant defenses at 24 h. These effects occurred at low and intermediate but not high concentration of SWCNT-PEG, suggesting that the observed biological response may be related to the concentration-dependent increase in particle size in SWCNT-PEG dispersions. Lidiane Dal Bosco, Gisele E. B. Weber, Gustavo M. Parfitt, Karina Paese, Carla O. F. Gonçalves, Tiago M. Serodre, Clascídia A. Furtado, Adelina P. Santos, José M. Monserrat, and Daniela M. Barros Copyright © 2015 Lidiane Dal Bosco et al. All rights reserved. Cinnabar Induces Renal Inflammation and Fibrogenesis in Rats Thu, 05 Feb 2015 06:43:24 +0000 The purpose of this study was to investigate whether cinnabar causes renal inflammation and fibrosis in rats. Rats were dosed orally with cinnabar (1 g/kg/day) for 8 weeks or 12 weeks. The control rats were treated with solvent (5% carboxymethylcellulose solution) over the same time periods, respectively. Renal mercury (RHg), urinary mercury (UHg), serum creatinine (SCr), urine kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1), renal pathology, and renal mediators were examined. At both 8 weeks and 12 weeks, RHg, UHg, and urine KIM-1 were significantly higher in the cinnabar group than in the control group, although SCr was unchanged. Kidney lesions in the cinnabar-treated rats occurred mainly in the tubules and interstitium, including vacuolization, protein casts, infiltration of inflammatory cells, and slight increase in interstitial collagen. In addition, mild mesangial proliferation was observed in glomeruli. Moreover, the expression of inflammatory and fibrogenic mediators was upregulated in the cinnabar group. In conclusion, cinnabar may cause kidney damage due to the accumulation of mercury, and renal inflammation and slight fibrogenesis may occur in rats. In the clinic, the potential risk of renal injury due to the prolonged consumption of cinnabar should be considered even though the agent is relatively nontoxic. Ying Wang, Dapeng Wang, Jie Wu, Bohan Wang, Liangjun Wang, Xin Gao, Hai Huang, and Honglin Ma Copyright © 2015 Ying Wang et al. All rights reserved. Ring-Oxidative Biotransformation and Drug Interactions of Propofol in the Livers of Rats Sun, 01 Feb 2015 13:52:42 +0000 Propofol, an intravenous anesthetic agent, is widely used for inducing and maintaining anesthesia during surgical procedures and for sedating intensive care unit patients. In the clinic, rapid elimination is one of the major advantages of propofol. Meanwhile, the biotransformation and drug interactions of propofol in rat livers are still little known. In this study, we evaluated the ring-oxidative metabolism of propofol in phenobarbital-treated rat livers and possible drug interactions. Administration of phenobarbital to male Wistar rats significantly increased levels of hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2B1/2 and microsomal pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (PROD) activity. Analyses by high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography mass spectroscopy revealed that propofol was metabolized by phenobarbital-treated rat liver microsomes into 4-hydroxypropofol. In comparison, PROD activity and 4-hydroxy-propofol production from propofol metabolism were suppressed by orphenodrine, an inhibitor of CYP2B1/2, and a polyclonal antibody against rat CYP2B1/2 protein. Furthermore, exposure of rats to propofol did not affect the basal or phenobarbital-enhanced levels of hepatic CYP2B1/2 protein. Meanwhile, propofol decreased the dealkylation of pentoxyresorufin by phenobarbital-treated rat liver microsomes in a concentration-dependent manner. Taken together, this study shows that rat hepatic CYP2B1/2 plays a critical role in the ring-oxidative metabolism of propofol into 4-hydroxypropofol, and this anesthetic agent can inhibit CYP2B1/2 activity without affecting protein synthesis. Yu-Ting Tai, Yi-Ling Lin, Chia-Chen Chang, Yih-Giun Cherng, Ming-Jaw Don, and Ruei-Ming Chen Copyright © 2015 Yu-Ting Tai et al. All rights reserved. Status, Alert System, and Prediction of Cyanobacterial Bloom in South Korea Sun, 01 Feb 2015 09:55:32 +0000 Bloom-forming freshwater cyanobacterial genera pose a major ecological problem due to their ability to produce toxins and other bioactive compounds, which can have important implications in illnesses of humans and livestock. Cyanobacteria such as Microcystis, Anabaena, Oscillatoria, Phormidium, and Aphanizomenon species producing microcystins and anatoxin-a have been predominantly documented from most South Korean lakes and reservoirs. With the increase in frequency of such blooms, various monitoring approaches, treatment processes, and prediction models have been developed in due course. In this paper we review the field studies and current knowledge on toxin producing cyanobacterial species and ecological variables that regulate toxin production and bloom formation in major rivers (Han, Geum, Nakdong, and Yeongsan) and reservoirs in South Korea. In addition, development of new, fast, and high-throughput techniques for effective monitoring is also discussed with cyanobacterial bloom advisory practices, current management strategies, and their implications in South Korean freshwater bodies. Ankita Srivastava, Chi-Yong Ahn, Ravi Kumar Asthana, Hyung-Gwan Lee, and Hee-Mock Oh Copyright © 2015 Ankita Srivastava et al. All rights reserved. Salvianolic Acids Attenuate Rat Hippocampal Injury after Acute CO Poisoning by Improving Blood Flow Properties Sun, 01 Feb 2015 09:53:37 +0000 Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning causes the major injury and death due to poisoning worldwide. The most severe damage via CO poisoning is brain injury and mortality. Delayed encephalopathy after acute CO poisoning (DEACMP) occurs in forty percent of the survivors of acute CO exposure. But the pathological cause for DEACMP is not well understood. And the corresponding therapy is not well developed. In order to investigate the effects of salvianolic acid (SA) on brain injury caused by CO exposure from the view point of hemorheology, we employed a rat model and studied the dynamic of blood changes in the hemorheological and coagulative properties over acute CO exposure. Compared with the groups of CO and 20% mannitol + CO treatments, the severe hippocampal injury caused by acute CO exposure was prevented by SA treatment. These protective effects were associated with the retaining level of hematocrit (Hct), plasma viscosity, fibrinogen, whole blood viscosities and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in red blood cells (RBCs). These results indicated that SA treatment could significantly improve the deformation of erythrocytes and prevent the damage caused by CO poisoning. Meanwhile, hemorheological indexes are good indicators for monitoring the pathological dynamic after acute CO poisoning. Li Guan, Yan-Lin Zhang, Zong-Yang Li, Ming-Xia Zhu, Wei-Juan Yao, and Jin-Yuan Zhao Copyright © 2015 Li Guan et al. All rights reserved. Transcriptional and Biochemical Effects of Cadmium and Manganese on the Defense System of Octopus vulgaris Paralarvae Thu, 29 Jan 2015 06:59:50 +0000 Due to anthropogenic activities the relative concentrations of cadmium and manganese have increased in the marine environment. Cephalopods are able to accumulate such metals and, as inhabitant of coastal waters, Octopus vulgaris is continuously exposed to anthropogenic activities. Since no study is available on the effects of heavy metals at molecular level in developing octopuses, herein we exposed 1-day-old paralarvae for 24 h to 10, 100, and 1000 μg/L of CdCl2 or MnCl2. Cd exerted a concentration-dependent inhibition of survival and a reduction in growth rate was shown while Mn exposure did not affect the survival rate even at the highest concentrations. Gene expression profiles of hsp70, sod, cat, and gst genes were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and defined patterns of transcription were observed. Moreover posttranscriptional analyses were also performed suggesting the impairment of metabolic functions, under strong oxidative conditions (as occurred in paralarvae exposed to Cd) or the complete detoxification events (as occurred in paralarvae exposed to Mn). Aldo Nicosia, Monica Salamone, Salvatore Mazzola, and Angela Cuttitta Copyright © 2015 Aldo Nicosia et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Dietary Lead on Intestinal Nutrient Transporters mRNA Expression in Broiler Chickens Wed, 28 Jan 2015 07:18:23 +0000 Lead- (Pb-) induced oxidative stress is known to suppress growth performance and feed efficiency in broiler chickens. In an attempt to describe the specific underlying mechanisms of such phenomenon we carried out the current study. Ninety-six one-day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 2 dietary treatment groups of 6 pen replicates, namely, (i) basal diet containing no lead supplement (control) and (ii) basal diet containing 200 mg lead acetate/kg of diet. Following 3 weeks of experimental period, jejunum samples were collected to examine the changes in gene expression of several nutrient transporters, antioxidant enzymes, and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) using quantitative real-time PCR. The results showed that addition of lead significantly decreased feed intake, body weight gain, and feed efficiency. Moreover, with the exception of GLUT5, the expression of all sugar, peptide, and amino acid transporters was significantly downregulated in the birds under Pb induced oxidative stress. Exposure to Pb also upregulated the antioxidant enzymes gene expression together with the downregulation of glutathione S-transferase and Hsp70. In conclusion, it appears that Pb-induced oxidative stress adversely suppresses feed efficiency and growth performance in chicken and the possible underlying mechanism for such phenomenon is downregulation of major nutrient transporter genes in small intestine. Roohollah Ebrahimi, Mohammad Faseleh Jahromi, Juan Boo Liang, Abdoreza Soleimani Farjam, Parisa Shokryazdan, and Zulkifli Idrus Copyright © 2015 Roohollah Ebrahimi et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Spirulina Intervention on Oxidative Stress, Antioxidant Status, and Lipid Profile in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients Thu, 22 Jan 2015 13:15:48 +0000 Background and Objective. Oxidative stress is intimately associated with many diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Study objectives include a comparison of the oxidative stress, antioxidant status, and lipid profile between COPD patients and controls and evaluation of the effect of spirulina intervention on oxidative stress, antioxidant status, and lipid profile of COPD patients. Methods. 30 patients with COPD and 20 controls with no respiratory problems were selected. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria were served as the basis of COPD diagnosis. The serum content of malondialdehyde (MDA), lipid hydroperoxide, glutathione (GSH), vitamin C, cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), and high density lipoprotein (HDL) was measured. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione-s-transferase (GST) was also measured. Two different doses, (500 × 2) mg and (500 × 4) mg spirulina, were given to two groups, each of which comprises 15 COPD patients. Results. All targeted blood parameters have significant difference between COPD patients and controls except triglyceride (TG). Spirulina intake for 30 and 60 days at (500 × 2) mg dose has significantly reduced serum content of MDA, lipid hydroperoxide, and cholesterol while increasing GSH, Vit C level , and the activity of SOD and GST . At the same time, spirulina intake for 30 and 60 days at (500 × 4) mg dose has favorable significant effect on all targeted blood parameters except for HDL . Md. Ismail, Md. Faruk Hossain, Arifur Rahman Tanu, and Hossain Uddin Shekhar Copyright © 2015 Md. Ismail et al. All rights reserved. In Vitro Gender-Dependent Inhibition of Porcine Cytochrome P450 Activity by Selected Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids Wed, 21 Jan 2015 14:20:35 +0000 We investigated gender-related differences in the ability of selected flavonoids and phenolic compounds to modify porcine hepatic CYP450-dependent activity. Using pools of microsomes from male and female pigs, the inhibition of the CYP families 1A, 2A, 2E1, and 3A was determined. The specific CYP activities were measured in the presence of the following selected compounds: rutin, myricetin, quercetin, isorhamnetin, p-coumaric acid, gallic acid, and caffeic acid. We determined that myricetin and isorhamnetin competitively inhibited porcine CYP1A activity in the microsomes from both male and female pigs but did not affect the CYP2A and CYP2E1. Additionally, isorhamnetin competitively inhibited CYP3A in both genders. Noncompetitive inhibition of CYP3A activity by myricetin was observed only in the microsomes from male pigs, whereas CYP3A in female pigs was not affected. Quercetin competitively inhibited CYP2E1 and CYP1A activity in the microsomes from male pigs and irreversibly CY3A in female pigs. No effect of quercetin on CYP2E1 was observed in the microsomes from female pigs. Neither phenolic acids nor rutin affected CYP450 activities. Taken together, our results suggest that the flavonoids myricetin, isorhamnetin, and quercetin may affect the activities of porcine CYP1A, CYP3A, and CYP2E1 in a gender-dependent manner. Bo Ekstrand, Martin Krøyer Rasmussen, Felicia Woll, Vladimir Zlabek, and Galia Zamaratskaia Copyright © 2015 Bo Ekstrand et al. All rights reserved. Soil As Levels and Bioaccumulation in Suaeda salsa and Phragmites australis Wetlands of the Yellow River Estuary, China Wed, 21 Jan 2015 12:34:13 +0000 Little information is available on As contamination dynamics in the soil-plant systems of wetlands. Total arsenic (As) in soil and plant samples from Suaeda salsa and Phragmites australis wetlands was measured in the Yellow River Estuary (YRE) in summer and autumn of 2007 to investigate the seasonal changes in As concentrations in different wetlands. The results showed that soil As levels greatly exceeded the global and regional background values. As levels in soil and the roots and stems of both types of plants were much higher in summer than in autumn, whereas leaf As showed higher level in autumn. Soil sulfur was the main factor influencing As levels in Suaeda salsa wetlands, whereas soil porosity was the most important factor for Phragmites australis wetlands. The contamination factor (CF) showed moderately to considerably polluted levels of As in both wetland soils. Plant roots and leaves of Suaeda salsa had higher As concentrations and biological concentration factors (BCFs) than stems, while the leaves and stems of Phragmites australis showed higher As levels and BCFs than roots. Compared to Phragmites australis, Suaeda salsa generally showed higher translocation factor (TF), while TF values for both plant species were higher in summer than in autumn. Junjing Wang, Junhong Bai, Zhaoqin Gao, Qiongqiong Lu, and Qingqing Zhao Copyright © 2015 Junjing Wang et al. All rights reserved. Acute Toxicity Comparison of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Various Freshwater Organisms Wed, 14 Jan 2015 14:35:06 +0000 While the commercialization of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is rapidly expanding, the environmental impact of this nanomaterial is not well understood. Therefore, the present study evaluates the acute aquatic toxicity of SWCNTs towards two freshwater microalgae (Raphidocelis subcapitata and Chlorella vulgaris), a microcrustacean (Daphnia magna), and a fish (Oryzias latipes) based on OECD test guidelines (201, 202, and 203). According to the results, the SWCNTs inhibited the growth of the algae R. subcapitata and C. vulgaris with a median effective concentration (EC50) of 29.99 and 30.96 mg/L, respectively, representing “acute category 3” in the Globally Harmonized System (GHS) of classification and labeling of chemicals. Meanwhile, the acute toxicity test using O. latipes and D. magna did not show any mortality/immobilizing effects up to a concentration of 100.00 mg/L SWCNTs, indicating no hazard category in the GHS classification. In conclusion, SWCNTs were found to induce acute ecotoxicity in freshwater microalgae, yet not in D. magna and medaka fish. Eun Kyung Sohn, Young Shin Chung, Seyed Ali Johari, Tae Gyu Kim, Jin Kwon Kim, Ji Hyun Lee, Yong Hwa Lee, Sung Wook Kang, and Il Je Yu Copyright © 2015 Eun Kyung Sohn et al. All rights reserved. Tetrahydrocannabinol Induces Brain Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Dysfunction and Increases Oxidative Stress: A Potential Mechanism Involved in Cannabis-Related Stroke Wed, 14 Jan 2015 13:32:09 +0000 Cannabis has potential therapeutic use but tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), its main psychoactive component, appears as a risk factor for ischemic stroke in young adults. We therefore evaluate the effects of THC on brain mitochondrial function and oxidative stress, key factors involved in stroke. Maximal oxidative capacities (complexes I, III, and IV activities), (complexes II, III, and IV activities), (complex IV activity), together with mitochondrial coupling (/), were determined in control conditions and after exposure to THC in isolated mitochondria extracted from rat brain, using differential centrifugations. Oxidative stress was also assessed through hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production, measured with Amplex Red. THC significantly decreased (−71%; ), (−65%; ), and (−3.5%; ). Mitochondrial coupling (/) was also significantly decreased after THC exposure ( versus ; ). Furthermore, THC significantly enhanced H2O2 production by cerebral mitochondria (+171%; ) and mitochondrial free radical leak was increased from to % (). Thus, THC increases oxidative stress and induces cerebral mitochondrial dysfunction. This mechanism may be involved in young cannabis users who develop ischemic stroke since THC might increase patient’s vulnerability to stroke. Valérie Wolff, Anna-Isabel Schlagowski, Olivier Rouyer, Anne-Laure Charles, François Singh, Cyril Auger, Valérie Schini-Kerth, Christian Marescaux, Jean-Sébastien Raul, Joffrey Zoll, and Bernard Geny Copyright © 2015 Valérie Wolff et al. All rights reserved. Cinnabar-Induced Subchronic Renal Injury Is Associated with Increased Apoptosis in Rats Tue, 06 Jan 2015 06:33:03 +0000 The aim of this study was to explore the role of apoptosis in cinnabar-induced renal injury in rats. To test this role, rats were dosed orally with cinnabar (1 g/kg/day) for 8 weeks or 12 weeks, and the control rats were treated with 5% carboxymethylcellulose solution. Levels of urinary mercury (UHg), renal mercury (RHg), serum creatinine (SCr), and urine kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1) were assessed, and renal pathology was analyzed. Apoptotic cells were identified and the apoptotic index was calculated. A rat antibody array was used to analyze expression of cytokines associated with apoptosis. Results from these analyses showed that UHg, RHg, and urine KIM-1, but not SCr, levels were significantly increased in cinnabar-treated rats. Renal pathological changes in cinnabar-treated rats included vacuolization of tubular cells, formation of protein casts, infiltration of inflammatory cells, and increase in the number of apoptotic tubular cells. In comparison to the control group, expression of FasL, Fas, TNF-α, TRAIL, activin A, and adiponectin was upregulated in the cinnabar-treated group. Collectively, our results suggest that prolonged use of cinnabar results in kidney damage due to accumulation of mercury and that the underlying mechanism involves apoptosis of tubular cells via a death receptor-mediated pathway. Ying Wang, Dapeng Wang, Jie Wu, Bohan Wang, Xianhui Gao, Liangjun Wang, and Honglin Ma Copyright © 2015 Ying Wang et al. All rights reserved. Biomarkers of Environmental Pollutants Mon, 22 Dec 2014 12:30:15 +0000 Anilava Kaviraj, Erhan Unlu, Abhik Gupta, and Ahmed El Nemr Copyright © 2014 Anilava Kaviraj et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of the Health Implications on the Use of As and Cd Contaminated Water Supply between Urban and Rural Communities Tue, 04 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) concentrations in blood, urine, and drinking water as well as the health implications on 100 residents in an urban and a rural community. Results showed the blood As, urinary Cd, DNA damage, and water As and Cs were significantly () higher in the rural community. Findings showed significant () correlations between blood As and DNA damage with household income, years of residence, and total glasses of daily water consumption among the rural residents. The urinary NAG concentrations, years of residence, milk powder intake (glass/week), and seafood intake (per week) were significantly correlated () with urinary Cd concentrations among respondents. In addition, urinary Cd level significantly influenced the urinary NAG concentrations (). The rural respondents experienced significantly higher lymphocyte DNA damage and blood As influenced by their years of residence and water consumption. The Cd in drinking water also resulted in the rural respondents having significantly higher urinary NAG which had a significant relationship with urinary Cd. H. Zailina, H. Najibah, A. Nadia Aiezzati, S. M. Praveena, and I. Patimah Copyright © 2014 H. Zailina et al. All rights reserved. In Vivo Protection against Strychnine Toxicity in Mice by the Glycine Receptor Agonist Ivermectin Mon, 15 Sep 2014 09:03:04 +0000 The inhibitory glycine receptor, a ligand-gated ion channel that mediates fast synaptic inhibition in mammalian spinal cord and brainstem, is potently and selectively inhibited by the alkaloid strychnine. The anthelminthic and anticonvulsant ivermectin is a strychnine-independent agonist of spinal glycine receptors. Here we show that ivermectin is an effective antidote of strychnine toxicity in vivo and determine time course and extent of ivermectin protection. Mice received doses of 1 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg ivermectin orally or intraperitoneally, followed by an intraperitoneal strychnine challenge (2 mg/kg). Ivermectin, through both routes of application, protected mice against strychnine toxicity. Maximum protection was observed 14 hours after ivermectin administration. Combining intraperitoneal and oral dosage of ivermectin further improved protection, resulting in survival rates of up to 80% of animals and a significant delay of strychnine effects in up to 100% of tested animals. Strychnine action developed within minutes, much faster than ivermectin, which acted on a time scale of hours. The data agree with a two-compartment distribution of ivermectin, with fat deposits acting as storage compartment. The data demonstrate that toxic effects of strychnine in mice can be prevented if a basal level of glycinergic signalling is maintained through receptor activation by ivermectin. Ahmed Maher, Rasha Radwan, and Hans-Georg Breitinger Copyright © 2014 Ahmed Maher et al. All rights reserved. Acute Toxicity Study of Zerumbone-Loaded Nanostructured Lipid Carrier on BALB/c Mice Model Mon, 08 Sep 2014 11:18:21 +0000 Zerumbone- (ZER-) loaded nanostructure lipid carrier (NLC) (ZER-NLC) prepared for its antileukemia effect in vitro was evaluated for its toxicological effects by observing changes in the liver, kidney, spleen, lung, heart, and brain tissues, serum biochemical parameters, total haemogram, and bone marrow stem cells. The acute toxicity study for ZER-NLC was conducted by orally treating BALB/c mice with a single dose with either water, olive oil, ZER, NLC, or ZER-NLC for 14 days. The animals were observed for clinical and behavioral abnormalities, toxicological symptoms, feed consumption, and gross appearance. The liver, kidney, heart, lung, spleen, and brain tissues were assessed histologically. Total haemogram was counted by hemocytometry and microhematocrit reader. Bone marrow examination in terms of cellular morphology was done by Wright staining with bone marrow smear. Furthermore, serum biochemical parameters were determined spectrophotometrically. Grossly all treated mice, their investigated tissues, serum biochemical parameters, total haemogram, and bone marrow were normal. At oral doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg ZER-NLC there was no sign of toxicity or mortality in BALB/c mice. This study suggests that the 50% lethal dose (LD50) of ZER-NLC is higher than 200 mg/kg, thus, safe by oral administration. Heshu Sulaiman Rahman, Abdullah Rasedee, Hemn Hassan Othman, Max Stanley Chartrand, Farideh Namvar, Swee Keong Yeap, Nozlena Abdul Samad, Reena Joys Andas, Nabilah Muhammad Nadzri, Theebaa Anasamy, Kuan Beng Ng, and Chee Wun How Copyright © 2014 Heshu Sulaiman Rahman et al. All rights reserved. Pollution Status of Pakistan: A Retrospective Review on Heavy Metal Contamination of Water, Soil, and Vegetables Wed, 03 Sep 2014 07:17:49 +0000 Trace heavy metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, chromium, nickel, and mercury, are important environmental pollutants, particularly in areas with high anthropogenic pressure. In addition to these metals, copper, manganese, iron, and zinc are also important trace micronutrients. The presence of trace heavy metals in the atmosphere, soil, and water can cause serious problems to all organisms, and the ubiquitous bioavailability of these heavy metal can result in bioaccumulation in the food chain which especially can be highly dangerous to human health. This study reviews the heavy metal contamination in several areas of Pakistan over the past few years, particularly to assess the heavy metal contamination in water (ground water, surface water, and waste water), soil, sediments, particulate matter, and vegetables. The listed contaminations affect the drinking water quality, ecological environment, and food chain. Moreover, the toxicity induced by contaminated water, soil, and vegetables poses serious threat to human health. Amir Waseem, Jahanzaib Arshad, Farhat Iqbal, Ashif Sajjad, Zahid Mehmood, and Ghulam Murtaza Copyright © 2014 Amir Waseem et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Chlorogenic Acid (5-Caffeoylquinic Acid) Isolated from Baccharis oxyodonta on the Structure and Pharmacological Activities of Secretory Phospholipase A2 from Crotalus durissus terrificus Tue, 02 Sep 2014 13:17:50 +0000 The aim of this paper was to investigate the effect of chlorogenic acid (5-caffeoylquinic acid, 5CQA), isolated from Baccharis oxyodonta, on the structure and pharmacological effect of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) from Crotalus durissus terrificus. All in vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted using a purified sPLA2 compared under the same experimental conditions with sPLA2 : 5CQA. 5CQA induced several discrete modifications in the secondary structure and the hydrophobic characteristics of native sPLA2 that induced slight changes in the α-helical content, increase in the random coil structure, and decrease of fluorescence of native sPLA2. Moreover, 5CQA significantly decreased the enzymatic activity and the oedema and myonecrosis induced by native sPLA2. As the catalytic activity of sPLA2 plays an important role in several of its biological and pharmacological properties, antibacterial activity was used to confirm the decrease in its enzymatic activity by 5CQA, which induced massive bacterial cell destruction. We found that 5CQA specifically abolished the enzymatic activity of sPLA2 and induced discrete protein unfolding that mainly involved the pharmacological site of sPLA2. These results showed the potential application of 5CQA in the snake poisoning treatment and modulation of the pathological effect of inflammation induced by secretory PLA2. Daniela O. Toyama, Marcelo J. P. Ferreira, Paulete Romoff, Oriana A. Fávero, Henrique H. Gaeta, and Marcos H. Toyama Copyright © 2014 Daniela O. Toyama et al. All rights reserved. The Effect of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes on Hepatotoxicity of Cd2+ in Accumulated Cadmium-Metallothione in Mice Tue, 02 Sep 2014 12:45:13 +0000 The effects of oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (oMWCNTs) on the behavior and hepatotoxicity of Cd2+ in accumulated cadmium-metallothionein mice were investigated. The results indicated that, after exposure of oMWCNTs to normal mice, oMWCNTs could not induce the liver to produce metallothionein (MT). When exposing Cd-MT mouse to different doses of oMWCNTs oMWCNTs could cause Cd2+ release from the accumulated Cd-MT; subsequently, one part of the free Cd2+ was eliminated with blood circulation; the other part adsorbed by oMWCNTs would remain in the tissues together with oMWCNTs. The results of the activities changes of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (TB), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in plasma showed that the hepatotoxicity of coexposure was lower than that of single exposure, and the hepatotoxicity and accumulation of oMWCNTs in livers depended strongly on the exposure dosage of oMWCNTs. The histology of liver and kidney tissue also confirmed the previous results. Therefore, the author inferred that MT could be connected with oMWCNTs to reduce their hepatotoxicity, but the detailed mechanism needs to be further studied. Qi Wei, Bi Juanjuan, Tian Longlong, Li Zhan, Liu Peng, and Wu Wangsuo Copyright © 2014 Qi Wei et al. All rights reserved. Aluminium Involvement in Neurotoxicity Wed, 27 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 The aetiology of neurodegenerative diseases (ND) seems to involve susceptibility genes and environmental factors. Toxic metals are considered major environmental pollutants. Following our study of a case of multiple sclerosis (MS) improvement due to removal of aluminium (Al) and other toxic metals, we have examined the possible relationship between Al intoxication and ND. We used the slow intravenous treatment with the chelating agent EDTA (calcium disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid) (chelation test) to remove Al and detected it in the urine collected from the patients for 12 hours. Patients affected by MS represented 85.6% of total ND. Al was present in 44.8% of cases comprehensive of ND and healthy patients. Al levels were significantly higher in ND patients than in healthy subjects. We here show that treatment of patients affected by Al burden with ten EDTA chelation therapies (EDTA intravenous administration once a week) was able to significantly reduce Al intoxication. Alessandro Fulgenzi, Daniele Vietti, and Maria Elena Ferrero Copyright © 2014 Alessandro Fulgenzi et al. All rights reserved. Modulation of Steroidogenic Pathway in Rat Granulosa Cells with Subclinical Cd Exposure and Insulin Resistance: An Impact on Female Fertility Tue, 19 Aug 2014 06:35:37 +0000 Changes in lifestyle lead to insulin resistance (IR) in females ultimately predisposing them towards infertility. In addition, cadmium (Cd), an environmental endocrine disruptor, is reported for detrimental effects on granulosa cells, thus leading to ovarian dysfunction. A combination of these factors, lifestyle and environment, seems to play a role in etiology of idiopathic infertility that accounts for 50% amongst the total infertility cases. To address this issue, we made an attempt to investigate the extent of Cd impact on insulin-resistant (IR) granulosa cells. We exposed adult female Charles Foster rats to dexamethasone and confirmed IR condition by fasting insulin resistance index (FIRI). On treatment of IR rats with Cd, the preliminary studies demonstrated prolonged estrous cyclicity, decrease in serum estradiol concentrations, abnormal histology of ovary, and increased granulosa cell death. Further gene and protein expression studies of steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD), and cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19A1) were performed. Protein expression studies demonstrated significant decrease in treated groups when compared with control. Study revealed that, in spite of the molecular parameters being affected at varied level, overall ovarian physiology is maximally affected in IR and Cd coexposed group, thus mimicking the condition similar to those prevailing in infertile females. Muskaan Belani, Nupur Purohit, Prakash Pillai, Sharad Gupta, and Sarita Gupta Copyright © 2014 Muskaan Belani et al. All rights reserved. The Presence of Biomarker Enzymes of Selected Scleractinian Corals of Palk Bay, Southeast Coast of India Mon, 18 Aug 2014 12:06:57 +0000 The health and existence of coral reefs are in danger by an increasing range of environmental and anthropogenic impacts. The causes of coral reef decline include worldwide climate change, shoreline development, habitat destruction, pollution, sedimentation and overexploitation. These disasters have contributed to an estimated loss of 27% of the reefs. If the current pressure continues unabated, the estimated loss of coral reef will be about 60% by the year 2030. Therefore, the present study was aimed to analyze the enzymes involved in stress induced by coral pathogen and its resistance. We focused on the enzymes involved in melanin synthesis pathway (phenoloxidase (PO) and peroxidases (POD)) and free radical scavenging enzymes (super oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT)) and glutathione peroxidase (Gpx) in selected scleractinian corals such as Acropora formosa, Echinopora lamellosa, Favia favus, Favites halicora, Porites sp., and Anacropora forbesi. Overall, PO activity of coral was significantly lower than that of zooxanthellae except for Favia favus. Coral colonies with lower PO and POD activities are prone to disease. Maximum antioxidant defensive enzymes were observed in Favia favus followed by Echinopora lamellose. It is concluded that assay of these enzymes can be used as biomarkers for identifying the susceptibility of corals towards coral bleaching induced by pathogen. R. Anithajothi, K. Duraikannu, G. Umagowsalya, and C. M. Ramakritinan Copyright © 2014 R. Anithajothi et al. All rights reserved. Biomedical Implications of Heavy Metals Induced Imbalances in Redox Systems Tue, 12 Aug 2014 08:42:12 +0000 Several workers have extensively worked out the metal induced toxicity and have reported the toxic and carcinogenic effects of metals in human and animals. It is well known that these metals play a crucial role in facilitating normal biological functions of cells as well. One of the major mechanisms associated with heavy metal toxicity has been attributed to generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, which develops imbalance between the prooxidant elements and the antioxidants (reducing elements) in the body. In this process, a shift to the former is termed as oxidative stress. The oxidative stress mediated toxicity of heavy metals involves damage primarily to liver (hepatotoxicity), central nervous system (neurotoxicity), DNA (genotoxicity), and kidney (nephrotoxicity) in animals and humans. Heavy metals are reported to impact signaling cascade and associated factors leading to apoptosis. The present review illustrates an account of the current knowledge about the effects of heavy metals (mainly arsenic, lead, mercury, and cadmium) induced oxidative stress as well as the possible remedies of metal(s) toxicity through natural/synthetic antioxidants, which may render their effects by reducing the concentration of toxic metal(s). This paper primarily concerns the clinicopathological and biomedical implications of heavy metals induced oxidative stress and their toxicity management in mammals. Bechan Sharma, Shweta Singh, and Nikhat J. Siddiqi Copyright © 2014 Bechan Sharma et al. All rights reserved. Physicochemical Properties of Nanomaterials: Implication in Associated Toxic Manifestations Wed, 06 Aug 2014 08:13:49 +0000 Nanotechnology has emerged as one of the leading fields of the science having tremendous application in diverse disciplines. As nanomaterials are increasingly becoming part of everyday consumer products, it is imperative to assess their impact on living organisms and on the environment. Physicochemical characteristics of nanoparticles and engineered nanomaterials including size, shape, chemical composition, physiochemical stability, crystal structure, surface area, surface energy, and surface roughness generally influence the toxic manifestations of these nanomaterials. This compels the research fraternity to evaluate the role of these properties in determining associated toxicity issues. Reckoning with this fact, in this paper, issues pertaining to the physicochemical properties of nanomaterials as it relates to the toxicity of the nanomaterials are discussed. Manzoor Ahmad Gatoo, Sufia Naseem, Mir Yasir Arfat, Ayaz Mahmood Dar, Khusro Qasim, and Swaleha Zubair Copyright © 2014 Manzoor Ahmad Gatoo et al. All rights reserved. Efficacy of Venom from Tentacle of Jellyfish Stomolophus meleagris (Nemopilema nomurai) against the Cotton Bollworm Helicoverpa armigera Mon, 04 Aug 2014 09:28:34 +0000 Efficacy of venom from tentacle of jellyfish Stomolophus meleagris against the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera was determined. Venom from tentacle of jellyfish Stomolophus meleagris could inhibit the growth of Helicoverpa armigera and the weight inhibiting rate of sample NFr-2 was 60.53%. Of the six samples, only NFr-2 had high insecticidal activity against Helicoverpa armigera and the corrected mortality recorded at 7 d was 74.23%. Huahua Yu, Rongfeng Li, Xiangli Dong, Ronge Xing, Song Liu, and Pengcheng Li Copyright © 2014 Huahua Yu et al. All rights reserved. Azadirachta indica Attenuates Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity and Oxidative Stress Sun, 03 Aug 2014 09:04:27 +0000 We investigated the effects of methanolic leaves extract of Azadirachta indica (MLEN, 500 mg/kg bwt) on cisplatin- (CP-) induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats. CP (5 mg/kg bwt) was injected intraperitoneally and MLEN was given by gastric gavage for 5 days before or after CP injection. After 5 days of CP injection, CP-induced injury of the renal tissue was evidenced (i) as histopathological damage of the renal tissue, (ii) as increases in serum uric acid, urea, and creatinine, (iii) as increases in malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO), (iv) as decreases in the level of glutathione and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase, and glutathione peroxidase, and (v) as increase in the expression of nuclear factor kappa B and apoptosis in kidney tissues. However, the oral administration of MLEN to CP-intoxicated rats for 5 days brought back MDA, NO production, and enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants to near normalcy. Moreover, the histological observations evidenced that neem extract effectively rescues the kidney from CP-mediated oxidative damage. Furthermore, PCR results for caspase-3 and caspase-9 and Bax genes showed downregulation in MLEN treated groups. Therefore, Azadirachta indica can be considered a potential candidate for protection of nephrotoxicity induced by cisplatin. Ahmed E. Abdel Moneim, Mohamed S. Othman, and Ahmed M. Aref Copyright © 2014 Ahmed E. Abdel Moneim et al. All rights reserved. Differences in Cytotoxic, Genotoxic, and Inflammatory Response of Bronchial and Alveolar Human Lung Epithelial Cells to Pristine and COOH-Functionalized Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Thu, 24 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Functionalized MWCNTs are used in many commercial and biomedical applications, but their potential health effects are not well defined. We investigated and compared cytotoxic, genotoxic/oxidative, and inflammatory effects of pristine and carboxyl MWCNTs exposing human respiratory (A549 and BEAS-2B) cells to 1–40 μg/mL of CNTs for 24 h. Both MWCNTs induced low viability reduction (by WST1 assay) in A549 cells and only MWCNTs-COOH caused high viability reduction in BEAS-2B cells reaching 28.5% viability at 40 μg/mL. Both CNTs induced membrane damage (by LDH assay) with higher effects in BEAS-2B cells at the highest concentrations reaching 20% cytotoxicity at 40 μg/mL. DNA damage (by Fpg-comet assay) was induced by pristine MWCNTs in A549 cells and by both MWCNTs in BEAS-2B cells reaching for MWCNTs-COOH a tail moment of 22.2 at 40 μg/mL versus 10.2 of unexposed cells. Increases of IL-6 and IL-8 release (by ELISA) were detected in A549 cells exposed to MWCNTs-COOH from 10 μg/mL while IL-8 increased in BEAS-2B cells exposed to pristine MWCNTs at 20 and 40 μg/mL. The results show higher cytogenotoxicity of MWCNTs-COOH in bronchial and of pristine MWCNTs in alveolar cells. Different inflammatory response was also found. The findings suggest the use of in vitro models with different end points and cells to study CNT toxicity. Cinzia Lucia Ursini, Delia Cavallo, Anna Maria Fresegna, Aureliano Ciervo, Raffaele Maiello, Giuliana Buresti, Stefano Casciardi, Stefano Bellucci, and Sergio Iavicoli Copyright © 2014 Cinzia Lucia Ursini et al. All rights reserved. Venomous and Poisonous Australian Animals of Veterinary Importance: A Rich Source of Novel Therapeutics Mon, 21 Jul 2014 07:59:36 +0000 Envenomation and poisoning by terrestrial animals (both vertebrate and invertebrate) are a significant economic problem and health risk for domestic animals in Australia. Australian snakes are some of the most venomous animals in the world and bees, wasps, ants, paralysis ticks, and cane toads are also present as part of the venomous and poisonous fauna. The diagnosis and treatment of envenomation or poisoning in animals is a challenge and can be a traumatic and expensive process for owners. Despite the potency of Australian venoms, there is potential for novel veterinary therapeutics to be modeled on venom toxins, as has been the case with human pharmaceuticals. A comprehensive overview of envenomation and poisoning signs in livestock and companion animals is provided and related to the potential for venom toxins to act as therapeutics. Margaret C. Hardy, Jonathon Cochrane, and Rachel E. Allavena Copyright © 2014 Margaret C. Hardy et al. All rights reserved. Synergistic Effects of Toxic Elements on Heat Shock Proteins Sun, 20 Jul 2014 09:42:15 +0000 Heat shock proteins show remarkable variations in their expression levels under a variety of toxic conditions. A research span expanded over five decades has revealed their molecular characterization, gene regulation, expression patterns, vast similarity in diverse groups, and broad range of functional capabilities. Their functions include protection and tolerance against cytotoxic conditions through their molecular chaperoning activity, maintaining cytoskeleton stability, and assisting in cell signaling. However, their role as biomarkers for monitoring the environmental risk assessment is controversial due to a number of conflicting, validating, and nonvalidating reports. The current knowledge regarding the interpretation of HSPs expression levels has been discussed in the present review. The candidature of heat shock proteins as biomarkers of toxicity is thus far unreliable due to synergistic effects of toxicants and other environmental factors. The adoption of heat shock proteins as “suit of biomarkers in a set of organisms” requires further investigation. Khalid Mahmood, Saima Jadoon, Qaisar Mahmood, Muhammad Irshad, and Jamshaid Hussain Copyright © 2014 Khalid Mahmood et al. All rights reserved. Chemical Composition, Leishmanicidal and Cytotoxic Activities of the Essential Oils from Mangifera indica L. var. Rosa and Espada Sun, 20 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 The essential oils from Mangifera indica var. Rosa and Espada latex were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed using GC-FID and GC-MS. Twenty-seven components were identified. The main compound in the essential oil from M. indica var. Espada (EOMiE) was terpinolene (73.6%). The essential oil of M. indica var. Rosa (EOMiR) was characterized by high amounts of β-pinene (40.7%) and terpinolene (28.3%). In the test for leishmanicidal activity against promastigotes forms of L. amazonensis, EOMiR and EOMiE showed IC50 (72 h) of 39.1 and 23.0 μg/mL, respectively. In macrophages, EOMiR and EOMiE showed CC50 of 142.84 and 158.65 μg/mL, respectively. However, both were more specific to the parasite than macrophages, with values of selectivity index of 6.91 for EOMiE and 3.66 for EOMiR. The essential oils were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against the human tumor cells HEp-2, HT-29, NCI-H292, and HL-60. The EOMiR and EOMiE were most effective against the HL-60, with IC50 values of 12.3 and 3.6 μg/mL, respectively. The results demonstrated that the essential oils of M. indica can destroy L. amazonensis and inhibit tumor cell growth. These findings contribute to the knowledge of the Brazilian biodiversity as a source of potential therapeutic agents. Eduardo H. S. Ramos, Marcílio M. Moraes, Laís L. de A. Nerys, Silene C. Nascimento, Gardênia C. G. Militão, Regina C. B. Q. de Figueiredo, Cláudio A. G. da Câmara, and Teresinha Gonçalves Silva Copyright © 2014 Eduardo H. S. Ramos et al. All rights reserved. Dracocephalum: Novel Anticancer Plant Acting on Liver Cancer Cell Mitochondria Thu, 17 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss. (Labiatae) is a native Iranian medicinal plant which has been used in combination with Peganum harmala L. as a remedy for many forms of human cancer especially leukemia and gastrointestinal malignancies. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. In this investigation HCC was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of diethylnitrosamine (DEN) in corn oil at 200 mg/kg body weight to rats. Two weeks after DEN administration, cancer development was promoted with dietary 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) (0.02%, w/w) for 2 weeks. Serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) concentration, serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities were also determined for confirmation of hepatocellular carcinoma induction. Then rat hepatocytes were isolated with collagen perfusion technique and tumoral hepatocytes were sorted by flow cytometry. Finally isolated mitochondria obtained from both tumoral and nontumoral hepatocytes were used for any probable toxic effect of Dracocephalum kotschyi ethanolic extract. Our results showed that D. kotschyi extract (250 µg/mL) induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (MMP), and mitochondrial swelling and cytochrome c release only in tumoral but not nontumoral hepatocyte. These findings propose Dracocephalum kotschyi as a promising candidate for future anticancer research. Mojtaba Talari, Enayatollah Seydi, Ahmad Salimi, Zhaleh Mohsenifar, Mohammad Kamalinejad, and Jalal Pourahmad Copyright © 2014 Mojtaba Talari et al. All rights reserved. TBT Effects on the Development of Intersex (Ovotestis) in Female Fresh Water Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii Thu, 10 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 The impact of tributyltin (TBT) on the female gonad and the endocrine system in Macrobrachium rosenbergii was studied. Prawns were exposed to environmentally realistic concentrations of 10, 100, and 1000 ng/L of TBT for 6 months. Dose dependent effects were noticed in TBT exposed prawns. At 1000 ng/L TBT caused ovotestis formation (formation of male germ cells in ovary). Presence immature oocytes, fusion of developing oocytes, increase in interstitial connective tissues, and its modification into tubular like structure and abundance of spermatogonia in the ovary of TBT treated prawns. The control prawn ovary showed normal architecture of cellular organelles such as mature oocytes with type 2 yolk globules, lipid droplets, normal appearance of yolk envelop, and uniformly arranged microvilli. On the other hand, type 1 yolk globules, reduced size of microvilli, spermatogonial cells in ovary, spermatogonia with centrally located nucleus, and chromatin distribution throughout the nucleoplasm were present in the TBT treated group. Immunofluorescence staining indicated a reduction in vitellin content in ovary of TBT treated prawn. Moreover, TBT had inhibited the vitellogenesis by causing hormonal imbalance in M. rosenbergii. Thus, the present investigation demonstrates that TBT substantially affects sexual differentiation and gonadal development in M. rosenbergii. Revathi Peranandam, Iyapparaj Palanisamy, Arockia Vasanthi Lourdaraj, Munuswamy Natesan, Arun Prasanna Vimalananthan, Suganya Thangaiyan, Anantharaman Perumal, and Krishnan Muthukalingan Copyright © 2014 Revathi Peranandam et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Azathioprine-Induced Cytotoxicity in an In Vitro Rat Hepatocyte System Tue, 01 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Azathioprine (AZA) is widely used in clinical practice for preventing graft rejection in organ transplantations and various autoimmune and dermatological diseases with documented unpredictable hepatotoxicity. The potential molecular cytotoxic mechanisms of AZA towards isolated rat hepatocytes were investigated in this study using “Accelerated Cytotoxicity Mechanism Screening” techniques. The concentration of AZA required to cause 50% cytotoxicity in 2 hrs at 37°C was found to be 400 μM. A significant increase in AZA-induced cytotoxicity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation was observed when glutathione- (GSH-) depleted hepatocytes were used. The addition of N-acetylcysteine decreased cytotoxicity and ROS formation. Xanthine oxidase inhibition by allopurinol decreased AZA-induced cytotoxicity, ROS, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) formation and increased % mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Addition of N-acetylcysteine and allopurinol together caused nearly complete cytoprotection against AZA-induced hepatocyte death. TEMPOL (4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl), a known ROS scavenger and a superoxide dismutase mimic, and antioxidants, like DPPD (N,N′-diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine), Trolox (a water soluble vitamin E analogue), and mesna (2-mercaptoethanesulfonate), also decreased hepatocyte death and ROS formation. Results from this study suggest that AZA-induced cytotoxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes may be partly due to ROS formation and GSH depletion that resulted in oxidative stress and mitochondrial injury. Abdullah Al Maruf, Luke Wan, and Peter J. O’Brien Copyright © 2014 Abdullah Al Maruf et al. All rights reserved. Prophylactic Efficacy of Melatonin on Cyclophosphamide-Induced Liver Toxicity in Mice Mon, 30 Jun 2014 12:10:40 +0000 The current study aimed to evaluate the protective effects of melatonin, a pineal secretory product, against hepatotoxicity induced by cyclophosphamide (CP) in mice. Mice were pretreated with melatonin intraperitoneally for 7 consecutive days before the administration of a single intraperitoneal dose of 200 mg/kg CP. 24 hr after CP administration, the mice were anesthetized, blood was then removed, and serum toxicity enzymes activities were evaluated. After the blood sampling, all animals were killed, livers were then removed, and histological studies were conducted. Serum toxicity marker enzymes were significantly increased after CP treatment but restored in melatonin pretreated groups. In addition, administration of CP induced necrotic hepatocyte with small crushed nuclei, portal space with severe inflammation, and hepatocytes surrounded by lymphocytic infiltration in hepatic tissues. However, melatonin effectively protected against CP-induced histopathological abnormalities in the liver tissues. Our results reveal that melatonin produces a potent hepatoprotective mechanism against CP. Therefore, melatonin could be a potent candidate to use concomitantly as a supplement agent against hepatotoxicity of CP for the patients undergoing chemotherapy. Mohammad Shokrzadeh, Amirhossein Ahmadi, Farshad Naghshvar, Aroona Chabra, and Mehdi Jafarinejhad Copyright © 2014 Mohammad Shokrzadeh et al. All rights reserved. Investigation of Cytotoxicity of Phosphoryl Choline Modified Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes under a Live Cell Station Wed, 25 Jun 2014 12:10:56 +0000 Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and various modified SWCNTs have drawn a lot of attention due to their potential applications in biomedical field. Before further moving on to real clinical applications, hydrophobicity and toxicity of SWCNTs should be investigated thoroughly. In this paper, 2-methacryloyloxy ethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) was adopted to modify SWCNTs and phosphoryl choline was grafted onto SWCNTs as small molecule moieties and polymeric chains, which made SWCNTs dispersed stably both in water and in cell culture medium for a long time. Cytotoxicity of pristine and modified SWCNTs were assayed upon successful preparation of the designed modified SWCNT. Furthermore, the internalization of SWCNTs by three cells was investigated using a live cell station under normal culture temperature (37°C) and low temperature (4°C). The results showed that the internalization of modified SWCNTs was related to both the active transport and the passive transport. Although the modification with phosphoryl choline remarkably reduced the cytotoxicity of SWCNTs, the results were probably due to other reasons such as the decrease in the ratio of cells which internalized modified SWCNTs since the cells without SWCNTs occupation still exhibited normal states. Yufeng Zhao, Qunlong Mao, Yu Liu, Yan Zhang, Tao Zhang, and Zhengsheng Jiang Copyright © 2014 Yufeng Zhao et al. All rights reserved. Neuromodulatory Effects of Hesperidin in Mitigating Oxidative Stress in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetes Thu, 19 Jun 2014 08:27:53 +0000 Oxidative stress has been implicated in pathogenesis of streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetes mellitus and its complication in central nervous system (CNS). Recent studies have provided insights on antioxidants and their emergence as potential therapeutic and nutraceutical. The present study examined the hypothesis that hesperidin (HP) ameliorates oxidative stress and may be a limiting factor in the extent of CNS complication following diabetes. To test this hypothesis rats were divided into four groups: control, diabetic, diabetic-HP treated, and vehicle for HP treatment group. Diabetes mellitus was induced by a single injection of STZ (65 mg/kg body weight). Three days after STZ injection, HP was given (50 mg/kg b.wt. orally) once daily for four weeks. The results of the present investigation suggest that the significant elevated levels of oxidative stress markers were observed in STZ-treated animals, whereas significant depletion in the activity of nonenzymatic antioxidants and enzymatic antioxidants was witnessed in diabetic rat brain. Neurotoxicity biomarker activity was also altered significantly. HP treatment significantly attenuated the altered levels of oxidative stress and neurotoxicity biomarkers. Our results demonstrate that HP exhibits potent antioxidant and neuroprotective effects on the brain tissue against the diabetic oxidative damage in STZ-induced rodent model. Mohammad Ashafaq, Laxmi Varshney, Mohammad Haaris Ajmal Khan, Mohd. Salman, Mehar Naseem, Saima Wajid, and Suhel Parvez Copyright © 2014 Mohammad Ashafaq et al. All rights reserved. Protective Role of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid against Lead Acetate-Induced Toxicity in Liver and Kidney of Female Rats Wed, 18 Jun 2014 07:13:40 +0000 The present study was conducted to investigate the protective role of Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids against lead acetate-induced toxicity in liver and kidney of female rats. Animals were divided into four equal groups; group 1 served as control while groups 2 and 3 were treated orally with Omega-3 fatty acids at doses of 125 and 260 mg/kg body weight, respectively, for 10 days. These groups were also injected with lead acetate (25 mg/kg body weight) during the last 5 days. Group 4 was treated only with lead acetate for 5 days and served as positive control group. Lead acetate increased oxidative stress through an elevation in MDA associated with depletion in antioxidant enzymes activities in the tissues. Moreover, the elevation of serum enzymes activities (ALT, AST, ALP, and LDH) and the levels of urea and creatinine were estimated but total proteins were decreased. Also, lead acetate-treatment induced hyperlipidemia via increasing of lipid profiles associated with decline in HDL-c level. Significant changes of Hb, PCV, RBCs, PLT, and WBCs in group 4 were recorded. The biochemical alterations of lead acetate were confirmed by histopathological changes and DNA damage. The administration of Omega-3 provided significant protection against lead acetate toxicity. Heba M. Abdou and Mohamed A. Hassan Copyright © 2014 Heba M. Abdou and Mohamed A. Hassan. All rights reserved. Toxic Potential of Synthesized Graphene Zinc Oxide Nanocomposite in the Third Instar Larvae of Transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ)Bg9 Sun, 15 Jun 2014 11:34:38 +0000 In the present study the graphene zinc oxide nanocomposite (GZNC) was synthesized, characterized, and evaluated for its toxic potential on third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ)Bg9. The synthesized GZNC was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The GZNC in 0.1% dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) was sonicated for 10 minutes and the final concentrations 0.033, 0.099, 0.199, and 3.996 μg/μL of diet were established. The third instar larvae were allowed to feed on it separately for 24 and 48 hr. The hsp70 expression was measured by o-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactopyranoside assay, tissue damage was measured by trypan blue exclusion test, and β-galactosidase activity was monitored by in situ histochemical β-galactosidase staining. Oxidative stress was monitored by performing lipid peroxidation assay and total protein estimation. Ethidium bromide/acridine orange staining was performed on midgut cells for apoptotic index and the comet assay was performed for the DNA damage. The results of the present study showed that the exposure of 0.199 and 3.996 μg/μL of GZNC was toxic for both 24 hr and 48 hr of exposure. The doses of 0.033 μg/μL and 0.099 of GZNC showed no toxic effects on its exposure to the third instar larvae for 24 hr as well as 48 hr of duration. Yasir Hasan Siddique, Wasi Khan, Saba Khanam, Smita Jyoti, Falaq Naz, Rahul, Braj Raj Singh, and Alim H. Naqvi Copyright © 2014 Yasir Hasan Siddique et al. All rights reserved. Xanthium strumarium L. Extracts Produce DNA Damage Mediated by Cytotoxicity in In Vitro Assays but Does Not Induce Micronucleus in Mice Sun, 15 Jun 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Xanthium strumarium L. is a member of the Asteraceae commonly used in Cuba, mainly as diuretic. Some toxic properties of this plant have also been reported and, to date, very little is known about its genotoxic properties. The present work aims was to evaluate the potential cytotoxic and genotoxic risk of whole extract from Xanthium strumarium L. whole extract of aerial parts. No positive response was observed in a battery of four Salmonella typhimurium strains, when exposed to concentrations up to 5 mg/plate, with and without mammalian metabolic activation (liver microsomal S9 fraction from Wistar rats). In CHO cells, high concentrations (25–100 μg/mL) revealed significant reduction in cell viability. Results from sister chromatid exchanges, chromosome aberrations, and comet assay showed that X. strumarium extract is genotoxic at the highest concentration used, when clear cytotoxic effects were also observed. On the contrary, no increase in micronuclei frequency in bone marrow cells was observed when the extract was orally administered to mice (100, 500, and 2000 mg/Kg doses). The data presented here constitute the most complete study on the genotoxic potential of X. strumarium L. and show that the extract can induce in vitro DNA damage at cytotoxic concentrations. Janet Piloto Ferrer, Renata Cozzi, Tommaso Cornetta, Pasquale Stano, Mario Fiore, Francesca Degrassi, Rosella De Salvia, Antonia Remigio, Marbelis Francisco, Olga Quiñones, Dayana Valdivia, Maria L. González, Carlos Pérez, and Angel Sánchez-Lamar Copyright © 2014 Janet Piloto Ferrer et al. All rights reserved. Osthole Attenuates Doxorubicin-Induced Apoptosis in PC12 Cells through Inhibition of Mitochondrial Dysfunction and ROS Production Thu, 12 Jun 2014 09:27:44 +0000 Doxorubicin (DOX) is a potent, broad-spectrum chemotherapeutic drug used for treatment of several types of cancers. Despite its effectiveness, it has a wide range of toxic side effects, many of which most likely result from its inherent prooxidant activity. It has been reported that DOX has toxic effects on normal tissues, including brain tissue. In the current study, we investigated the protective effect of osthole isolated from Prangos ferulacea (L.) Lindl. on oxidative stress and apoptosis induced by DOX in PC12 as a neuronal model cell line. PC12 cells were pretreated with osthole 2 h after treatment with different concentrations of DOX. 24 h later, the cell viability, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), the activity of caspase-3, the expression ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, and the generation of intracellular ROS were detected. We found that pretreatment with osthole on PC12 cells significantly reduced the loss of cell viability, the activity of caspase-3, the increase in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and the generation of intracellular ROS induced by DOX. Moreover, pretreatment with osthole led to an increase in MMP in PC12 cells. In conclusion, our results indicated that pretreatment with nontoxic concentrations of osthole protected PC12 cells from DOX-mediated apoptosis by inhibition of ROS production. Yalda Shokoohinia, Leila Hosseinzadeh, Maryam Moieni-Arya, Ali Mostafaie, and Hamid-Reza Mohammadi-Motlagh Copyright © 2014 Yalda Shokoohinia et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Metabolic Enzymes in Response to Excel Mera 71, a Glyphosate-Based Herbicide, and Recovery Pattern in Freshwater Teleostean Fishes Thu, 12 Jun 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Metabolic enzymes such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were evaluated in Indian teleostean fishes, namely, Anabas testudineus (Bloch) and Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch), for an exposure to 30 days of Excel Mera 71 (17.2 mg/L), a glyphosate formulation, and subsequent depuration under Liv.52, a plant extract at a dose of 187.5 mg/d/250 L for the same period in the same tissues under laboratory condition. ALT activity was significantly increased () in all the tissues and raised up to 229.19% in liver of A. testudineus (229.19%) and 128.61% in liver of H. fossilis. AST also increased significantly () and was maximum in liver of H. fossilis (526.19%) and minimum in gill of A. testudineus (124.38%). ALP activity was also raised highly in intestine of H. fossilis (490.61%) but was less in kidney of H. fossilis (149.48%). The results indicated that Excel Mera 71 caused alterations in the metabolic enzymatic activities in fish tissues and AST showed the highest alteration in both the fishes, while lowest in ALP and ALT in A. testudineus and H. fossilis, respectively. During depuration under Liv.52, all the enzyme activities came down towards the control condition which indicated the compensatory response by the fish against this herbicidal stress and it was in the following order: AST > ALT > ALP, in A. testudineus, while H. fossilis showed the following trend: ALT > AST > ALP. Therefore, these parameters could be used as indicators of herbicidal pollution in aquatic organisms and were recommended for environmental monitoring for investigating the mechanism involved in the recovery pattern. Palas Samanta, Sandipan Pal, Aloke Kumar Mukherjee, and Apurba Ratan Ghosh Copyright © 2014 Palas Samanta et al. All rights reserved. Toxicity Profile of a Nutraceutical Formulation Derived from Green Mussel Perna viridis Mon, 09 Jun 2014 00:00:00 +0000 The short-term (acute) and long-term (subchronic) toxicity profile, mean lethal dose 50 (LD50), and no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of a nutraceutical formulation developed from green mussel Perna viridis, which showed in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory properties, were evaluated in the present study. The formulation was administered to the male and female Wistar rats at graded doses (0.5, 1.0, and 2.5 g/kg body weight) for two weeks of acute toxicity study and 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g/kg body weight for 90 days in subchronic toxicity study. The LD50, variations in clinical signs, changes in body weight, body weight, food/water consumption, organ weight (liver, kidney, spleen, and brain), hematology, serum chemistry, and histopathological changes were evaluated. The LD50 of the formulation was 5,000 mg/kg BW. No test article related mortalities as well as change in body weight, and food and water consumption were observed. No toxicity related significant changes were noted in renal/hepatic function, hematological indices, and serum biochemical parameters between the control and treated groups. Histopathological alterations were not observed in the vital organs of rats. The subchronic NOAEL for the formulation in rats is greater than 2000 mg/kg. This study demonstrated that the green mussel formulation is safe to consume without any adverse effects in the body. Kajal Chakraborty, Deepu Joseph, and Selsa J. Chakkalakal Copyright © 2014 Kajal Chakraborty et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Resveratrol on Hematological and Biochemical Alterations in Rats Exposed to Fluoride Thu, 05 Jun 2014 12:26:01 +0000 We investigated the protective effects of resveratrol on hematological and biochemical changes induced by fluoride in rats. A total of 28 rats were divided into 4 groups: control, resveratrol, fluoride, and fluoride/resveratrol each), for a total of 21 days of treatment. Blood samples were taken and hematological and biochemical parameters were measured. Compared to the control group, the fluoride-treated group showed significant differences in several hematological parameters, including decreases in WBC, RBC, and PLT counts and neutrophil ratio. The group that received resveratrol alone showed a decrease in WBC count compared to the control group. Furthermore, in comparison to the control group, the fluoride group showed significantly increased ALT enzyme activity and decreased inorganic phosphorus level. The hematological and biochemical parameters in the fluoride + resveratrol treated group were similar to control group. In the fluoride + resveratrol group, resveratrol restored the changes observed following fluoride treatment, including decreased counts of WBC, RBC, and PLT, decreased neutrophil ratio and inorganic phosphorus levels, and elevated ALT enzyme activity. The present study showed that fluoride caused adverse effects in rats and that resveratrol reduced hematological and biochemical alterations produced by fluoride exposure. Nurgül Atmaca, Ebru Yıldırım, Bayram Güner, Ruhi Kabakçı, and Fatih Sultan Bilmen Copyright © 2014 Nurgül Atmaca et al. All rights reserved. Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals Contamination in Paddy Soil, Plants, and Grains (Oryza sativa L.) at the East Coast of India Tue, 03 Jun 2014 11:37:19 +0000 Heavy metals known to be accumulated in plants adversely affect human health. This study aims to assess the effects of agrochemicals especially chemical fertilizers applied in paddy fields, which release potential toxic heavy metals into soil. Those heavy metals get accumulated in different parts of paddy plant (Oryza sativa L.) including the grains. Concentrations of nonessential toxic heavy metals (Cd, Cr, and Pb) and the micronutrients (Cu, Mn, and Zn) were measured in the paddy field soil and plant parts. Mn and Cd are found to be accumulated more in shoot than in root. The metal transfer factors from soil to rice plant were significant for Pb, Cd, Cu, Cr, Mn, and Zn. The ranking order of bioaccumulation factor (BAF) for heavy metals was Zn > Mn > Cd > Cu > Cr > Pb indicating that the accumulation of micronutrients was more than that of nonessential toxic heavy metals. The concentrations of heavy metals were found to be higher in paddy field soils than that of the nearby control soil but below permissible limits. The higher Health Index (HI) values of rice consuming adults (1.561) and children (1.360) suggest their adverse health effects in the near future. Deepmala Satpathy, M. Vikram Reddy, and Soumya Prakash Dhal Copyright © 2014 Deepmala Satpathy et al. All rights reserved. Determination of Mineral, Trace Element, and Pesticide Levels in Honey Samples Originating from Different Regions of Malaysia Compared to Manuka Honey Sun, 01 Jun 2014 11:28:47 +0000 The present study was undertaken to determine the content of six minerals, five trace elements, and ten pesticide residues in honeys originating from different regions of Malaysia. Calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), while sodium (Na) and potassium (K) were analyzed by flame emission spectrometry (FAES). Trace elements such as arsenic (As), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and cobalt (Co) were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) following the microwave digestion of honey. High mineral contents were observed in the investigated honeys with K, Na, Ca, and Fe being the most abundant elements (mean concentrations of 1349.34, 236.80, 183.67, and 162.31 mg/kg, resp.). The concentrations of the trace elements were within the recommended limits, indicating that the honeys were of good quality. Principal component analysis reveals good discrimination between the different honey samples. The pesticide analysis for the presence of organophosphorus and carbamates was performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). No pesticide residues were detected in any of the investigated honey samples, indicating that the honeys were pure. Our study reveals that Malaysian honeys are rich sources of minerals with trace elements present within permissible limits and that they are free from pesticide contamination. Mohammed Moniruzzaman, Muhammed Alamgir Zaman Chowdhury, Mohammad Abdur Rahman, Siti Amrah Sulaiman, and Siew Hua Gan Copyright © 2014 Mohammed Moniruzzaman et al. All rights reserved. Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles Induced Toxicity in Human Lung Cells: Role of ROS Mediated DNA Damage and Apoptosis Sun, 01 Jun 2014 08:12:18 +0000 Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) have promising industrial and biomedical applications. In spite of their applications, the toxicity of these NPs in biological/physiological environment is a major concern. Present study aimed to understand the molecular mechanism underlying the toxicity of CeO2 NPs on lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cells. After internalization, CeO2 NPs caused significant cytotoxicity and morphological changes in A549 cells. Further, the cell death was found to be apoptotic as shown by loss in mitochondrial membrane potential and increase in annexin-V positive cells and confirmed by immunoblot analysis of BAX, BCl-2, Cyt C, AIF, caspase-3, and caspase-9. A significant increase in oxidative DNA damage was found which was confirmed by phosphorylation of p53 gene and presence of cleaved poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP). This damage could be attributed to increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with concomitant decrease in antioxidant “glutathione (GSH)” level. DNA damage and cell death were attenuated by the application of ROS and apoptosis inhibitors N-acetyl-L- cysteine (NAC) and Z-DEVD-fmk, respectively. Our study concludes that ROS mediated DNA damage and cell cycle arrest play a major role in CeO2 NPs induced apoptotic cell death in A549 cells. Apart from beneficial applications, these NPs also impart potential harmful effects which should be properly evaluated prior to their use. Sandeep Mittal and Alok K. Pandey Copyright © 2014 Sandeep Mittal and Alok K. Pandey. All rights reserved. Cytotoxicity of Portuguese Propolis: The Proximity of the In Vitro Doses for Tumor and Normal Cell Lines Sun, 01 Jun 2014 06:36:58 +0000 With a complex chemical composition rich in phenolic compounds, propolis (resinous substance collected by Apis mellifera from various tree buds) exhibits a broad spectrum of biological activities. Recently, in vitro and in vivo data suggest that propolis has anticancer properties, but is the cytoxicity of propolis specific for tumor cells? To answer this question, the cytotoxicity of phenolic extracts from Portuguese propolis of different origins was evaluated using human tumor cell lines (MCF7—breast adenocarcinoma, NCI-H460—non-small cell lung carcinoma, HCT15—colon carcinoma, HeLa—cervical carcinoma, and HepG2—hepatocellular carcinoma), and non-tumor primary cells (PLP2). The studied propolis presented high cytotoxic potential for human tumor cell lines, mostly for HCT15. Nevertheless, excluding HCT15 cell line, the extracts at the GI50 obtained for tumor cell lines showed, in general, cytotoxicity for normal cells (PLP2). Propolis phenolic extracts comprise phytochemicals that should be further studied for their bioactive properties against human colon carcinoma. In the other cases, the proximity of the in vitro cytotoxic doses for tumor and normal cell lines should be confirmed by in vivo tests and may highlight the need for selection of specific compounds within the propolis extract. Ricardo C. Calhelha, Soraia Falcão, Maria João R. P. Queiroz, Miguel Vilas-Boas, and Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira Copyright © 2014 Ricardo C. Calhelha et al. All rights reserved. Evaluating the Effects and Safety of Intravenous Lipid Emulsion on Haloperidol-Induced Neurotoxicity in Rabbit Thu, 29 May 2014 11:58:48 +0000 There are many reports on the effect of intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) as an antidote in drugs related toxicities. We determined the effects of ILE on neurotoxicity of haloperidol (HA), a highly lipophilic antipsychotic, as a model of antipsychotics poisoning. We used six groups of five male rabbits. Two groups received distilled water intravenously followed by infusions of either 18 mL/kg of normal saline or ILE 20%, after 30 minutes. The third group received 18 mL/kg of normal saline after HA (2.6 mg/kg) administration. The three other groups received ILE 20% solution (6, 12, and 18 mL/kg) following HA injection. Catalepsy scores, temperature, pupil size, and mortality rate were measured at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, and 24 hours after HA administration began. Blood and tissue samples were taken from all animals at 24 hours or at death time for biochemical, cell count, and pathological studies. ILE reversed cataleptic scores, miotic pupils, and hypothermia of HA intoxication much faster than normal saline (). Biochemical complications and mortality rate of the animals were significantly higher in the HA + 18 mL/Kg ILE group. ILE reversed sings of HA neurotoxicity; however, synergistic effect of high dose of ILE and HA increased complications and mortality. Mohammad Moshiri, Amir Hooshang Mohammadpour, Maryam Vahabzadeh, Leila Etemad, Bahram Memar, and Hossein Hosseinzadeh Copyright © 2014 Mohammad Moshiri et al. All rights reserved. Micronucleated Erythrocytes in Newborn Rats Exposed to Raltegravir Placental Transfer Sun, 25 May 2014 08:06:52 +0000 The use of raltegravir in treating HIV/AIDS has been proposed due to its effectiveness in suppressing high loads of HIV RNA in pregnant women, thus preventing infection of the fetus. However, administration of raltegravir during pregnancy produces a compound which is transferred to high concentrations to the offspring. The objective of this study is to evaluate the transplacental genotoxic effect of raltegravir in newborn rats. We evaluated the number of micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE), micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE), and polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) in the peripheral blood samples of the offspring of Wistar rats treated 6 days before birth with oral administration of raltegravir. The animals were randomly assigned to five groups as follows: raltegravir at doses of 15, 30, or 60 mg/day, cyclophosphamide 10 mg/kg (positive control), or 0.5 ml of sterile water (negative control). In addition, the effect of these drugs on the weight and height of newborns was assessed. There were no differences in the number of MNE, MNPCE, and PCE, and a slight decrease in the weight and height was observed in the offspring of the rat mothers treated with raltegravir. Genotoxicity studies are required in pregnant women to determine the risk of using raltegravir to the fetuses. Blanca Miriam Torres-Mendoza, Damharis Elizabeth Coronado-Medina, Belinda Claudia Gómez-Meda, Eduardo Vázquez-Valls, Ana Lourdes Zamora-Perez, María de Lourdes Lemus-Varela, and Guillermo Moisés Zúñiga-González Copyright © 2014 Blanca Miriam Torres-Mendoza et al. All rights reserved. Animal Toxins and Their Advantages in Biotechnology and Pharmacology Thu, 22 May 2014 12:45:52 +0000 S. L. Da Silva, E. G. Rowan, F. Albericio, R. G. Stábeli, L. A. Calderon, and A. M. Soares Copyright © 2014 S. L. Da Silva et al. All rights reserved. Genistein Induces Deleterious Effects during Its Acute Exposure in Swiss Mice Thu, 22 May 2014 07:59:00 +0000 Genistein is a soy derived isoflavone. It has wide variety of therapeutic effects against certain diseases including cancer. Although toxic effects of genistein have been studied, its effect on the gene expression and the reason behind toxicity have not been identified yet. In the present study, genistein was administered to age and body weight matched Swiss mice at the doses of 125, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg. The biomarkers of hepatotoxicity in serum, liver histology, oxidative stress parameters in tissue homogenates, and global gene expression were examined. Elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels and degenerated liver tissue were observed in 500, and 1000 mg/kg genistein treated groups. Oxidative stress was significant at these doses as considerable increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO) and decrease in total glutathione (GSH) were observed. Gene expression analysis showed 40 differentially expressed genes at twofold change and Differentially expressed genes were corresponding to different biologically relevant pathways including metabolic and oxidative stress pathways. In 500 mg/kg group, Cyp4a14, Sult1e1, Gadd45g, Cidec, Mycs, and so forth genes were upregulated. These results suggested that the higher dose of genistein can produce several undesirable effects by affecting multiple cellular pathways. Prabhat Singh, Sharad Sharma, and Srikanta Kumar Rath Copyright © 2014 Prabhat Singh et al. All rights reserved. Toxicology of Metals and Metalloids Thu, 22 May 2014 05:50:09 +0000 Fernando Barbosa Júnior, Marcelo Farina, Susana Viegas, and Wilma De Grava Kempinas Copyright © 2014 Fernando Barbosa Júnior et al. All rights reserved. The β-SiC Nanowires (~100 nm) Induce Apoptosis via Oxidative Stress in Mouse Osteoblastic Cell Line MC3T3-E1 Wed, 21 May 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Silicon carbide (SiC), a compound of silicon and carbon, with chemical formula SiC, the beta modification (β-SiC), with a zinc blende crystal structure (similar to diamond), is formed at temperature below . β-SiC will be the most suitable ceramic material for the future hard tissue replacement, such as bone and tooth. The in vitro cytotoxicity of β-SiC nanowires was investigated for the first time. Our results indicated that 100 nm long SiC nanowires could significantly induce the apoptosis in MC3T3-E1 cells, compared with 100 μm long SiC nanowires. And 100 nm long SiC nanowires increased oxidative stress in MC3T3-E1 cells, as determined by the concentrations of MDA (as a marker of lipid peroxidation) and 8-OHdG (indicator of oxidative DNA damage). Moreover, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed to evaluate the morphological changes of MC3T3-E1 cells. After treatment with 100 nm long SiC nanowires, the mitochondria were swelled and disintegrated, and the production of ATP and the total oxygen uptake were also decreased significantly. Therefore, β-SiC nanowires may have limitations as medical material. Weili Xie, Qi Xie, Meishan Jin, Xiaoxiao Huang, Xiaodong Zhang, Zhengkai Shao, and Guangwu Wen Copyright © 2014 Weili Xie et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Potentiometric Sensor for Determination of Neurotoxin β-N-Oxalyl-L-α, β-Diaminopropionic Acid Tue, 20 May 2014 12:51:29 +0000 A novel potentiometric sensor based on ionophore (Cd(NH2CH2CH2OCH2CH2OCH2CH2NH2)Ag3(CN)5) for the determination of β-N-oxalyl-L-α, β-diaminopropionic acid (ODAP) is developed. The ODAP-selective membrane sensor demonstrates high sensitivity and short response time. The detection limit of the ODAP-selective membrane sensor is about  mol  and the response time is shorter than 6 s. The linear dynamic range of the ODAP-selective membrane sensor is between ODAP concentrations of and  mol . The ODAP-selective membrane sensor exhibits good operational stability for at least one week in dry conditions at 4–6°C. It has a reproducible and stable response during continuous work for at least 10 h with a relative standard deviation of 0.28% ( = 18). Omer Isildak, Furkan Saymaz, Ahmet Karadag, Nesrin Okumus Korkmaz, and Azade Attar Copyright © 2014 Omer Isildak et al. All rights reserved. Assessment of Mutagenic Effect of G. acerosa and S. wightii in S. typhimurium (TA 98, TA 100, and TA 1538 strains) and Evaluation of Their Cytotoxic and Genotoxic Effect in Human Mononuclear Cells: A Non-Clinical Study Tue, 20 May 2014 11:45:15 +0000 The marine red algae (Gelidiella acerosa and Sargassum wightii) possessing excellent antioxidant and anticholinesterase activity were subjected to toxicity evaluation for a deeper understanding of other bioprotective properties of seaweeds. Cytotoxic evaluation was done by trypan blue exclusion, and MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assays using human PBMC (peripheral blood mononuclear cells) and RBC (red blood cells) lysis assay using human erythrocytes. Mutagenicity of the seaweeds was analyzed by Ames salmonella mutagenicity test with the histidine dependent mutant strains TA 98, TA100 and TA 1538. Genotoxic activity was verified in PBMC by comet assay. The results suggest that benzene extract of G. acerosa (BEGA) and dichloromethane extract of S. wightii (DMESW) did not show cytotoxic effect both in PBMC and erythrocytes. Evaluation of mutagenic activity suggests that the seaweeds did not cause any mutagenic effects both in the absence and the presence of S9 microsomal fraction in all the three Salmonella mutant strains. Results of genotoxic study showed that PBMC treated with seaweed extracts (1 mg/mL) exhibit less or no damage to cells, thus proving the non-genotoxic effect of the extract. Since these in vitro non-clinical studies clearly demonstrate the non-toxic nature of the seaweeds, they could be exploited for further characterization, which would result in development of novel and safe therapeutic entities. Arif Nisha Syad and Pandima Devi Kasi Copyright © 2014 Arif Nisha Syad and Pandima Devi Kasi. All rights reserved. Genotoxicity of Microcystin-LR in In Vitro and In Vivo Experimental Models Sun, 18 May 2014 12:48:04 +0000 Microcystin-LR (MCLR) is a cyanobacterial toxin known for its acute hepatotoxicity. Despite being recognized as tumour promoter, its genotoxicity is far from being completely clarified, particularly in organs other than liver. In this work, we used the comet and/or the micronucleus (MN) assays to study the genotoxicity of MCLR in kidney- (Vero-E6) and liver-derived (HepG2) cell lines and in blood cells from MCLR-exposed mice. MCLR treatment (5 and 20 M) caused a significant induction in the MN frequency in both cell lines and, interestingly, a similar positive effect was observed in mouse reticulocytes (37.5 g MCLR/kg, i.p. route). Moreover, the FISH-based analysis of the MN content (HepG2 cells) suggested that MCLR induces both chromosome breaks and loss. On the other hand, the comet assay results were negative in Vero-E6 cells and in mouse leukocytes, with the exception of a transient increase in the level of DNA damage 30 minutes after mice exposure. Overall, the present findings contributed to increase the weight of evidence in favour of MCLR genotoxicity, based on its capacity to induce permanent genetic damage either in vitro or in vivo. Moreover, they suggest a clastogenic and aneugenic mode of action that might underlie a carcinogenic effect. Elsa Dias, Henriqueta Louro, Miguel Pinto, Telma Santos, Susana Antunes, Paulo Pereira, and Maria João Silva Copyright © 2014 Elsa Dias et al. All rights reserved. Association between Arsenic Exposure and Diabetes Mellitus in Cambodia Sun, 18 May 2014 08:30:10 +0000 Whereas studies in Taiwan found associations between arsenic exposure from drinking water and diabetes mellitus (DM), studies in other countries yielded inconsistent results, and diet might be a confounder. We conducted a study in Cambodia, where people have non-Western style diet, to evaluate the association. We measured well water and urine samples and examined skin signs of arsenicosis to assess arsenic exposure and used questionnaires to collect data on potential risk factors. We performed a fingertip blood glucose test followed by measurement of hemoglobin A1c to assess DM. The 43-male and 99-female participants had an average age of 40.4 years. We found that participants with skin signs of arsenicosis had a higher level of arsenic in the drinking water (1101.1 versus 972.2 μg/L, ). Drinking water with arsenic levels above the median (907.25 μg/L) was associated with a nearly twofold increase in the risk of DM (odds ratio [OR] = 1.7, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.5–5.8), so was having skin sings of arsenicosis (OR = 1.7, 95% CI: 0.5–5.6). The ORs did not reach statistical significance most likely because of the small case number. Therefore, further studies with larger study populations are needed to confirm our findings. Jhih-Wei Huang, Ya-Yun Cheng, Tzu-Ching Sung, How-Ran Guo, and Suthipong Sthiannopkao Copyright © 2014 Jhih-Wei Huang et al. All rights reserved. Oxytocin Improves Follicular Reserve in a Cisplatin-Induced Gonadotoxicity Model in Rats Thu, 15 May 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Cisplatin (CP), an antitumor agent, has been shown to cause ovarian injury and dysfunction in both animal and human studies. The present study was conducted to investigate the protective effect of oxytocin (OT) on CP-induced ovarian toxicity in rats. Twenty-one adult female rats were included in the study. Fourteen rats were administered intraperitoneally CP (2 mg/kg/day) twice a week for 5 weeks. Control group () did not receive any treatment. Following treatment, CP-received rats were randomly divided into two groups and treated with either saline (1 mL/kg/day, ) or OT (160 μg/kg/day, ) for 5 weeks. Then, ovarian toxicity and effects of OT were evaluated by histomorphological and biochemical analysis. Our findings revealed a significant reduction in the number of follicles at each grade in saline-treated group. AMH level was significantly lower in saline group compared to control (). OT treatment significantly attenuated CP toxicity in ovaries and increased AMH levels compared to saline group (). Also, administration of OT lessened lipid peroxidation and prevented glutathione depletion in CP-treated rats (). These results indicated that OT could lessen the CP-induced ovarian damage and improve follicular reserve by preventing oxidative damage. Oytun Erbaş, Levent Akman, Altuğ Yavaşoğlu, Mustafa Cosan Terek, Tülay Akman, and Dilek Taskiran Copyright © 2014 Oytun Erbaş et al. All rights reserved. A Positive Babinski Reflex Predicts Delayed Neuropsychiatric Sequelae in Chinese Patients with Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Thu, 15 May 2014 00:00:00 +0000 As the human population increased in China, the carbon monoxide is a serious environmental toxin in public health. However, predicting the delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae (DNS) of carbon monoxide poisoning (COP) has not been well studied. We investigated the independent predictors of DNS in patients with COP. This study was conducted at four hospitals in China. Data were retrospectively collected from 258 patients with COP between November 1990 and October 2011. DNS was the primary endpoint. A positive Babinski reflex was the independent predictor for DNS: sensitivity = 53.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 26.1–79.6), specificity = 88.6% (95% CI: 83.7–92.1), positive predictive value (PPV) = 20.0% (95% CI: 9.1–37.5), and negative predictive value (NPV) = 97.3% (95% CI: 94.0–98.9). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.712 (95% CI: 0.544–0.880). A positive Babinski reflex was very memorable, immediately available, and applicable in clinical practice. Even when the sensitivity and PPV of a positive Babinski reflex were unsatisfactory, it had a good specificity and NPV for excluding the risk of DNS. In patients without a positive Babinski reflex, the risk for DNS was only 2.7%. This finding may help physicians make decisions about dispositions for patients with COP. Jian-Fang Zou, Qiming Guo, Hua Shao, Bin Li, Yuxiu Du, Maofeng Liu, Fengling Liu, Lixin Dai, Min-Hsien Chung, Hung-Jung Lin, How-Ran Guo, Tzu-Meng Yang, Chien-Cheng Huang, and Chien-Chin Hsu Copyright © 2014 Jian-Fang Zou et al. All rights reserved. Toxicity Evaluation following Intratracheal Instillation of Iron Oxide in a Silica Matrix in Rats Wed, 14 May 2014 10:07:38 +0000 Iron oxide-silica nanoparticles (IOSi-NPs) were prepared from a mixture of ferrous chloride tetrahydrate and ferric chloride hexahydrate dropped into a silica xerogel composite. The structure and morphology of the synthesized maghemite nanoparticles into the silica xerogel were analysed by X-ray diffraction measurements, scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer, and transmission electron microscopy. The results of the EDAX analysis indicated that the embedded particles were iron oxide nanoparticles. The particle size of IOSi-NPs calculated from the XRD analysis was estimated at around 12.5 nm. The average size deduced from the particle size distribution is 13.7 ± 0.6 nm, which is in good agreement with XRD analysis. The biocompatibility of IOSi-NPs was assessed by cell viability and cytoskeleton analysis. Histopathology analysis was performed after 24 hours and 7 days, respectively, from the intratracheal instillation of a solution containing 0.5, 2.5, or 5 mg/kg IOSi-NPs. The pathological micrographs of lungs derived from rats collected after the intratracheal instillation with a solution containing 0.5 mg/kg and 2.5 mg/kg IOSi-NPs show that the lung has preserved the architecture of the control specimen with no significant differences. However, even at concentrations of 5 mg/kg, the effect of IOSi-NPS on the lungs was markedly reduced at 7 days posttreatment. Alina Mihaela Prodan, Carmen Steluta Ciobanu, Cristina Liana Popa, Simona Liliana Iconaru, and Daniela Predoi Copyright © 2014 Alina Mihaela Prodan et al. All rights reserved. Punicalagin and Ellagic Acid Demonstrate Antimutagenic Activity and Inhibition of Benzo[a]pyrene Induced DNA Adducts Wed, 14 May 2014 09:47:41 +0000 Punicalagin (PC) is an ellagitannin found in the fruit peel of Punica granatum. We have demonstrated antioxidant and antigenotoxic properties of Punica granatum and showed that PC and ellagic acid (EA) are its major constituents. In this study, we demonstrate the antimutagenic potential, inhibition of BP-induced DNA damage, and antiproliferative activity of PC and EA. Incubation of BP with rat liver microsomes, appropriate cofactors, and DNA in the presence of vehicle or PC and EA showed significant inhibition of the resultant DNA adducts, with essentially complete inhibition (97%) at 40 μM by PC and 77% inhibition by EA. Antimutagenicity was tested by Ames test. PC and EA dose-dependently and markedly antagonized the effect of tested mutagens, sodium azide, methyl methanesulfonate, benzo[a]pyrene, and 2-aminoflourine, with maximum inhibition of mutagenicity up to 90 percent. Almost all the doses tested (50–500 μM) exhibited significant antimutagenicity. A profound antiproliferative effect on human lung cancer cells was also shown with PC and EA. Together, our data show that PC and EA are pomegranate bioactives responsible for inhibition of BP-induced DNA adducts and strong antimutagenic, antiproliferative activities. However, these compounds are to be evaluated in suitable animal model to assess their therapeutic efficacy against cancer. Maryam Zahin, Iqbal Ahmad, Ramesh C. Gupta, and Farrukh Aqil Copyright © 2014 Maryam Zahin et al. All rights reserved. Micronuclei in Bone Marrow and Liver in relation to Hepatic Metabolism and Antioxidant Response due to Coexposure to Chloroform, Dichloromethane, and Toluene in the Rat Model Wed, 14 May 2014 07:19:47 +0000 Genotoxicity in cells may occur in different ways, direct interaction, production of electrophilic metabolites, and secondary genotoxicity via oxidative stress. Chloroform, dichloromethane, and toluene are primarily metabolized in liver by CYP2E1, producing reactive electrophilic metabolites, and may also produce oxidative stress via the uncoupled CYP2E1 catalytic cycle. Additionally, GSTT1 also participates in dichloromethane activation. Despite the oxidative metabolism of these compounds and the production of oxidative adducts, their genotoxicity in the bone marrow micronucleus test is unclear. The objective of this work was to analyze whether the oxidative metabolism induced by the coexposure to these compounds would account for increased micronucleus frequency. We used an approach including the analysis of phase I, phase II, and antioxidant enzymes, oxidative stress biomarkers, and micronuclei in bone marrow (MNPCE) and hepatocytes (MNHEP). Rats were administered different doses of an artificial mixture of CLF/DCM/TOL, under two regimes. After one administration MNPCE frequency increased in correlation with induced GSTT1 activity and no oxidative stress occurred. Conversely, after three-day treatments oxidative stress was observed, without genotoxicity. The effects observed indicate that MNPCE by the coexposure to these VOCs could be increased via inducing the activity of metabolism enzymes. Javier Belmont-Díaz, Ana Paulina López-Gordillo, Eunice Molina Garduño, Luis Serrano-García, Elvia Coballase-Urrutia, Noemí Cárdenas-Rodríguez, Omar Arellano-Aguilar, and Regina D. Montero-Montoya Copyright © 2014 Javier Belmont-Díaz et al. All rights reserved. Alkylation of Histidine Residues of Bothrops jararacussu Venom Proteins and Isolated Phospholipases : A Biotechnological Tool to Improve the Production of Antibodies Sun, 11 May 2014 12:35:29 +0000 Crude venom of Bothrops jararacussu and isolated phospholipases A2 (PLA2) of this toxin (BthTX-I and BthTX-II) were chemically modified (alkylation) by p-bromophenacyl bromide (BPB) in order to study antibody production capacity in function of the structure-function relationship of these substances (crude venom and PLA2 native and alkylated). BthTX-II showed enzymatic activity, while BthTX-I did not. Alkylation reduced BthTX-II activity by 50% while this process abolished the catalytic and myotoxic activities of BthTX-I, while reducing its edema-inducing activity by about 50%. Antibody production against the native and alkylated forms of BthTX-I and -II and the cross-reactivity of antibodies to native and alkylated toxins did not show any apparent differences and these observations were reinforced by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) data. Histopathological analysis of mouse gastrocnemius muscle sections after injection of PBS, BthTX-I, BthTX-II, or both myotoxins previously incubated with neutralizing antibody showed inhibition of the toxin-induced myotoxicity. These results reveal that the chemical modification of the phospholipases A2 (PLA2) diminished their toxicity but did not alter their antigenicity. This observation indicates that the modified PLA2 may provide a biotechnological tool to attenuate the toxicity of the crude venom, by improving the production of antibodies and decreasing the local toxic effects of this poisonous substance in animals used to produce antivenom. C. L. S. Guimarães, S. H. Andrião-Escarso, L. S. Moreira-Dill, B. M. A. Carvalho, D. P. Marchi-Salvador, N. A. Santos-Filho, C. A. H. Fernandes, M. R. M. Fontes, J. R. Giglio, B. Barraviera, J. P. Zuliani, C. F. C. Fernandes, L. A. Calderón, R. G. Stábeli, F. Albericio, S. L. da Silva, and A. M. Soares Copyright © 2014 C. L. S. Guimarães et al. All rights reserved. Fish and Crayfish Toxicology Sun, 11 May 2014 10:10:54 +0000 Josef Velíšek, Zdenka Svobodova, Antonín Kouba, and Zhi-Hua Li Copyright © 2014 Josef Velíšek et al. All rights reserved. Biochemical and Functional Characterization of Parawixia bistriata Spider Venom with Potential Proteolytic and Larvicidal Activities Wed, 07 May 2014 12:41:00 +0000 Toxins purified from the venom of spiders have high potential to be studied pharmacologically and biochemically. These biomolecules may have biotechnological and therapeutic applications. This study aimed to evaluate the protein content of Parawixia bistriata venom and functionally characterize its proteins that have potential for biotechnological applications. The crude venom showed no phospholipase, hemorrhagic, or anti-Leishmania activities attesting to low genotoxicity and discrete antifungal activity for C. albicans. However the following activities were observed: anticoagulation, edema, myotoxicity and proteolysis on casein, azo-collagen, and fibrinogen. The chromatographic and electrophoretic profiles of the proteins revealed a predominance of acidic, neutral, and polar proteins, highlighting the presence of proteins with high molecular masses. Five fractions were collected using cation exchange chromatography, with the P4 fraction standing out as that of the highest purity. All fractions showed proteolytic activity. The crude venom and fractions P1, P2, and P3 showed larvicidal effects on A. aegypti. Fraction P4 showed the presence of a possible metalloprotease (60 kDa) that has high proteolytic activity on azo-collagen and was inhibited by EDTA. The results presented in this study demonstrate the presence of proteins in the venom of P. bistriata with potential for biotechnological applications. Gizeli S. Gimenez, Antonio Coutinho-Neto, Anderson M. Kayano, Rodrigo Simões-Silva, Frances Trindade, Alexandre de Almeida e Silva, Silvana Marcussi, Saulo L. da Silva, Carla F. C. Fernandes, Juliana P. Zuliani, Leonardo A. Calderon, Andreimar M. Soares, and Rodrigo G. Stábeli Copyright © 2014 Gizeli S. Gimenez et al. All rights reserved. Age Modulates Fe3O4 Nanoparticles Liver Toxicity: Dose-Dependent Decrease in Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Complexes Activities and Coupling in Middle-Aged as Compared to Young Rats Tue, 06 May 2014 10:01:33 +0000 We examined the effects of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) on mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes activities and mitochondrial coupling in young (3 months) and middle-aged (18 months) rat liver, organ largely involved in body iron detoxification. Isolated liver mitochondria were extracted using differential centrifugations. Maximal oxidative capacities (, complexes I, III, and IV activities), (complexes II, III, and IV activities), and , (complex IV activity), together with mitochondrial coupling () were determined in controls conditions and after exposure to 250, 300, and 350 μg/ml Fe3O4 in young and middle-aged rats. In young liver mitochondria, exposure to IONPs did not alter mitochondrial function. In contrast, IONPs dose-dependently impaired all complexes of the mitochondrial respiratory chain in middle-aged rat liver: (from 30 ± 1.6 to 17.9 ± 1.5; ), (from 33.9 ± 1.7 to 24.3 ± 1.0; ), (from 43.0 ± 1.6 to 26.3 ± 2.2 µmol O2/min/g protein; ) using Fe3O4 350 µg/ml. Mitochondrial coupling also decreased. Interestingly, 350 μg/ml Fe3O4 in the form of Fe3+ solution did not impair liver mitochondrial function in middle-aged rats. Thus, IONPs showed a specific toxicity in middle-aged rats suggesting caution when using it in old age. Yosra Baratli, Anne-Laure Charles, Valérie Wolff, Lotfi Ben Tahar, Leila Smiri, Jamal Bouitbir, Joffrey Zoll, Mohsen Sakly, Cyril Auger, Thomas Vogel, Hafedh Abdelmelek, Olfa Tebourbi, and Bernard Geny Copyright © 2014 Yosra Baratli et al. All rights reserved. Assessment of DNA Damage and Telomerase Activity in Exfoliated Urinary Cells as Sensitive and Noninvasive Biomarkers for Early Diagnosis of Bladder Cancer in Ex-Workers of a Rubber Tyres Industry Wed, 30 Apr 2014 07:30:50 +0000 The aim of the present study was to identify sensitive and noninvasive biomarkers of early carcinogenic effect at target organ to use in biomonitoring studies of workers at risk for previous occupational exposure to potential carcinogens. Standard urine cytology (Papanicolaou staining test), comet assay, and quantitative telomerase repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assay were performed in 159 ex-rubber workers employed in tyres production and 97 unexposed subjects. In TRAP positive cases, a second level analysis using FISH (Urovysion) was done. Cystoscopy results were available for 11 individuals whose 6 FISH/TRAP/comet positive showed in 3 cases a dysplastic condition confirmed by biopsy, 1 comet positive resulted in infiltrating UBC to the biopsy and with hyperplasia and slight dysplasia to the urinary cytology, 1 comet positive resulted in papillary superficial UBC to the biopsy, 1 FISH/TRAP positive showed a normal condition, and 2 TRAP positive showed in one case a phlogosis condition. The results evidenced good concordance of TRAP, comet, and FISH assays as early biomarkers of procarcinogenic effect confirmed by the dysplastic condition and UBC found by cystoscopy-biopsy analysis. The analysis of these markers in urine cells could be potentially more accurate than conventional cytology in monitoring workers exposed to mixture of bladder potential carcinogens. Delia Cavallo, Valentina Casadio, Sara Bravaccini, Sergio Iavicoli, Enrico Pira, Canzio Romano, Anna Maria Fresegna, Raffaele Maiello, Aureliano Ciervo, Giuliana Buresti, Wainer Zoli, and Daniele Calistri Copyright © 2014 Delia Cavallo et al. All rights reserved. Bortezomib Treatment Produces Nocifensive Behavior and Changes in the Expression of TRPV1, CGRP, and Substance P in the Rat DRG, Spinal Cord, and Sciatic Nerve Sun, 27 Apr 2014 12:48:01 +0000 To investigate neurochemical changes associated with bortezomib-induced painful peripheral neuropathy (PN), we examined the effects of a single-dose intravenous administration of bortezomib and a well-established “chronic” schedule in a rat model of bortezomib-induced PN. The TRPV1 channel and sensory neuropeptides CGRP and substance P (SP) were studied in L4-L5 dorsal root ganglia (DRGs), spinal cord, and sciatic nerve. Behavioral measures, performed at the end of the chronic bortezomib treatment, confirmed a reduction of mechanical nociceptive threshold, whereas no difference occurred in thermal withdrawal latency. Western blot analysis showed a relative increase of TRPV1 in DRG and spinal cord after both acute and chronic bortezomib administration. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction revealed a decrease of TRPV1 and CGRP mRNA relative levels after chronic treatment. Immunohistochemistry showed that in the DRGs, TRPV1-, CGRP-, and SP-immunoreactive neurons were mostly small- and medium-sized and the proportion of TRPV1- and CGRP-labeled neurons increased after treatment. A bortezomib-induced increase in density of TRPV1- and CGRP-immunoreactive innervation in the dorsal horn was also observed. Our findings show that bortezomib-treatment selectively affects subsets of DRG neurons likely involved in the processing of nociceptive stimuli and that neurochemical changes may contribute to development and persistence of pain in bortezomib-induced PN. M. Quartu, V. A. Carozzi, S. G. Dorsey, M. P. Serra, L. Poddighe, C. Picci, M. Boi, T. Melis, M. Del Fiacco, C. Meregalli, A. Chiorazzi, C. L. Renn, G. Cavaletti, and P. Marmiroli Copyright © 2014 M. Quartu et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Freshwater Pollution on the Genetics of Zebra Mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) at the Molecular and Population Level Sun, 27 Apr 2014 11:45:50 +0000 Revealing long-term effects of contaminants on the genetic structure of organisms inhabiting polluted environments should encompass analyses at the population, molecular, and cellular level. Following this concept, we studied the genetic constitution of zebra mussel populations from a polluted (Dp) and reference sites (Cl) at the river Drava, Croatia, and applied microsatellite and DNA damage analyses (Comet assay, micronucleus test (MNT)). Additionally, mussels from both populations were exposed to polluted wastewater in the laboratory for three days, and DNA damage was analyzed to evaluate acclimatization and genetic adaptation of the investigated populations to the polluted environment. The two populations differed in their genetic constitution. Microsatellite analysis suggested that Dp had undergone a genetic bottleneck. Comet assay did not indicate any difference in DNA damage between the two populations, but MNT revealed that Dp had an increased percentage of micronuclei in hemocytes in comparison to Cl. The laboratory experiment revealed that Dp had a lower percentage of tail DNA and a higher percentage of micronuclei than Cl. These differences between populations were possibly caused by an overall decreased fitness of Dp due to genetic drift and by an enhanced DNA repair mechanism due to acclimatization to pollution in the source habitat. Emilia G. Thomas, Maja Šrut, Anamaria Štambuk, Göran I. V. Klobučar, Alfred Seitz, and Eva Maria Griebeler Copyright © 2014 Emilia G. Thomas et al. All rights reserved. Biomarkers of Mercury Exposure in the Amazon Sun, 27 Apr 2014 09:54:39 +0000 Mercury exposure in the Amazon has been studied since the 1980s decade and the assessment of human mercury exposure in the Amazon is difficult given that the natural occurrence of this metal is high and the concentration of mercury in biological samples of this population exceeds the standardized value of normality established by WHO. Few studies have focused on the discovery of mercury biomarkers in the region’s population. In this way, some studies have used genetics as well as immunological and cytogenetic tools in order to find a molecular biomarker for assessing the toxicological effect of mercury in the Amazonian population. Most of those studies focused attention on the relation between mercury exposure and autoimmunity and, because of that, they will be discussed in more detail. Here we introduce the general aspects involved with each biomarker that was studied in the region in order to contextualize the reader and add information about the Amazonian life style and health that may be considered for future studies. We hope that, in the future, the toxicological studies in this field use high technological tools, such as the next generation sequencing and proteomics skills, in order to comprehend basic questions regarding the metabolic route of mercury in populations that are under constant exposure, such as in the Amazon. Nathália Santos Serrão de Castro and Marcelo de Oliveira Lima Copyright © 2014 Nathália Santos Serrão de Castro and Marcelo de Oliveira Lima. All rights reserved. Biomarkers of Type II Synthetic Pyrethroid Pesticides in Freshwater Fish Wed, 23 Apr 2014 07:20:40 +0000 Type II synthetic pyrethroids contain an alpha-cyano group which renders them more neurotoxic than their noncyano type I counterparts. A wide array of biomarkers have been employed to delineate the toxic responses of freshwater fish to various type II synthetic pyrethroids. These include hematological, enzymatic, cytological, genetic, omic and other types of biomarkers. This review puts together the applications of different biomarkers in freshwater fish species in response to the toxicity of the major type II pyrethroid pesticides and assesses their present status, while speculating on the possible future directions. Anilava Kaviraj and Abhik Gupta Copyright © 2014 Anilava Kaviraj and Abhik Gupta. All rights reserved. Effects of Cyhalothrin-Based Pesticide on Early Life Stages of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) Tue, 22 Apr 2014 08:45:39 +0000 The effects of Nexide (a.i. gamma-cyhalothrin 60 g ) on cumulative mortality, growth indices, and ontogenetic development of embryos and larvae of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were studied. Levels of oxidative stress parameters glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and lipid peroxidation were determined. Eggs of newly fertilised common carp were exposed to Nexide at concentrations 5, 25, 50, 100, and 250 μg  (0.3, 1.5, 3, 6, and 15 μg  gamma-cyhalothrin). All organisms exposed to concentrations higher than 50 μg  died soon after hatching; at 25 μg , 95% mortality was recorded. Larvae exposed to 5 μg  showed significantly lower growth and retarded ontogenetic development compared to control. Histological examination of the livers of larvae from the exposed group revealed dystrophic changes. The value of detoxification enzyme GST of organisms from the exposed group was significantly higher compared to the control and the value of defensive enzyme GPx was significantly lower compared to the control. The results of our investigation confirmed that contamination of aquatic environment by pesticides containing cyhalothrin may impair growth and development of early life stages of carp and cause disbalance of defensive enzymes. Zuzana Richterová, Jana Máchová, Alžběta Stará, Jitka Tumová, Josef Velíšek, Marie Ševčíková, and Zdeňka Svobodová Copyright © 2014 Zuzana Richterová et al. All rights reserved. Experimental Measurements for the Effect of Dilution Procedure in Blood Esterases as Animals Biomarker for Exposure to OP Compounds Tue, 22 Apr 2014 08:19:00 +0000 Organophosphate compounds can bind to carboxylesterase, which may lower the concentration of organophosphate pesticides at the target site enzyme, cholinesterase. It is unclear from the literature whether it is the carboxylesterase affinity for the organophosphate and/or the number of carboxylesterase molecules that is the dominant factor in determining the protective potential of carboxylesterase. The fundamental dilutions and kinetic effects of esterase enzyme are still poorly understood. This study aims to confirm and extend our current knowledge about the effects of dilutions on esterases activities in the blood for birds with respect to protecting the enzyme from organophosphate inhibition. There was significantly higher esterases activities in dilution 1 : 10 in the all blood samples from quail, duck, and chick compared to other dilutions (1 : 5, 1 : 15, 1 : 20, and 1 : 25) in all cases. Furthermore, our results also pointed to the importance of estimating different dilutions effects prior to using in birds as biomarker tools of environmental exposure. Concentration-inhibition curves were determined for the inhibitor in the presence of dilutions 1 : 5, 1 : 10, plus 1 : 15 (to stimulate carboxylesterase). Point estimates (concentrations calculated to produce 20, 50, and 80% inhibition) were compared across conditions and served as a measure of esterase-mediated detoxification. Results with well-known inhibitors (malathion) were in agreement with the literature, serving to support the use of this assay. Among the thiol-esters dilution 1 : 5 was observed to have the highest specificity constant (), and the and values were 176 M and 16,765 , respectively, for S-phenyl thioacetate ester, while detected in dilution 1 : 15 was the lowest specificity constant (), and the and values were 943 M and 1154 , respectively, for acetylthiocholine iodide ester. Kasim Sakran Abass Copyright © 2014 Kasim Sakran Abass. All rights reserved. Combined Cytogenotoxic Effects of Bee Venom and Bleomycin on Rat Lymphocytes: An In Vitro Study Wed, 16 Apr 2014 12:15:55 +0000 This study was carried out to determine the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of bee venom (BV) and/or the chemotherapeutic agent bleomycin (BLM) on healthy isolated rat lymphocytes utilizing morphometric and molecular techniques. Using the Ficoll-Histopaque density gradient centrifugation technique, lymphocytes were isolated, divided into groups, and subjected to BV and/or BLM at incubation medium concentrations of 10 or 20 μg/mL respectively for 24 and 72 hrs. An MTT assay and fluorescent microscopy examinations were used to assess the cytotoxic effects. To determine the predominant type of BV and/or BLM-induced cell death, LDH release assay was employed beside quantitative expression analyses of the apoptosis-related genes (Caspase-3 and Bcl-2). The genotoxic effects of the tested compounds were evaluated via DNA fragmentation assay. The results of these assays demonstrated that BV potentiates BLM-induced cytotoxicity through increased LDH release and diminished cell viability. Nevertheless, BV significantly inhibited the BLM-induced DNA damage. The results verify that BV significantly attenuates the genotoxic effects of BLM on noncancerous isolated rat lymphocytes but does not diminish BLM cytotoxicity. Yasmina M. Abd-Elhakim, Samah R. Khalil, Ashraf Awad, and Laila Y. AL-Ayadhi Copyright © 2014 Yasmina M. Abd-Elhakim et al. All rights reserved. Growth Performance and Stress Responses of Larval Mississippi Paddlefish Polyodon spathula to Hypoxia under Different Diet Treatments Mon, 14 Apr 2014 09:26:39 +0000 A growth trial was conducted to detect the effects of different diets on the growth performance and hypoxia adaptation capacity of Mississippi Paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) larvae. The larvae were fed with live food, formulated diets, and 1/2 live food with 1/2 formulated diets. After a 15-d growth trial, final body weight and total body length were measured, and five larvae from each dietary group were subjected to 1 h of hypoxia treatment. Serum total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), and liver malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured. Final body weight and weight gain of the fish fed live food were significantly higher than the values for the other two groups. Total body length of the fish fed live food and 1/2 live food with 1/2 formulated diets exhibited no significant difference. After hypoxia treatment, serum T-AOC and SOD activities of the fish fed formulated diets were significantly lower than those of the other two groups. Liver MDA content of the fish fed with live food was significantly higher than that of the other two groups. In conclusion, larval paddlefish fed with an appropriate proportion of live food and formulated diets exhibit improved adaptive capacity to hypoxia. Ya Zhu, Qiliang Ding, Wen Lei, and Chunfang Wang Copyright © 2014 Ya Zhu et al. All rights reserved. Subchronic Toxicity Study in Rats of Two New Ethyl-Carbamates with Ixodicidal Activity Thu, 10 Apr 2014 13:34:30 +0000 Female and male Wistar rats were used to determine the subchronic oral toxicities of two new ethyl-carbamates with ixodicidal activities (ethyl-4-bromphenyl-carbamate and ethyl-4-chlorphenyl-carbamate). The evaluated carbamates were administered in the drinking water (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg/day) for 90 days. Exposure to the evaluated carbamates did not cause mortality or clinical signs and did not affect food consumption or weight gain. However, exposure to these carbamates produced alterations in water consumption, hematocrit, percentages of reticulocytes, plasma proteins, some biochemical parameters (aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, cholinesterase, and creatinine activities), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and the relative weight of the spleen. Histologically, slight pathological alterations were found in the liver that were consistent with the observed biochemical alterations. The nonobserved adverse effect levels (NOAELs) of the evaluated carbamates were 12.5 mg/kg/day for both the female and male rats. The low severity and reversibility of the majority of the observed alterations suggest that the evaluated carbamates have low subchronic toxicity. María Guadalupe Prado-Ochoa, Víctor Hugo Abrego-Reyes, Ana María Velázquez-Sánchez, Marco Antonio Muñoz-Guzmán, Patricia Ramírez-Noguera, Enrique Angeles, and Fernando Alba-Hurtado Copyright © 2014 María Guadalupe Prado-Ochoa et al. All rights reserved. Metallothionein Induction in the Coelomic Fluid of the Earthworm Lumbricus terrestris following Heavy Metal Exposure: A Short Report Thu, 03 Apr 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Earthworms are useful bioindicator organisms for soil biomonitoring. Recently the use of pollution biomarkers in earthworms has been increasingly investigated for soil monitoring and assessment. Earthworm coelomic fluid is particularly interesting from a toxicological perspective, because it is responsible for pollutant disposition and tissue distribution to the whole organism. The aim of the present work was to study the effect of heavy metal exposure on metallothionein (Mt) induction in the coelomic fluid of Lumbricus terrestris in view of future use as sensitive biomarker suitable for application to metal polluted soil monitoring and assessment. L. terrestris coelomic fluid showed a detectable Mt concentration of about  μg/mL (mean ± SEM, ) in basal physiological condition. When the animals were exposed to CuSO4 or CdCl2 or to a mixture of the two metals in OECD soils for 72 h, the Mt specific concentration significantly () increased. The Mt response in the coelomic fluid perfectly reflected the commonly used Mt response in the whole organism when the two responses were compared on the same specimens. These findings indicate the suitability of Mt determination in L. terrestris coelomic fluid as a sensitive biomarker for application to metal polluted soil monitoring and assessment. A. Calisi, M. G. Lionetto, E. De Lorenzis, A. Leomanni, and T. Schettino Copyright © 2014 A. Calisi et al. All rights reserved. Reduced Bone and Body Mass in Young Male Rats Exposed to Lead Sun, 30 Mar 2014 16:00:34 +0000 The aim of this study was to see whether there would be differences in whole blood versus tibia lead concentrations over time in growing rats prenatally. Lead was given in the drinking water at 30 mg/L from the time the dams were pregnant until offspring was 28- or 60-day-old. Concentrations of lead were measured in whole blood and in tibia after 28 (28D) and 60 days (60D) in control (C) and in lead-exposed animals (Pb). Lead measurements were made by GF-AAS. There was no significant difference () in the concentration of whole blood lead between Pb-28D ( μg/dL) and Pb-60D ( μg/dL), while both significantly varied () from controls (0.2 μg/dL). Bone lead concentrations significantly varied between the Pb-28D ( μg/g) and the Pb-60D ( μg/g) lead-exposed groups (), while those exposed groups were also significantly higher () than the 28D and 60D control groups (Pb < 1 μg/g). The Pb-60D group showed a 25% decrease in tibia mass as compared to the respective control. The five times higher amount of lead found in the bone of older animals (Pb-60D versus Pb-28D), which reinforces the importance of using bone lead as an exposure biomarker. Fellipe Augusto Tocchini de Figueiredo, Raquel Fernanda Gerlach, Márcia Andreia Mesquita Silva da Veiga, Flavio Venancio Nakadi, Junia Ramos, Erika Reiko Kawakita, Carolina de Souza Guerra, and João Paulo Mardegan Issa Copyright © 2014 Fellipe Augusto Tocchini de Figueiredo et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Subchronic Exposure to N,N-Diethyl-m-toluamide on Selected Biomarkers in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) Sun, 30 Mar 2014 12:28:34 +0000 DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) is the most common active ingredient in the insect repellents commonly detected in European groundwater. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of subchronic DEET exposure on biochemical and haematological parameters, antioxidant enzymes, including catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase, and the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Two specific proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine genes were selected to assess an immunological status of the fish. Fish were exposed for 28 days to three concentrations of DEET (1.0 µg/L, 0.1 mg/L, and 1.0 mg/L) where 1 µg/L is corresponding to the concentration found in the environment. DEET had a significant effect on increased RBC, decreased mean corpuscular volume (MCV), and mean corpuscular haemoglobin value (MCH) compared to control groups in the concentration of 1 mg/L. A significant decline in triacylglycerols (TAG) in plasma was found in the concentration of 1 mg/L compared to the control groups. The parameters of oxidative stress in tissues of common carp were weekly affected and immunological parameters were not affected. Andrea Slaninova, Helena Modra, Martin Hostovsky, Eliska Sisperova, Jana Blahova, Iveta Matejova, Monika Vicenova, Martin Faldyna, Lenka Zelnickova, Frantisek Tichy, and Zdenka Svobodova Copyright © 2014 Andrea Slaninova et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Biochemical, Haematological, and Histopathological Responses and Recovery Ability of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) after Acute Exposure to Atrazine Herbicide Thu, 27 Mar 2014 07:14:19 +0000 The aim of study was to evaluate the effect of atrazine exposure (5, 15, 20, and 30 mg·L−1) on common carp and the ability of regeneration. During 96 h exposure we observed abnormal behavior in fish exposed to 20 and 30 mg·L−1. Mortality and histological alterations were noticed only in the group exposed to 30 mg·L−1. Most experimental groups showed significantly () lower values of haemoglobin, haematocrit, leukocyte, and lymphocyte and significantly higher values of monocytes, segmented and band neutrophile granulocytes, and also metamyelocytes and myelocytes. A significantly lower () leukocyte count was also recorded in experimental groups (5 and 15 mg·L−1) after recovery period. Statistically significant () alterations in glucose, total protein, lactate, phosphorus, calcium, and biopterin as well as in activities of ALT, AST, ALP, and LDH were found in most experimental groups. These changes were most apparent in the groups exposed to 20 and 30 mg·L−1. Most of the indices were found to be restored after the 7-day recovery period with the exception of LDH, ALT, and lactate in the group exposed to 15 mg·L−1. Our results showed that atrazine exposure had a profound negative influence on selected indices and also on histological changes of common carp. Jana Blahova, Helena Modra, Marie Sevcikova, Petr Marsalek, Lenka Zelnickova, Misa Skoric, and Zdenka Svobodova Copyright © 2014 Jana Blahova et al. All rights reserved. The Effects of Acute Hydrogen Sulfide Poisoning on Cytochrome P450 Isoforms Activity in Rats Wed, 26 Mar 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is the second leading cause of toxin related death (after carbon monoxide) in the workplace. H2S is absorbed by the upper respiratory tract mucosa, and it causes histotoxic hypoxemia and respiratory depression. Cocktail method was used to evaluate the influences of acute H2S poisoning on the activities of cytochrome P450 isoforms CYP2B6, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, CYP1A2, CYP2C19, and CYP2C9, which were reflected by the changes of pharmacokinetic parameters of six specific probe drugs, bupropion, metoprolol, midazolam, phenacetin, omeprazole, and tolbutamide, respectively. The experimental rats were randomly divided into two groups, control group and acute H2S poisoning group (inhaling 300 ppm for 2 h). The mixture of six probes was given to rats by oral administration and the blood samples were obtained at a series of time points through the caudal vein. The concentrations of probe drugs in rat plasma were measured by LC-MS. The results for acute H2S poisoning and control groups were as follows: there was a statistically significant difference in the AUC and for bupropion, metoprolol, phenacetin, and tolbutamide, while there was no statistical pharmacokinetic difference for midazolam and omeprazole. Acute H2S poisoning could inhibit the activity of CYP2B6, CYP2D6, CYP1A2, and CYP2C9 in rats. Xianqin Wang, Mengchun Chen, Xinxin Chen, Jianshe Ma, Congcong Wen, Jianchun Pan, Lufeng Hu, and Guanyang Lin Copyright © 2014 Xianqin Wang et al. All rights reserved. Impact of MSWI Bottom Ash Codisposed with MSW on Landfill Stabilization with Different Operational Modes Sun, 23 Mar 2014 13:26:52 +0000 The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash (BA) codisposed with municipal solid waste (MSW) on landfill stabilization according to the leachate quality in terms of organic matter and nitrogen contents. Six simulated landfills, that is, three conventional and three recirculated, were employed with different ratios of MSWI BA to MSW. The results depicted that, after 275-day operation, the ratio of MSWI BA to fresh refuse of 1 : 10 (V : V) in the landfill was still not enough to provide sufficient acid-neutralizing capacity for a high organic matter composition of MSW over 45.5% (w/w), while the ratio of MSWI BA to fresh refuse of 1 : 5 (V : V) could act on it. Among the six experimental landfills, leachate quality only was improved in the landfill operated with the BA addition (the ratio of MSWI BA to fresh refuse of 1 : 5 (V : V)) and leachate recirculation. Wen-Bing Li, Jun Yao, Zaffar Malik, Gen-Di Zhou, Ming Dong, and Dong-Sheng Shen Copyright © 2014 Wen-Bing Li et al. All rights reserved. Prooxidant Mechanisms in Toxicology Thu, 20 Mar 2014 10:34:18 +0000 Afaf K. El-Ansary, Malak Kotb, Maha Zaki Rizk, and Nikhat J. Siddiqi Copyright © 2014 Afaf K. El-Ansary et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Mixture of Pharmaceuticals on Early Life Stages of Tench (Tinca tinca) Thu, 20 Mar 2014 06:51:27 +0000 Ubiquitous occurrence of pharmaceuticals in aquatic environment results in concern about potential adverse the effects on nontarget organisms. In water, drugs are present in complex mixtures, in which complicated interactions affect toxicity of single components. The purpose of this study was to examine effect of 35-day-long exposure to mixture of ibuprofen, diclofenac, and carbamazepine on the mortality, growth, early ontogeny, and histopathological changes in tench (Tinca tinca). Early life stage toxicity test was carried out using a modified protocol according to OECD guideline 210. Exposure to mixture of pharmaceuticals at concentration of 60 μg·L−1 for each substance was associated with significant increase in mortality, as well as significant increase in growth and elevated incidence of malformations. Any of the tested concentrations resulted in histopathological changes of liver, kidney, skin, or gill. After fourteen days of exposure there was short-term delay of development related to increased concentrations of pharmaceuticals in the mixture (2, 20, and 60 μg·L−1). Environmentally relevant concentrations (0.02; and 0.2 μg·L−1) used in this experiment did not result in toxic impairment of tench. Vlasta Stancova, Lucie Plhalova, Marta Bartoskova, Dana Zivna, Miroslav Prokes, Petr Marsalek, Jana Blahova, Misa Skoric, and Zdenka Svobodova Copyright © 2014 Vlasta Stancova et al. All rights reserved. Phytoremediation Potential of Maná-Cubiu (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal) for the Deleterious Effects of Methylmercury on the Reproductive System of Rats Wed, 19 Mar 2014 13:25:28 +0000 Methylmercury, organic form of mercury, can increase the number of abnormal sperm and decrease sperm concentration and testosterone levels possibly due to the damage caused by reactive species to germ and Leydig cells. Maná-cubiu (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal) is a native fruit from Amazon rich in iron, zinc, niacin, pectin, and citric acid, used in foods, beverages, and medicinal purposes, since it has been useful for treatment of various diseases caused by oxidative stress or nutritional deficiency. Therefore, this study evaluated the phytoremediation potential of this fruit on damages caused by exposure to MeHg on sperm quantity and quality and the histological aspect of the testis and epididymis. Wistar male rats () were randomly allocated into four groups: Control group (received distilled water), MeHg group (140 g/Kg), Solanum group (1% of fruit Maná-cubiu on chow), and Solanum plus MeHg group (same treatment as MeHg and Solanum group). The organs were weighted, histopathology; sperm morphology and counts were obtained. The results showed reduction in body weight gain, testis weights, reduced sperm production, and increased histopathological abnormalities in the MeHg-treated group. However, treatment with Solanum plus MeHg revealed a protective effect of this fruit on damages caused by MeHg. Raquel Frenedoso da Silva, Gabriela Missassi, Cibele dos Santos Borges, Eloísa Silva de Paula, Maria Fernanda Hornos Carneiro, Denise Grotto, Fernando Barbosa Junior, and Wilma De Grava Kempinas Copyright © 2014 Raquel Frenedoso da Silva et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Chronic Exposure to Prometryne on Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Response in Red Swamp Crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) Tue, 18 Mar 2014 08:06:26 +0000 The aim of the study was to investigate effects of the triazine herbicide prometryne on red swamp crayfish on the basis of oxidative stress, antioxidant indices in hepatopancreas and muscle, and histopathology of hepatopancreas. Crayfish were exposed to prometryne concentrations of 0.51 μg L−1, 0.144 mg L−1, and 1.144 mg L−1 for 11 and 25 days. Indices of oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)), and antioxidant parameters (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione reductase (GR)) in crayfish muscle and hepatopancreas were measured. Chronic exposure to prometryne did not showed the impact of oxidative damage to cells. Changes activity of the antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT, and GR were observed in all tested concentrations to prometryne for 11 and 25 days () as compared with the control group. We did not see any differences in histopatological examination to hepatopancreas. Prolonged exposure of prometryne did not result in oxidative damage to cell lipids and proteins, but it led to changes in antioxidant activity in crayfish tissues. Changes in antioxidant systems were also observed in the environmental prometryne concentration of 0.51 μg L−1. The results suggest that antioxidant responses may have potential as biomarkers for monitoring residual triazine herbicides in aquatic environments. Alžběta Stará, Antonín Kouba, and Josef Velíšek Copyright © 2014 Alžběta Stará et al. All rights reserved. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Crayfish and Fish from Selected Czech Reservoirs Sun, 16 Mar 2014 13:51:12 +0000 To evaluate the accumulation of aluminium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, and zinc in crayfish and fish organ tissues, specimens from three drinking water reservoirs (Boskovice, Landštejn, and Nová Říše) and one contaminated site (Darkovské moře) in the Czech Republic were examined. Crayfish hepatopancreas was confirmed to be the primary accumulating site for the majority of metals (Cu > Zn > Ni > Cd > Cr), while Hg and Cr were concentrated in abdominal muscle, and Al and Pb were concentrated in gill. Metals found in Nová Říše specimens included Cu > Zn > Ni and those found in Boskovice included Zn > Hg > Cr. Cd concentrations were observed only in Landštejn specimens, while contaminated Darkovské moře specimens showed the highest levels of accumulation (Cu > Al > Zn > Pb). The majority of evaluated metals were found in higher concentrations in crayfish: Cu > Al > Zn > Ni > Cr > Cd > Pb, with Hg being the only metal accumulating higher in fish. Due to accumulation similarities of Al in crayfish and fish gill, differences of Hg in muscle, and features noted for the remaining metals in examined tissues, biomonitoring should incorporate both crayfish and fish to produce more relevant water quality surveys. Iryna Kuklina, Antonín Kouba, Miloš Buřič, Ivona Horká, Zdeněk Ďuriš, and Pavel Kozák Copyright © 2014 Iryna Kuklina et al. All rights reserved. Norfloxacin—Toxicity for Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Focused on Oxidative Stress Parameters Thu, 13 Mar 2014 13:39:24 +0000 The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of subchronic exposure of zebrafish (Danio rerio) to a fluoroquinolone norfloxacin, using selected oxidative stress parameters as a target. Toxicity tests were performed on zebrafish according to the OECD Guidelines number 203 and number 215. In the Subchronic Toxicity Test, a significant () increase in the activity of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase, and catalase was found. In the test, norfloxacin did not affect lipid peroxidation and catalytic activity of glutathione reductase. From the results, we can conclude that norfloxacin has a negative impact on specific biochemical processes connected with the production of reactive oxygen species in fish tested. Marta Bartoskova, Radka Dobsikova, Vlasta Stancova, Ondrej Pana, Dana Zivna, Lucie Plhalova, Jana Blahova, and Petr Marsalek Copyright © 2014 Marta Bartoskova et al. All rights reserved. Snake Venom L-Amino Acid Oxidases: Trends in Pharmacology and Biochemistry Wed, 12 Mar 2014 09:34:17 +0000 L-amino acid oxidases are enzymes found in several organisms, including venoms of snakes, where they contribute to the toxicity of ophidian envenomation. Their toxicity is primarily due to enzymatic activity, but other mechanisms have been proposed recently which require further investigation. L-amino acid oxidases exert biological and pharmacological effects, including actions on platelet aggregation and the induction of apoptosis, hemorrhage, and cytotoxicity. These proteins present a high biotechnological potential for the development of antimicrobial, antitumor, and antiprotozoan agents. This review provides an overview of the biochemical properties and pharmacological effects of snake venom L-amino acid oxidases, their structure/activity relationship, and supposed mechanisms of action described so far. Luiz Fernando M. Izidoro, Juliana C. Sobrinho, Mirian M. Mendes, Tássia R. Costa, Amy N. Grabner, Veridiana M. Rodrigues, Saulo L. da Silva, Fernando B. Zanchi, Juliana P. Zuliani, Carla F. C. Fernandes, Leonardo A. Calderon, Rodrigo G. Stábeli, and Andreimar M. Soares Copyright © 2014 Luiz Fernando M. Izidoro et al. All rights reserved. Comment on “Effectiveness of Naltrexone in the Prevention of Delayed Respiratory Arrest in Opioid-Naive Methadone-Intoxicated Patients” Tue, 11 Mar 2014 07:26:46 +0000 Benjamin D. Kessler and Robert S. Hoffman Copyright © 2014 Benjamin D. Kessler and Robert S. Hoffman. All rights reserved. Mercury Speciation in Hair of Children in Three Communities of the Amazon, Brazil Tue, 11 Mar 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Children from riverside communities located downstream of gold mining areas may be chronically exposed to relatively high levels of MeHg through the consumption of fish of this region. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare levels of THg and MeHg in hair of children less than 12 years in communities near mines in the municipality of Itaituba and in communities far from prospecting areas in the city of Abaetetuba. The communities of Itaituba (Barreiras and São Luiz do Tapajós) had THg mean levels of  μg·g−1 (0.43–27.82) and  μg.g−1 (1.08–28.17), respectively, and an average count of MeHg relative to THg of 92.20% and 90.27%, respectively. In the Maranhão community, the THg average concentrations results were  μg·g−1 (0.13–9.54) and the average values were 93.17% for MeHg. Children of Itaituba had average levels of mercury above the limit established by the World Health Organization (10 μg·g−1) and the strong correlation coefficient between the communities ( and ) suggests the hair as an excellent biomarker of human exposure to organic mercury in riverside populations of the Tapajós, which has the intake of fish daily as main source of protein dietary. Jamile Salim Marinho, Marcelo Oliveira Lima, Elisabeth Conceição de Oliveira Santos, Iracina Maura de Jesus, Maria da Conceição N. Pinheiro, Cláudio Nahum Alves, and Regina Celi Sarkis Muller Copyright © 2014 Jamile Salim Marinho et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Chromium on Antioxidant Potential of Catharanthus roseus Varieties and Production of Their Anticancer Alkaloids: Vincristine and Vinblastine Mon, 10 Mar 2014 09:46:01 +0000 Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don, a medicinal plant, has a very important place in the traditional as well as modern pharmaceutical industry. Two common varieties of this plant rosea and alba are named so because of pink and white coloured flowers, respectively. This plant comprises of about 130 terpenoid indole alkaloids and two of them, vincristine and vinblastine, are common anticancer drugs. The effect of chromium (Cr) on enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant components and on secondary metabolites vincristine and vinblastine was studied under pot culture conditions of both varieties of C. roseus. Antioxidant responses of these varieties were analyzed under 0, 10, 50, and 100 μM chromium (Cr) level in order to investigate the plant’s protective mechanisms against Cr induced oxidative stress. The results indicated that Cr affects all the studied parameters and decreases growth performance. However, vincristine and vinblastine contents were increased under Cr stress. Results are quite encouraging, as this plant shows good antioxidant potential and increased the level of active constituents under Cr stress. Vartika Rai, Pramod Kumar Tandon, and Sayyada Khatoon Copyright © 2014 Vartika Rai et al. All rights reserved. Determination of Carbamate and Organophosphorus Pesticides in Vegetable Samples and the Efficiency of Gamma-Radiation in Their Removal Mon, 10 Mar 2014 07:39:37 +0000 In the present study, the residual pesticide levels were determined in eggplants (Solanum melongena) (), purchased from four different markets in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The carbamate and organophosphorus pesticide residual levels were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the efficiency of gamma radiation on pesticide removal in three different types of vegetables was also studied. Many (50%) of the samples contained pesticides, and three samples had residual levels above the maximum residue levels determined by the World Health Organisation. Three carbamates (carbaryl, carbofuran, and pirimicarb) and six organophosphates (phenthoate, diazinon, parathion, dimethoate, phosphamidon, and pirimiphos-methyl) were detected in eggplant samples; the highest carbofuran level detected was 1.86 mg/kg, while phenthoate was detected at 0.311 mg/kg. Gamma radiation decreased pesticide levels proportionately with increasing radiation doses. Diazinon, chlorpyrifos, and phosphamidon were reduced by 40–48%, 35–43%, and 30–45%, respectively, when a radiation strength of 0.5 kGy was utilized. However, when the radiation dose was increased to 1.0 kGy, the levels of the pesticides were reduced to 85–90%, 80–91%, and 90–95%, respectively. In summary, our study revealed that pesticide residues are present at high amounts in vegetable samples and that gamma radiation at 1.0 kGy can remove 80–95% of some pesticides. Muhammed Alamgir Zaman Chowdhury, Iffat Jahan, Nurul Karim, Mohammad Khorshed Alam, Mohammad Abdur Rahman, Mohammed Moniruzzaman, Siew Hua Gan, and Abu Naieum Muhammad Fakhruddin Copyright © 2014 Muhammed Alamgir Zaman Chowdhury et al. All rights reserved. The Effect of Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol on Haematological and Biochemical Indicators and Histopathological Changes in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Tue, 04 Mar 2014 07:38:19 +0000 Deoxynivalenol (DON), produced by the Fusarium genus, is a major contaminant of cereal grains used in the production of fish feed. The effect of mycotoxin deoxynivalenol on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was studied using a commercial feed with the addition of DON in a dose of 2 mg/kg feed. The fish were exposed to the mycotoxin for 23 days. The trout were divided into two groups, control and experimental groups. Control groups were fed a commercial feed naturally contaminated with a low concentration of DON (225 μg/kg feed); experimental groups were fed a commercial feed with the addition of DON (1964 μg/kg feed). Plasma biochemical and haematological indices, biometric parameters, and histopathological changes were assessed at the end of the experiment. The experimental groups showed significantly lower values in MCH . In biochemical indices, after 23-day exposure, a significant decrease in glucose, cholesterol , and ammonia was recorded in the experimental group compared to the control group. Our assessment showed no significant changes in biometric parameters. The histopathological examination revealed disorders in the caudal kidney of the exposed fish. The obtained data show the sensitivity of rainbow trout (O. mykiss) to deoxynivalenol. Iveta Matejova, Helena Modra, Jana Blahova, Ales Franc, Petr Fictum, Marie Sevcikova, and Zdenka Svobodova Copyright © 2014 Iveta Matejova et al. All rights reserved. Development of a Promising Fish Model (Oryzias melastigma) for Assessing Multiple Responses to Stresses in the Marine Environment Mon, 03 Mar 2014 12:16:47 +0000 With the increasing number of contaminants in the marine environment, various experimental organisms have been “taken into labs” by investigators to find the most suitable environmentally relevant models for toxicity testing. The marine medaka, Oryzias melastigma, has a number of advantages that make it a prime candidate for these tests. Recently, many studies have been conducted on marine medaka, especially in terms of their physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses after exposure to contaminants and other environmental stressors. This review provides a literature survey highlighting the steady increase of ecotoxicological research on marine medaka, summarizes the advantages of using O. melastigma as a tool for toxicological research, and promotes the utilization of this organism in future studies. Sijun Dong, Mei Kang, Xinlong Wu, and Ting Ye Copyright © 2014 Sijun Dong et al. All rights reserved. Purification and Biochemical Characterization of Three Myotoxins from Bothrops mattogrossensis Snake Venom with Toxicity against Leishmania and Tumor Cells Mon, 03 Mar 2014 07:33:49 +0000 Bothrops mattogrossensis snake is widely distributed throughout eastern South America and is responsible for snakebites in this region. This paper reports the purification and biochemical characterization of three new phospholipases A2 (PLA2s), one of which is presumably an enzymatically active Asp49 and two are very likely enzymatically inactive Lys49 PLA2 homologues. The purification was obtained after two chromatographic steps on ion exchange and reverse phase column. The 2D SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that the proteins have pI values around 10, are each made of a single chain, and have molecular masses near 13 kDa, which was confirmed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The N-terminal similarity analysis of the sequences showed that the proteins are highly homologous with other Lys49 and Asp49 PLA2s from Bothrops species. The PLA2s isolated were named BmatTX-I (Lys49 PLA2-like), BmatTX-II (Lys49 PLA2-like), and BmatTX-III (Asp49 PLA2). The PLA2s induced cytokine release from mouse neutrophils and showed cytotoxicity towards JURKAT (leukemia T) and SK-BR-3 (breast adenocarcinoma) cell lines and promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis. The structural and functional elucidation of snake venoms components may contribute to a better understanding of the mechanism of action of these proteins during envenomation and their potential pharmacological and therapeutic applications. Andréa A. de Moura, Anderson M. Kayano, George A. Oliveira, Sulamita S. Setúbal, João G. Ribeiro, Neuza B. Barros, Roberto Nicolete, Laura A. Moura, Andre L. Fuly, Auro Nomizo, Saulo L. da Silva, Carla F. C. Fernandes, Juliana P. Zuliani, Rodrigo G. Stábeli, Andreimar M. Soares, and Leonardo A. Calderon Copyright © 2014 Andréa A. de Moura et al. All rights reserved. Involvement of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Liver Injury Caused by Perfluorooctanoic Acid Exposure in Mice Sun, 02 Mar 2014 12:21:28 +0000 Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is widely present in the environment and has been reported to induce hepatic toxicity in animals and humans. In this study, mice were orally administered different concentrations of PFOA (2.5, 5, or 10 mg/kg/day). Histological examination showed that the exposure to PFOA for 14 consecutive days led to serious hepatocellular injury and obvious inflammatory cell infiltration. In addition, malondialdehyde formation and hydrogen peroxide generation, indicators of oxidative stress, were significantly induced by PFOA treatment in the liver of mice. Furthermore, hepatic levels of interleukin-6, cyclooxygenase-2, and C-reactive protein, markers of inflammatory response, were markedly increased by exposure to PFOA in mice. These results demonstrated that PFOA-induced hepatic toxicity may be involved in oxidative stress and inflammatory response in mice. Bei Yang, Weiying Zou, Zhenzhen Hu, Fangming Liu, Ling Zhou, Shulong Yang, Haibin Kuang, Lei Wu, Jie Wei, Jinglei Wang, Ting Zou, and Dalei Zhang Copyright © 2014 Bei Yang et al. All rights reserved. Supplementation with Sodium Selenite and Selenium-Enriched Microalgae Biomass Show Varying Effects on Blood Enzymes Activities, Antioxidant Response, and Accumulation in Common Barbel (Barbus barbus) Wed, 26 Feb 2014 09:52:57 +0000 Yearling common barbel (Barbus barbus L.) were fed four purified casein-based diets for 6 weeks in outdoor cages. Besides control diet, these were supplemented with 0.3 mg kg−1 dw selenium (Se) from sodium selenite, or 0.3 and 1.0 mg kg−1 from Se-enriched microalgae biomass (Chlorella), a previously untested Se source for fish. Fish mortality, growth, Se accumulation in muscle and liver, and activity of selected enzymes in blood plasma, muscle, liver, and intestine were evaluated. There was no mortality, and no differences in fish growth, among groups. Se concentrations in muscle and liver, activity of alanine aminotransferase and creatine kinase in blood plasma, glutathione reductase (GR) in muscle, and GR and catalase in muscle and liver suggested that selenium from Se-enriched Chlorella is more readily accumulated and biologically active while being less toxic than sodium selenite. Antonín Kouba, Josef Velíšek, Alžběta Stará, Jiří Masojídek, and Pavel Kozák Copyright © 2014 Antonín Kouba et al. All rights reserved. Major Pesticides Are More Toxic to Human Cells Than Their Declared Active Principles Wed, 26 Feb 2014 08:36:34 +0000 Pesticides are used throughout the world as mixtures called formulations. They contain adjuvants, which are often kept confidential and are called inerts by the manufacturing companies, plus a declared active principle, which is usually tested alone. We tested the toxicity of 9 pesticides, comparing active principles and their formulations, on three human cell lines (HepG2, HEK293, and JEG3). Glyphosate, isoproturon, fluroxypyr, pirimicarb, imidacloprid, acetamiprid, tebuconazole, epoxiconazole, and prochloraz constitute, respectively, the active principles of 3 major herbicides, 3 insecticides, and 3 fungicides. We measured mitochondrial activities, membrane degradations, and caspases 3/7 activities. Fungicides were the most toxic from concentrations 300–600 times lower than agricultural dilutions, followed by herbicides and then insecticides, with very similar profiles in all cell types. Despite its relatively benign reputation, Roundup was among the most toxic herbicides and insecticides tested. Most importantly, 8 formulations out of 9 were up to one thousand times more toxic than their active principles. Our results challenge the relevance of the acceptable daily intake for pesticides because this norm is calculated from the toxicity of the active principle alone. Chronic tests on pesticides may not reflect relevant environmental exposures if only one ingredient of these mixtures is tested alone. Robin Mesnage, Nicolas Defarge, Joël Spiroux de Vendômois, and Gilles-Eric Séralini Copyright © 2014 Robin Mesnage et al. All rights reserved. Isolation and Biochemical Characterization of a New Thrombin-Like Serine Protease from Bothrops pirajai Snake Venom Wed, 26 Feb 2014 07:57:25 +0000 This paper presents a novel serine protease (SP) isolated from Bothrops pirajai, a venomous snake found solely in Brazil that belongs to the Viperidae family. The identified SP, named BpirSP-39, was isolated by three chromatographic steps (size exclusion, bioaffinity, and reverse phase chromatographies). The molecular mass of BpirSP-39 was estimated by SDS-PAGE and confirmed by mass spectrometry (39,408.32 Da). The protein was able to form fibrin networks, which was not observed in the presence of serine protease inhibitors, such as phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF). Furthermore, BpirSP-39 presented considerable thermal stability and was apparently able to activate factor XIII of the blood coagulation cascade, unlike most serine proteases. BpirSP-39 was capable of hydrolyzing different chromogenic substrates tested (S-2222, S-2302, and S-2238) while Cu2+ significantly diminished BspirSP-39 activity on the three tested substrates. The enzyme promoted platelet aggregation and also exhibited fibrinogenolytic, fibrinolytic, gelatinolytic, and amidolytic activities. The multiple alignment showed high sequence similarity to other thrombin-like enzymes from snake venoms. These results allow us to conclude that a new SP was isolated from Bothrops pirajai snake venom. Kayena D. Zaqueo, Anderson M. Kayano, Rodrigo Simões-Silva, Leandro S. Moreira-Dill, Carla F. C. Fernandes, André L. Fuly, Vinícius G. Maltarollo, Kathia M. Honório, Saulo L. da Silva, Gerardo Acosta, Maria Antonia O. Caballol, Eliandre de Oliveira, Fernando Albericio, Leonardo A. Calderon, Andreimar M. Soares, and Rodrigo G. Stábeli Copyright © 2014 Kayena D. Zaqueo et al. All rights reserved. Prooxidant Effects of Verbascoside, a Bioactive Compound from Olive Oil Mill Wastewater, on In Vitro Developmental Potential of Ovine Prepubertal Oocytes and Bioenergetic/Oxidative Stress Parameters of Fresh and Vitrified Oocytes Tue, 25 Feb 2014 08:12:36 +0000 Verbascoside (VB) is a bioactive polyphenol from olive oil mill wastewater with known antioxidant activity. Oxidative stress is an emerging problem in assisted reproductive technology (ART). Juvenile ART is a promising topic because, in farm animals, it reduces the generation gap and, in human reproductive medicine, it helps to overcome premature ovarian failure. The aim of this study was to test the effects of VB on the developmental competence of ovine prepubertal oocytes and the bioenergetic/oxidative stress status of fresh and vitrified oocytes. In fresh oocytes, VB exerted prooxidant short-term effects, that is, catalase activity increase and uncoupled increases of mitochondria and reactive oxygen species (ROS) fluorescence signals, and long-term effects, that is, reduced blastocyst formation rate. In vitrified oocytes, VB increased ROS levels. Prooxidant VB effects in ovine prepubertal oocytes could be related to higher VB accumulation, which was found as almost one thousand times higher than that reported in other cell systems in previous studies. Also, long exposure times of oocytes to VB, throughout the duration of in vitro maturation culture, may have contributed to significant increase of oocyte oxidation. Further studies are needed to identify lower concentrations and/or shorter exposure times to figure out VB antioxidant effects in juvenile ARTs. M. E. Dell'Aquila, L. Bogliolo, R. Russo, N. A. Martino, M. Filioli Uranio, F. Ariu, F. Amati, A. M. Sardanelli, V. Linsalata, M. G. Ferruzzi, A. Cardinali, and F. Minervini Copyright © 2014 M. E. Dell'Aquila et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Phospholipase A2 (D49) from the Venom of the Crotalus oreganus abyssus (North American Grand Canyon Rattlesnake) Mon, 24 Feb 2014 11:07:58 +0000 Currently, Crotalus viridis was divided into two species: Crotalus viridis and Crotalus oreganus. The current classification divides “the old” Crotalus viridis into two new and independent species: Crotalus viridis (subspecies: viridis and nuntius) and Crotalus oreganus (subspecies: abyssus, lutosus, concolor, oreganus, helleri, cerberus, and caliginis). The analysis of a product from cDNA (E6d), derived from the gland of a specie Crotalus viridis viridis, was found to produce an acid phospholipase A2. In this study we isolated and characterized a PLA2 (D49) from Crotalus oreganus abyssus venom. Our studies show that the PLA2 produced from the cDNA of Crotalus viridis viridis (named E6d) is exactly the same PLA2 primary sequence of amino acids isolated from the venom of Crotalus oreganus abyssus. Thus, the PLA2 from E6d cDNA is actually the same PLA2 presented in the venom of Crotalus oreganus abyssus and does not correspond to the venom from Crotalus viridis viridis. These facts highlight the importance of performing more studies on subspecies of Crotalus oreganus and Crotalus viridis, since the old classification may have led to mixed results or mistaken data. W. Martins, P. A. Baldasso, K. M. Honório, V. G. Maltarollo, R. I. M. A. Ribeiro, B. M. A. Carvalho, A. M. Soares, L. A. Calderon, R. G. Stábeli, M. A. O. Caballol, G. Acosta, E. Oliveira, S. Marangoni, F. Albericio, and S. L. Da Silva Copyright © 2014 W. Martins et al. All rights reserved. Phytoestrogens β-Sitosterol and Genistein Have Limited Effects on Reproductive Endpoints in a Female Fish, Betta splendens Sun, 23 Feb 2014 09:41:15 +0000 Phytoestrogens are produced by plants and may cause endocrine disruption in vertebrates. The present study hypothesizes that phytoestrogen exposure of female Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens) may disrupt endogenous steroid levels, change agonistic behavior expression, and potentially also disrupt oocyte development. However, only the pharmacologic dose of β-sitosterol had a significant effect on opercular flaring behavior, while we did not find significant effects of β-sitosterol or genistein on steroids or gonads. These findings are in direct contrast with previous studies on the effects of phytoestrogens in female fish. Results of the current study support previous work showing that the effects of phytoestrogen exposure may be less acute in mature female B. splendens than in other fish. A. C. Brown, L. M. Stevenson, H. M. Leonard, K. Nieves-Puigdoller, and E. D. Clotfelter Copyright © 2014 A. C. Brown et al. All rights reserved. Genetic Polymorphisms in Glutathione (GSH-) Related Genes Affect the Plasmatic Hg/Whole Blood Hg Partitioning and the Distribution between Inorganic and Methylmercury Levels in Plasma Collected from a Fish-Eating Population Tue, 18 Feb 2014 16:31:12 +0000 This study aims to evaluate the effects of polymorphisms in glutathione (GSH-) related genes (GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1, GCLM, and GCLC) in the distribution of Hg in the blood compartments in humans exposed to methylmercury (MeHg). Subjects (), exposed to MeHg from fish consumption, were enrolled in the study. Hg species in the plasma compartment were determined by LC-ICP-MS, whereas genotyping was performed by PCR assays. Mean total Hg levels in plasma (THgP) and whole blood (THgB) were and , whereas mean evels of plasmatic MeHg (MeHgP), inorganic Hg (IHgP), and HgP/HgB were ,  µg/L, and , respectively. GSTM1 and GCLC polymorphisms influence THgP and MeHgP (multivariate analyses, ). Null homozygotes for GSTM1 showed higher THgP and MeHgP levels compared to subjects with GSTM1 (THgP , ; MeHgP , ) and persons carrying at least one T allele for GCLC had significant higher MeHgP (, ). Also, polymorphic GCLM subjects had lower THgP/THgB than those with the nonvariant genotype. Taken together, data of this study suggest that GSH-related polymorphisms may change the metabolism of MeHg by modifying the distribution of mercury species iin plasma compartment and the HgP/HgB partitioning. Andréia Ávila Soares de Oliveira, Marilesia Ferreira de Souza, André van Helvoort Lengert, Marcelo Tempesta de Oliveira, Rossana Batista de Oliveira Godoy Camargo, Gilberto Úbida Leite Braga, Ilce Mara de Syllos Cólus, Fernando Barbosa Jr., and Gustavo Rafael Mazzaron Barcelos Copyright © 2014 Andréia Ávila Soares de Oliveira et al. All rights reserved. An Evaluation of 3-Rhamnosylquercetin, a Glycosylated Form of Quercetin, against the Myotoxic and Edematogenic Effects of sPLA2 from Crotalus durissus terrificus Tue, 18 Feb 2014 09:42:10 +0000 This paper shows the results of quercitrin effects on the structure and biological activity of secretory phospholipase (sPLA2) from Crotalus durissus terrificus, which is the main toxin involved in the pharmacological effects of this snake venom. According to our mass spectrometry and circular dichroism results, quercetin was able to promote a chemical modification of some amino acid residues and modify the secondary structure of C. d. terrificus sPLA2. Moreover, molecular docking studies showed that quercitrin can establish chemical interactions with some of the crucial amino acid residues involved in the enzymatic activity of the sPLA2, indicating that this flavonoid could also physically impair substrate molecule access to the catalytic site of the toxin. Additionally, in vitro and in vivo assays showed that the quercitrin strongly diminished the catalytic activity of the protein, altered its Vmax and Km values, and presented a more potent inhibition of essential pharmacological activities in the C. d. terrificus sPLA2, such as its myotoxicity and edematogenic effect, in comparison to quercetin. Thus, we concluded that the rhamnose group found in quercitrin is most likely essential to the antivenom activities of this flavonoid against C. d. terrificus sPLA2. Daniela de Oliveira Toyama, Henrique Hessel Gaeta, Marcus Vinícius Terashima de Pinho, Marcelo José Pena Ferreira, Paulete Romoff, Fábio Filippi Matioli, Angelo José Magro, Marcos Roberto de Mattos Fontes, and Marcos Hikari Toyama Copyright © 2014 Daniela de Oliveira Toyama et al. All rights reserved. Antitumoral Activity of Snake Venom Proteins: New Trends in Cancer Therapy Thu, 13 Feb 2014 09:52:11 +0000 For more than half a century, cytotoxic agents have been investigated as a possible treatment for cancer. Research on animal venoms has revealed their high toxicity on tissues and cell cultures, both normal and tumoral. Snake venoms show the highest cytotoxic potential, since ophidian accidents cause a large amount of tissue damage, suggesting a promising utilization of these venoms or their components as antitumoral agents. Over the last few years, we have studied the effects of snake venoms and their isolated enzymes on tumor cell cultures. Some in vivo assays showed antineoplastic activity against induced tumors in mice. In human beings, both the crude venom and isolated enzymes revealed antitumor activities in preliminary assays, with measurable clinical responses in the advanced treatment phase. These enzymes include metalloproteases (MP), disintegrins, L-amino acid oxidases (LAAOs), C-type lectins, and phospholipases A2 (PLA2s). Their mechanisms of action include direct toxic action (PLA2s), free radical generation (LAAOs), apoptosis induction (PLA2s, MP, and LAAOs), and antiangiogenesis (disintegrins and lectins). Higher cytotoxic and cytostatic activities upon tumor cells than normal cells suggest the possibility for clinical applications. Further studies should be conducted to ensure the efficacy and safety of different snake venom compounds for cancer drug development. Leonardo A. Calderon, Juliana C. Sobrinho, Kayena D. Zaqueo, Andrea A. de Moura, Amy N. Grabner, Maurício V. Mazzi, Silvana Marcussi, Auro Nomizo, Carla F. C. Fernandes, Juliana P. Zuliani, Bruna M. A. Carvalho, Saulo L. da Silva, Rodrigo G. Stábeli, and Andreimar M. Soares Copyright © 2014 Leonardo A. Calderon et al. All rights reserved. Unexpected Lack of Deleterious Effects of Uranium on Physiological Systems following a Chronic Oral Intake in Adult Rat Wed, 12 Feb 2014 12:09:07 +0000 Uranium level in drinking water is usually in the range of microgram-per-liter, but this value may be as much as 100 to 1000 times higher in some areas, which may raise question about the health consequences for human populations living in these areas. Our purpose was to improve knowledge of chemical effects of uranium following chronic ingestion. Experiments were performed on rats contaminated for 9 months via drinking water containing depleted uranium (0.2, 2, 5, 10, 20, 40, or 120 mg/L). Blood biochemical and hematological indicators were measured and several different types of investigations (molecular, functional, and structural) were conducted in organs (intestine, liver, kidneys, hematopoietic cells, and brain). The specific sensitivity of the organs to uranium was deduced from nondeleterious biological effects, with the following thresholds (in mg/L): 0.2 for brain, >2 for liver, >10 for kidneys, and >20 for intestine, indicating a NOAEL (No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level) threshold for uranium superior to 120 m g/L. Based on the chemical uranium toxicity, the tolerable daily intake calculation yields a guideline value for humans of 1350 g/L. This value was higher than the WHO value of 30 g/L, indicating that this WHO guideline for uranium content in drinking water is very protective and might be reconsidered. Isabelle Dublineau, Maâmar Souidi, Yann Gueguen, Philippe Lestaevel, Jean-Marc Bertho, Line Manens, Olivia Delissen, Stéphane Grison, Anaïs Paulard, Audrey Monin, Yseult Kern, Caroline Rouas, Jeanne Loyen, Patrick Gourmelon, and Jocelyne Aigueperse Copyright © 2014 Isabelle Dublineau et al. All rights reserved. Alleviation of Lead Toxicity by 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Is Related to Elevated Growth, Photosynthesis, and Suppressed Ultrastructural Damages in Oilseed Rape Tue, 11 Feb 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Lead (Pb) is a widely spread pollutant and leads to diverse morphological and structural changes in the plants. In this study, alleviating role of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) was investigated with or without foliar application of ALA (25 mg L−1) in hydroponic environment under different Pb levels (0, 100, and 400 µM). Outcomes stated that plant morphology and photosynthetic attributes were reduced under the application of Pb alone. However, ALA application significantly increased the plant growth and photosynthetic parameters under Pb toxicity. Moreover, ALA also lowered the Pb concentration in shoots and roots under Pb toxicity. The microscopic studies depicted that exogenously applied ALA ameliorated the Pb stress and significantly improved the cell ultrastructures. After application of ALA under Pb stress, mesophyll cell had well-developed nucleus and chloroplast having a number of starch granules. Moreover, micrographs illustrated that root tip cell contained well-developed nucleus, a number of mitochondria, and golgi bodies. These results proposed that under 15-day Pb-induced stress, ALA improved the plant growth, chlorophyll content, photosynthetic parameters, and ultrastructural modifications in leaf mesophyll and root tip cells of the B. napus plants. Tian Tian, Basharat Ali, Yebo Qin, Zaffar Malik, Rafaqat A. Gill, Shafaqat Ali, and Weijun Zhou Copyright © 2014 Tian Tian et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy at Environmental Concentrations on Early Life Stages of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) Thu, 06 Feb 2014 10:07:23 +0000 The aim of the study was to investigate effects of the triazine’s herbicide terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy on early life stage of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) through antioxidant indices, mortality, growth, development, and histopathology. Based on accumulated mortality in the experimental groups, lethal concentrations of terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy were estimated at 35-day LC50 = 10.9 mg/L terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy. By day 15, fish were exposed to 3.5 mg/L and by day 26, fish were exposed to 0.0029 mg/L; real environmental concentration in Czech rivers, 0.07 mg/L, 1.4 mg/L, and 3.5 mg/L terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy, showed significantly lower mass and total length compared with controls. Based on inhibition of growth in the experimental groups, lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) = 0.002 mg/L terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy and no observed effect concentration (NOEC) = 0.0001 mg/L terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy. No significant negative effects on hatching or embryo viability were demonstrated at the concentrations tested, but significant differences in early ontogeny among groups were noted. Fish from the two highest tested concentrations showed a dose-related delay in development compared with the controls. Total superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was significant lower in all groups testedly for terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy compared with the control group. At concentrations of 1.4 and 3.5 mg/L damage to caudal kidney tubules when compared to control fish was found. Josef Velisek, Alzbeta Stara, Dalibor Koutnik, and Jana Machova Copyright © 2014 Josef Velisek et al. All rights reserved. Composition, In Vitro Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oil and Oleoresins Obtained from Black Cumin Seeds (Nigella sativa L.) Thu, 06 Feb 2014 07:48:54 +0000 Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed the major components in black cumin essential oils which were thymoquinone (37.6%) followed by p-cymene (31.2%), α-thujene (5.6%), thymohydroquinone (3.4%), and longifolene (2.0%), whereas the oleoresins extracted in different solvents contain linoleic acid as a major component. The antioxidant activity of essential oil and oleoresins was evaluated against linseed oil system at 200 ppm concentration by peroxide value, thiobarbituric acid value, ferric thiocyanate, ferrous ion chelating activity, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging methods. The essential oil and ethyl acetate oleoresin were found to be better than synthetic antioxidants. The total phenol contents (gallic acid equivalents, mg GAE per g) in black cumin essential oil, ethyl acetate, ethanol, and n-hexane oleoresins were calculated as , , , and , respectively, by Folin-Ciocalteau method. The essential oil showed up to 90% zone inhibition against Fusarium moniliforme in inverted petri plate method. Using agar well diffusion method for evaluating antibacterial activity, the essential oil was found to be highly effective against Gram-positive bacteria. Sunita Singh, S. S. Das, G. Singh, Carola Schuff, Marina P. de Lampasona, and César A. N. Catalán Copyright © 2014 Sunita Singh et al. All rights reserved. Bioactive Natural Matrices and Compounds Mon, 03 Feb 2014 13:13:50 +0000 Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira, Marina Soković, and Lillian Barros Copyright © 2014 Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira et al. All rights reserved. Erratum to “Modulation of Vasodilator Response via the Nitric Oxide Pathway after Acute Methyl Mercury Chloride Exposure in Rats” Thu, 30 Jan 2014 07:50:01 +0000 S. Omanwar, B. Saidullah, K. Ravi, and M. Fahim Copyright © 2014 S. Omanwar et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Mining Activities in Biotic Communities of Villa de la Paz, San Luis Potosi, Mexico Wed, 29 Jan 2014 13:22:29 +0000 Mining is one of the most important industrial activities worldwide. During its different stages numerous impacts are generated to the environment. The activities in the region have generated a great amount of mining residues, which have caused severe pollution and health effects in both human population and biotic components. The aim of this paper was to assess the impact of mining activities on biotic communities within the district of Villa de la Paz. The results showed that the concentrations of As and Pb in soil were higher than the national regulations for urban or agricultural areas. The bioavailability of these metals was certified by the presence of them in the roots of species of plants and in kidneys and livers of wild rodents. In regard to the community analysis, the sites that were located close to the mining district of Villa de la Paz registered a lower biological diversity, in both plants and wild rodents, aside from showing a change in the species composition of plant communities. The results of this study are evidence of the impact of mining on biotic communities, and the need to take into account the wildlife in the assessment of contaminated sites. Guillermo Espinosa-Reyes, Donaji J. González-Mille, César A. Ilizaliturri-Hernández, Jesús Mejía-Saavedra, V. Gabriela Cilia-López, Rogelio Costilla-Salazar, and Fernando Díaz-Barriga Copyright © 2014 Guillermo Espinosa-Reyes et al. All rights reserved. The Renal Effects of Vanadate Exposure: Potential Biomarkers and Oxidative Stress as a Mechanism of Functional Renal Disorders—Preliminary Studies Tue, 28 Jan 2014 08:42:25 +0000 The alterations in the levels/activities of selected biomarkers for detecting kidney toxicity and in the levels of some oxidative stress (OS) markers and elements were studied in male rats to evaluate biochemically the degree of kidney damage, investigate the role of OS in the mechanism of functional renal disorders, reveal potential biomarkers of renal function, and assess the renal mineral changes in the conditions of a 12-week sodium metavanadate (SMV, 0.125 mg V/mL) exposure. The results showed that OS is involved in the mechanism underlying the development of SMV-induced functional renal disturbances. They also suggest that the urinary cystatin C (CysCu) and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1u) could be the most appropriate to evaluate renal function at the conditions of SMV intoxication when the fluid intake, excreted urinary volume (EUV), body weight (BW), and the urinary creatinine excretion (Creu) decreased. The use of such tests as the urinary lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyltranspeptidase, and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (LDHu, ALPu, GGTPu, and NAGu) seems not to be valid given their reduced activities. The use of only traditional biomarkers of renal function in these conditions may, in turn, be insufficient because their alterations are greatly influenced by the changes in the fluid intake and/or BW. Agnieszka Ścibior, Dorota Gołębiowska, Agnieszka Adamczyk, Irmina Niedźwiecka, and Emilia Fornal Copyright © 2014 Agnieszka Ścibior et al. All rights reserved. Activation of J77A.1 Macrophages by Three Phospholipases A2 Isolated from Bothrops atrox Snake Venom Mon, 27 Jan 2014 12:27:29 +0000 In the present study, we investigated the in vitro effects of two basic myotoxic phospholipases A2 (PLA2), BaTX-I, a catalytically inactive Lys-49 variant, and BaTX-II, a catalytically active Asp-49, and of one acidic myotoxic PLA2, BaPLA2, a catalytically active Asp-49, isolated from Bothrops atrox snake venom, on the activation of J774A.1 macrophages. At noncytotoxic concentrations, the toxins did not affect the adhesion of the macrophages, nor their ability to detach. The data obtained showed that only BaTX-I stimulated complement receptor-mediated phagocytosis. However, BaTX-I, BaTX-II, and BaPLA2 induced the release of the superoxide anion by J774A.1 macrophages. Additionally, only BaTX-I raised the lysosomal volume of macrophages after 15 min of incubation. After 30 min, all the phospholipases increased this parameter, which was not observed within 60 min. Moreover, BaTX-I, BaTX-II, and BaPLA2 increased the number of lipid bodies on macrophages submitted to phagocytosis and not submitted to phagocytosis. However, BaTX-II and BaPLA2 induced the release of TNF-α by J774A.1 macrophages. Taken together, the data show that, despite differences in enzymatic activity, the three toxins induced inflammatory events and whether the enzyme is acidic or basic does not seem to contribute to these effects. Juliana L. Furtado, George A. Oliveira, Adriana S. Pontes, Sulamita da S. Setúbal, Caroline V. Xavier, Fabianne Lacouth-Silva, Beatriz F. Lima, Kayena D. Zaqueo, Anderson M. Kayano, Leonardo A. Calderon, Rodrigo G. Stábeli, Andreimar M. Soares, and Juliana P. Zuliani Copyright © 2014 Juliana L. Furtado et al. All rights reserved. Induction of Epoxide Hydrolase, Glucuronosyl Transferase, and Sulfotransferase by Phenethyl Isothiocyanate in Male Wistar Albino Rats Mon, 27 Jan 2014 10:14:13 +0000 Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) is an isothiocyanate found in watercress as the glucosinolate (gluconasturtiin). The isothiocyanate is converted from the glucosinolate by intestinal microflora or when contacted with myrosinase during the chopping and mastication of the vegetable. PEITC manifested protection against chemically-induced cancers in various tissues. A potential mechanism of chemoprevention is by modulating the metabolism of carcinogens so as to promote deactivation. The principal objective of this study was to investigate in rats the effect of PEITC on carcinogen-metabolising enzyme systems such as sulfotransferase (SULT), N-acetyltransferase (NAT), glucuronosyl transferase (UDP), and epoxide hydrolase (EH) following exposure to low doses that simulate human dietary intake. Rats were fed for 2 weeks diets supplemented with PEITC at 0.06 µmol/g (low dose, i.e., dietary intake), 0.6 µmol/g (medium dose), and 6.0 µmol/g (high dose), and the enzymes were monitored in rat liver. At the Low dose, no induction of the SULT, NAT, and EH was noted, whereas UDP level was elevated. At the Medium dose, only SULT level was increased, whereas at the High dose marked increase in EH level was observed. It is concluded that PEITC modulates carcinogen-metabolising enzyme systems at doses reflecting human intake thus elucidating the mechanism of its chemoprevention. Ahmad Faizal Abdull Razis, Noramaliza Mohd Noor, and Nattaya Konsue Copyright © 2014 Ahmad Faizal Abdull Razis et al. All rights reserved. Oxidative Stress, Prooxidants, and Antioxidants: The Interplay Thu, 23 Jan 2014 08:01:45 +0000 Oxidative stress is a normal phenomenon in the body. Under normal conditions, the physiologically important intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are maintained at low levels by various enzyme systems participating in the in vivo redox homeostasis. Therefore, oxidative stress can also be viewed as an imbalance between the prooxidants and antioxidants in the body. For the last two decades, oxidative stress has been one of the most burning topics among the biological researchers all over the world. Several reasons can be assigned to justify its importance: knowledge about reactive oxygen and nitrogen species production and metabolism; identification of biomarkers for oxidative damage; evidence relating manifestation of chronic and some acute health problems to oxidative stress; identification of various dietary antioxidants present in plant foods as bioactive molecules; and so on. This review discusses the importance of oxidative stress in the body growth and development as well as proteomic and genomic evidences of its relationship with disease development, incidence of malignancies and autoimmune disorders, increased susceptibility to bacterial, viral, and parasitic diseases, and an interplay with prooxidants and antioxidants for maintaining a sound health, which would be helpful in enhancing the knowledge of any biochemist, pathophysiologist, or medical personnel regarding this important issue. Anu Rahal, Amit Kumar, Vivek Singh, Brijesh Yadav, Ruchi Tiwari, Sandip Chakraborty, and Kuldeep Dhama Copyright © 2014 Anu Rahal et al. All rights reserved. Protective Effect of Alpha-Tocopherol Isomer from Vitamin E against the H2O2 Induced Toxicity on Dental Pulp Cells Tue, 21 Jan 2014 13:36:43 +0000 The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of different concentrations of vitamin E alpha-tocopherol (α-T) isomer against the toxicity of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on dental pulp cells. The cells (MDPC-23) were seeded in 96-well plates for 72 hours, followed by treatment with 1, 3, 5, or 10 mM α-T for 60 minutes. They were then exposed or not to H2O2 for 30 minutes. In positive and negative control groups, the cells were exposed to culture medium with or without H2O2 (0.018%), respectively. Cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay (Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests; %). Significant reduction of cell viability (58.5%) was observed in positive control compared with the negative control. Cells pretreated with α-T at 1, 3, 5, and 10 mM concentrations and exposed to H2O2 had their viability decreased by 43%, 32%, 25%, and 27.5%, respectively. These values were significantly lower than those observed in the positive control, thereby showing a protective effect of α-T against the H2O2 toxicity. Overall, the vitamin E α-T isomer protected the immortalized MDPC-23 pulp cells against the toxic effects of H2O2. The most effective cell protection was provided by 5 and 10 mM concentrations of α-T. Fernanda da Silveira Vargas, Diana Gabriela Soares, Ana Paula Dias Ribeiro, Josimeri Hebling, and Carlos Alberto De Souza Costa Copyright © 2014 Fernanda da Silveira Vargas et al. All rights reserved. Nigral Iron Elevation Is an Invariable Feature of Parkinson’s Disease and Is a Sufficient Cause of Neurodegeneration Thu, 16 Jan 2014 13:33:15 +0000 Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor deficits accompanying degeneration of substantia nigra pars compactor (SNc) neurons. Although familial forms of the disease exist, the cause of sporadic PD is unknown. Symptomatic treatments are available for PD, but there are no disease modifying therapies. While the neurodegenerative processes in PD may be multifactorial, this paper will review the evidence that prooxidant iron elevation in the SNc is an invariable feature of sporadic and familial PD forms, participates in the disease mechanism, and presents as a tractable target for a disease modifying therapy. Scott Ayton and Peng Lei Copyright © 2014 Scott Ayton and Peng Lei. All rights reserved. Some In Vitro/In Vivo Chemically-Induced Experimental Models of Liver Oxidative Stress in Rats Thu, 16 Jan 2014 12:46:35 +0000 Oxidative stress is critically involved in a variety of diseases. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are highly toxic molecules that are generated during the body's metabolic reactions and can react with and damage some cellular molecules such as lipids, proteins, or DNA. Liver is an important target of the oxidative stress because of its exposure to various prooxidant toxic compounds as well as of its metabolic function and ability to transform some xenobiotics to reactive toxic metabolites (as ROS). To investigate the processes of liver injuries and especially liver oxidative damages there are many experimental models, some of which we discuss further. Rumyana Simeonova, Magdalena Kondeva-Burdina, Vessela Vitcheva, and Mitka Mitcheva Copyright © 2014 Rumyana Simeonova et al. All rights reserved. Inhibitory Effect of Plant Manilkara subsericea against Biological Activities of Lachesis muta Snake Venom Wed, 08 Jan 2014 15:11:51 +0000 Snake venom is composed of a mixture of substances that caused in victims a variety of pathophysiological effects. Besides antivenom, literature has described plants able to inhibit injuries and lethal activities induced by snake venoms. This work describes the inhibitory potential of ethanol, hexane, ethyl acetate, or dichloromethane extracts and fractions from stem and leaves of Manilkara subsericea against in vivo (hemorrhagic and edema) and in vitro (clotting, hemolysis, and proteolysis) activities caused by Lachesis muta venom. All the tested activities were totally or at least partially reduced by M. subsericea. However, when L. muta venom was injected into mice 15 min first or after the materials, hemorrhage and edema were not inhibited. Thus, M. subsericea could be used as antivenom in snakebites of L. muta. And, this work also highlights Brazilian flora as a rich source of molecules with antivenom properties. Eduardo Coriolano De Oliveira, Caio Pinho Fernandes, Eladio Flores Sanchez, Leandro Rocha, and André Lopes Fuly Copyright © 2014 Eduardo Coriolano De Oliveira et al. All rights reserved. Differences of Cytotoxicity of Orthodontic Bands Assessed by Survival Tests in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mon, 06 Jan 2014 16:20:16 +0000 The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity induced by orthodontic bands through survival tests on Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a microorganism that presents several genetic and biochemical characteristics similar to human cells. Three groups of bands were evaluated: silver soldered (SSB), laser soldered (LSB), and bands without any solder (WSB). Yeast cells were directly exposed to the bands and indirectly, when a previous elution of the metals in artificial saliva was performed. The negative control was composed of yeast cells or artificial saliva not exposed to any kind of metal. In the direct exposure experiments, all tested groups of bands induced a slight reduction in yeast viability compared to the control. This effect was more intense for the SSB, although not statistically significant. For the indirect exposure experiments, the SSB induced a statistically significant decrease in cell viability compared to the LSB. There were no significant differences between the survival rates of the negative control and the LSB group in both direct and saliva tests. SSBs were cytotoxic, whilst LSBs were not, confirming that laser soldering may be a more biocompatible alternative for use in connecting wires to orthodontic appliances. Tatiana Siqueira Gonçalves, Luciane Macedo de Menezes, Luciele Gonzaga Ribeiro, Catieli Gobetti Lindholz, and Renata Medina-Silva Copyright © 2014 Tatiana Siqueira Gonçalves et al. All rights reserved. Amylenes Do Not Lead to Bacterial Mutagenicity in Contrast to Structurally Related Epoxides Mon, 06 Jan 2014 12:12:26 +0000 Amylenes are unsaturated hydrocarbons (C5H10), such as 1-pentene, 2-pentene, 2-methyl-but-1-en (3-methyl-1-butene), 2-methyl-but-2-en (isopentene), and 3-methyl-but-1-en. We investigated bacterial mutagenicity of 1-pentene, 2-pentene, and 3-methyl-but-1-en in the Ames test. 2-Pentene was investigated as racemate and as pure diastereomers. We included the methyltransferase deficient Salmonella Typhimurium strain YG7108 and the application of a gas-tight preincubation to reduce the risk of false negative results. 1,2-Epoxypentane which may arise from 1-pentene was used as positive control. None of the investigated amylenes showed mutagenic effects, whereas 1,2-epoxypentane was mutagenic exceeding 100 μg per plate. An exceptional high reverse mutation in the negative control plates in the experiments with 1,2-epoxypentane was obviously caused by evaporation into the incubator which was shown by placing the control plates in a separate apparatus. No differences were seen upon use of YG7108 and its parent strain TA1535. In conclusion, 1,2-epoxypentane is most probably not a substrate of the deleted bacterial methyltransferases. The comparison of the bacterial mutagenicity of the investigated amylenes and 1,2-epoxipentane suggests that epoxidation of amylenes in the S9-mix does not proceed effectively or is counterbalanced by detoxifying reactions. The assessment of mutagenic effects of short chained aliphatic epoxides can be underestimated due to the evaporation of these compounds. Götz A. Westphal, Carolin Tüshaus, Christian Monsé, Nina Rosenkranz, Thomas Brüning, and Jürgen Bünger Copyright © 2014 Götz A. Westphal et al. All rights reserved. Pb Neurotoxicity: Neuropsychological Effects of Lead Toxicity Thu, 02 Jan 2014 15:52:15 +0000 Neurotoxicity is a term used to describe neurophysiological changes caused by exposure to toxic agents. Such exposure can result in neurocognitive symptoms and/or psychiatric disturbances. Common toxic agents include heavy metals, drugs, organophosphates, bacterial, and animal neurotoxins. Among heavy metal exposures, lead exposure is one of the most common exposures that can lead to significant neuropsychological and functional decline in humans. In this review, neurotoxic lead exposure's pathophysiology, etiology, and epidemiology are explored. In addition, commonly associated neuropsychological difficulties in intelligence, memory, executive functioning, attention, processing speed, language, visuospatial skills, motor skills, and affect/mood are explored. Lisa H. Mason, Jordan P. Harp, and Dong Y. Han Copyright © 2014 Lisa H. Mason et al. All rights reserved. Exposure to Environmentally Relevant Concentrations of Genistein during Activation Does Not Affect Sperm Motility in the Fighting Fish Betta splendens Thu, 02 Jan 2014 13:18:19 +0000 Sperm collected from male fighting fish Betta splendens were activated in control water, water containing the ion-channel blocker gadolinium (a putative positive control), or water containing the isoflavone phytoestrogen genistein to determine the effects of acute genistein exposure on male reproductive function. Computer-assisted sperm analysis was used to quantify the proportion of sperm that were motile and the swimming velocity of those sperm. The highest concentration of gadolinium (100 μM) tested was effective at reducing sperm motility and velocity, but neither concentration of genistein tested (3.7 nM or 3.7 μM) significantly affected these sperm parameters. Our findings suggest that acute exposure to waterborne phytoestrogens during activation does not reduce the motility of fish sperm. Ethan D. Clotfelter and Hannah K. Gendelman Copyright © 2014 Ethan D. Clotfelter and Hannah K. Gendelman. All rights reserved. In Vitro Antiophidian Mechanisms of Hypericum brasiliense Choisy Standardized Extract: Quercetin-Dependent Neuroprotection Tue, 31 Dec 2013 12:03:03 +0000 The neuroprotection induced by Hypericum brasiliense Choisy extract (HBE) and its main active polyphenol compound quercetin, against Crotalus durissus terrificus (Cdt) venom and crotoxin and crotamine, was enquired at both central and peripheral mammal nervous system. Cdt venom (10 μg/mL) or crotoxin (1 μg/mL) incubated at mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparation (PND) induced an irreversible and complete neuromuscular blockade, respectively. Crotamine (1 μg/mL) only induced an increase of muscle strength at PND preparations. At mouse brain slices, Cdt venom (1, 5, and 10 μg/mL) decreased cell viability. HBE (100 μg/mL) inhibited significantly the facilitatory action of crotamine (1 μg/mL) and was partially active against the neuromuscular blockade of crotoxin (1 μg/mL) (data not shown). Quercetin (10 μg/mL) mimicked the neuromuscular protection of HBE (100 μg/mL), by inhibiting almost completely the neurotoxic effect induced by crotoxin (1 μg/mL) and crotamine (1 μg/mL). HBE (100 μg/mL) and quercetin (10 μg/mL) also increased cell viability in mice brain slices. Quercetin (10 μg/mL) was more effective than HBE (100 μg/mL) in counteracting the cell lysis induced by Cdt venom (1 and 10 μg/mL, resp.). These results and a further phytochemical and toxicological investigations could open new perspectives towards therapeutic use of Hypericum brasiliense standardized extract and quercetin, especially to counteract the neurotoxic effect induced by snake neurotoxic venoms. Cháriston André Dal Belo, Ana Paula de Bairros Lucho, Lúcia Vinadé, Leandro Rocha, Hildegardo Seibert França, Sérgio Marangoni, and Léa Rodrigues-Simioni Copyright © 2013 Cháriston André Dal Belo et al. All rights reserved. Antioxidant and Toxicity Studies of 50% Methanolic Extract of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth Mon, 30 Dec 2013 13:02:25 +0000 The present study evaluated the antioxidant activity and potential toxicity of 50% methanolic extract of Orthosiphon stamineus (Lamiaceae) leaves (MEOS) after acute and subchronic administration in rats. Superoxide radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging, and ferrous ion chelating methods were used to evaluate the antioxidant properties of the extract. In acute toxicity study, single dose of MEOS, 5000 mg/kg, was administered to rats by oral gavage, and the treated rats were monitored for 14 days. While in the subchronic toxicity study, MEOS was administered orally, at doses of 1250, 2500, and 5000 mg/kg/day for 28 days. From the results, MEOS showed good superoxide radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging, ferrous ion chelating, and antilipid peroxidation activities. There was no mortality detected or any signs of toxicity in acute and subchronic toxicity studies. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in bodyweight, relative organ weight, and haematological and biochemical parameters between both male and female treated rats in any doses tested. No abnormality of internal organs was observed between treatment and control groups. The oral lethal dose determined was more than 5000 mg/kg and the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of MEOS for both male and female rats is considered to be 5000 mg/kg per day. Mun Fei Yam, Chung Pin Lim, Lee Fung Ang, Lip Yee Por, Siew Tung Wong, Mohd. Zaini Asmawi, Rusliza Basir, and Mariam Ahmad Copyright © 2013 Mun Fei Yam et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Diphenyl Diselenide on Methylmercury Toxicity in Rats Sun, 29 Dec 2013 11:25:54 +0000 This study investigates the efficacy of diphenyl diselenide [(PhSe)2] in attenuating methylmercury- (MeHg-)induced toxicity in rats. Adult rats were treated with MeHg [5 mg/kg/day, intragastrically (i.g.)] and/ or (PhSe)2 [1 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally (i.p.)] for 21 days. Body weight gain and motor deficits were evaluated prior to treatment, on treatment days 11 and 21. In addition, hepatic and cerebral mitochondrial function (reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, total and nonprotein thiol levels, membrane potential (), metabolic function, and swelling), hepatic, cerebral, and muscular mercury levels, and hepatic, cerebral, and renal thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) activity were evaluated. MeHg caused hepatic and cerebral mitochondrial dysfunction and inhibited TrxR activity in liver (38,9%), brain (64,3%), and kidney (73,8%). Cotreatment with (PhSe)2 protected hepatic and cerebral mitochondrial thiols from depletion by MeHg but failed to completely reverse MeHg’s effect on hepatic and cerebral mitochondrial dysfunction or hepatic, cerebral, and renal inhibition of TrxR activity. Additionally, the cotreatment with (PhSe)2 increased Hg accumulation in the liver (50,5%) and brain (49,4%) and increased the MeHg-induced motor deficits and body-weight loss. In conclusion, these results indicate that (PhSe)2 can increase Hg body burden as well as the neurotoxic effects induced by MeHg exposure in rats. Cristiane L. Dalla Corte, Caroline Wagner, Jéssie H. Sudati, Bruna Comparsi, Gerlania O. Leite, Alcindo Busanello, Félix A. A. Soares, Michael Aschner, and João B. T. Rocha Copyright © 2013 Cristiane L. Dalla Corte et al. All rights reserved. Cadmium Phytoremediation by Arundo donax L. from Contaminated Soil and Water Sat, 28 Dec 2013 11:38:55 +0000 The potential of Arundo donax L. for phytoextraction of cadmium (Cd) from contaminated soil and water was probed. The plants were grown under greenhouse conditions in pots containing a nutrient solution or soil with increasing doses of Cd (0, 50, 100, 250, 500, 750, and 1000 μg L−1) for 21 days. The growth and physiology of plants were evaluated at the end of the experiment. The maximum Cd content in root was 300 μg g−1 during hydroponics experiments over 230 μg g−1 in soil experiment. Cd concentration in stem was 262 μg g−1 at 750 μg L−1 supplied Cd in hydroponics over 191.2 μg g−1 at 1000 in soil experiment. The maximum Cd concentration in leaves from hydroponics was 187 μg g−1. Relatively low Cd uptake occurred during soil experiment with low translocation factor (TF) values. Both Bioaccumulation Factor (BF) and TF values for hydroponics were greater than 1. The IC50 values of ABTS and DPPH showed that both time and increasing Cd concentrations affected the production of antioxidants with lower half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value on the 21st days. A. donax showed better potential for Cd remediation of aquatic environments. Maria Sabeen, Qaisar Mahmood, Muhammad Irshad, Iftikhar Fareed, Afsar Khan, Farid Ullah, Jamshaid Hussain, Yousaf Hayat, and Sobia Tabassum Copyright © 2013 Maria Sabeen et al. All rights reserved. Assessment of Cytotoxicity, Fetotoxicity, and Teratogenicity of Plathymenia reticulata Benth Barks Aqueous Extract Sun, 22 Dec 2013 14:16:57 +0000 Scientific assessment of harmful interactions of chemicals over the entire reproductive cycle are divided into three segments based on the period: from premating and mating to implantation (I), from implantation to major organogenesis (II), and late pregnancy and postnatal development (III). We combined the segments I and II to assess Plathymenia reticulata aqueous extract safety. In order to investigate reproductive toxicity (segment I), pregnant rats received orally 0.5 or 1.0 g/kg of extract, daily, during 18 days. These concentrations were determined by a preliminary in vitro LD50 test in CHO-k1 cells. A control group received deionized water. The offspring was removed at the 19th day, by caesarean, and a teratology study (segment II) was carried out. The corpora lutea, implants, resorptions, live, and dead fetuses were then counted. Placenta and fetuses were weighted. External and visceral morphology were provided by the fixation of fetuses in Bouin, whereas skeletal analysis was carried out on the diaphanizated ones. The increase in the weights of placenta and fetuses was the only abnormality observed. Since there was no sign of alteration on reproduction parameters at our experimental conditions, we conclude that P. reticulata aqueous extract is safe at 0.5 to 1.0 g/kg and is not considered teratogenic. Lia de Barros Leite Albuquerque, Cháriston André Dal Belo, Marcio Galdino dos Santos, Patricia Santos Lopes, Marli Gerenutti, and Yoko Oshima-Franco Copyright © 2013 Lia de Barros Leite Albuquerque et al. All rights reserved. Safety Evaluation of Turmeric Polysaccharide Extract: Assessment of Mutagenicity and Acute Oral Toxicity Tue, 17 Dec 2013 13:35:42 +0000 Curcuma longa Linn. (Zingiberaceae) commonly known as turmeric has long been used for centuries as a spice and household remedy. The present study was carried out to assess the possible mutagenic potential and acute oral toxicity of polysaccharide extract of turmeric rhizome (NR-INF-02) using standard tests. The standard battery of in vitro genotoxicity tests, bacterial reverse mutation test (BRMT), chromosome aberration (CA), and micronucleus (MN) tests were employed to assess the possible mutagenic activity of NR-INF-02 (Turmacin). The results showed no mutagenic effect with NR-INF-02 up to a dose of 5000 µg/mL in BRMT. The results on CA and MN tests revealed the non clastogenic activity of NR-INF-02 in a dose range of 250.36 to 2500 µg/mL with and without metabolic activation (S9). In acute oral toxicity study, NR-INF-02 was found to be safe up to 5 g/kg body weight in Wistar rats. Overall, results indicated that polysaccharide extract of C. longa was found to be genotoxically safe and also exhibited maximum tolerable dose of more than 5 g/kg rat body weight. Chandrasekaran Chinampudur Velusami, Srinivasa Rao Boddapati, Srikanth Hongasandra Srinivasa, Edwin Jothie Richard, Joshua Allan Joseph, Murali Balasubramanian, and Amit Agarwal Copyright © 2013 Chandrasekaran Chinampudur Velusami et al. All rights reserved. Acute and Subchronic Toxicity Study of Euphorbia hirta L. Methanol Extract in Rats Tue, 10 Dec 2013 08:36:26 +0000 Despite Euphorbia hirta L. ethnomedicinal benefits, very few studies have described the potential toxicity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vivo toxicity of methanolic extracts of E. hirta. The acute and subchronic oral toxicity of E. hirta was evaluated in Sprague Dawley rats. The extract at a single dose of 5000 mg/kg did not produce treatment related signs of toxicity or mortality in any of the animals tested during the 14-day observation period. Therefore, the LD 50 of this plant was estimated to be more than 5000 mg/kg. In the repeated dose 90-day oral toxicity study, the administration of 50 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, and 1000 mg/kg/day of E. hirta extract per body weight revealed no significant difference () in food and water consumptions, body weight change, haematological and biochemical parameters, relative organ weights, and gross findings compared to the control group. Macropathology and histopathology examinations of all organs including the liver did not reveal morphological alteration. Analyses of these results with the information of signs, behaviour, and health monitoring could lead to the conclusion that the long-term oral administration of E. hirta extract for 90 days does not cause sub-chronic toxicity. Kwan Yuet Ping, Ibrahim Darah, Yeng Chen, Subramaniam Sreeramanan, and Sreenivasan Sasidharan Copyright © 2013 Kwan Yuet Ping et al. All rights reserved. Toxicity and Binding Profile of Lectins from the Genus Canavalia on Brine Shrimp Wed, 27 Nov 2013 13:12:03 +0000 Lectins are sugar-binding proteins widely distributed in nature with many biological functions. Although many lectins have a remarkable biotechnological potential, some of them can be cytotoxic. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the toxicity of five lectins, purified from seeds of different species of Canavalia genus. In order to determine the toxicity, assays with Artemia nauplii were performed. In addition, a fluorescence assay was carried out to evaluate the binding of lectins to Artemia nauplii. In order to verify the relationship between the structure of lectins and their cytotoxic effect, structural analysis was carried out to evaluate the volume of the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) of each lectin. The results showed that all lectins exhibited different toxicities and bound to a similar area in the digestive tract of Artemia nauplii. Concerning the structural analysis, differences in spatial arrangement and volume of CRD may explain the variation of the toxicity exhibited by each lectin. To this date, this is the first study that establishes a link between toxicity and structure of CRD from Diocleinae lectins. Francisco Vassiliepe Sousa Arruda, Arthur Alves Melo, Mayron Alves Vasconcelos, Romulo Farias Carneiro, Ito Liberato Barroso-Neto, Suzete Roberta Silva, Francisco Nascimento Pereira-Junior, Celso Shiniti Nagano, Kyria Santiago Nascimento, Edson Holanda Teixeira, Silvana Saker-Sampaio, Benildo Sousa Cavada, and Alexandre Holanda Sampaio Copyright © 2013 Francisco Vassiliepe Sousa Arruda et al. All rights reserved. Suitability of Cell-Based Label-Free Detection for Cytotoxicity Screening of Carbon Nanotubes Wed, 27 Nov 2013 10:08:29 +0000 Cytotoxicity testing of nanoparticles (NPs) by conventional screening assays is often complicated by interference. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are particularly difficult to assess. To test the suitability of cell-based label-free techniques for this application, a panel of CNTs with different diameters and surface functionalizations was assessed by impedance-based technique (xCELLigence RTCA) and automated microscopy (Cell-IQ) compared to formazan bioreduction (MTS assay). For validation of the label-free systems different concentrations of ethanol and of amine (AMI) polystyrene NPs were used. CNTs were evaluated in various cell lines, but only endothelial EAhy926 cells and L929 and V79 fibroblasts could be evaluated in all systems. Polystyrene particles obtained similar results in all assays. All systems identified thin (<8 nm) CNTs as more cytotoxic than thick (>20 nm) CNTs, but detection by xCELLigence system was less sensitive to CNT-induced cytotoxicity. Despite advantages, such as continuous monitoring and more detailed analysis of cytotoxic effects, label-free techniques cannot be generally recommended for cytotoxicity screening of NPs. Claudia Meindl, Markus Absenger, Eva Roblegg, and Eleonore Fröhlich Copyright © 2013 Claudia Meindl et al. All rights reserved. In Vitro Cytotoxicity and In Vivo Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Xanthii Fructus and Its Processed Product Tue, 26 Nov 2013 10:06:43 +0000 Xanthii Fructus (XF), the fruit of Xanthium sibiricum Patr., was used in the treatment of rhinitis and related nasal disease. Adverse effects of Xanthii Fructus are frequently reported these years. In the paper, in vitro renal cytotoxicity and in vivo acute and chronic toxicity researches of Xanthii Fructus (XF) and its processed product (processed Xanthii Fructus (PXF)) were carried out. Water extraction of XF displayed no cell membrane damage effects even in the highest concentration (100 μg/mL); however, it might affect the function of renal cell mitochondria. Acute toxicities were observed only in high and middle dosage groups. Fortunately, the single dose administration of XF or PXF was safe even at the highest daily dosage. Twelve-week chronic toxicity assays were performed in SD rats with low, middle, and high dosage. Notable changes in body weight and blood cell and BUN and Scr changes sporadically occurred in middle and high groups after the 9th week. Serum HA and HPCIII values were sustained increasing from the 4th week to the 8th week in Group V male rats, which indicated that the renal fibrosis risks still existed although no fibrosis was found in the pathological examination of the liver and kidney. Jie Yu, Mei-Zhen Song, Jing Wang, Yun-Fei Li, Pei Lin, Lin Que, and Zhaorigetu Bao Copyright © 2013 Jie Yu et al. All rights reserved. Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity Evaluation of Organochalcogens in Human Leucocytes: A Comparative Study between Ebselen, Diphenyl Diselenide, and Diphenyl Ditelluride Thu, 21 Nov 2013 13:44:29 +0000 Organochalcogens, particularly ebselen, have been used in experimental and clinical trials with borderline efficacy. (PhSe)2 and (PhTe)2 are the simplest of the diaryl dichalcogenides and share with ebselen pharmacological properties. In view of the concerns with the use of mammals in studies and the great number of new organochalcogens with potential pharmacological properties that have been synthesized, it becomes important to develop screening protocols to select compounds that are worth to be tested in vivo. This study investigated the possible use of isolated human white cells as a preliminary model to test organochalcogen toxicity. Human leucocytes were exposed to 5–50 μM of ebselen, (PhSe)2, or (PhTe)2. All compounds were cytotoxic (Trypan’s Blue exclusion) at the highest concentration tested, and Ebselen was the most toxic. Ebselen and (PhSe)2 were genotoxic (Comet Assay) only at 50 μM, and (PhTe)2 at 5–50 μM. Here, the acute cytotoxicity did not correspond with in vivo toxicity of the compounds. But the genotoxicity was in the same order of the in vivo toxicity to mice. These results indicate that in vitro genotoxicity in white blood cells should be considered as an early step in the investigation of potential toxicity of organochalcogens. Diones Caeran Bueno, Daiane Francine Meinerz, Josiane Allebrandt, Emily Pansera Waczuk, Danúbia Bonfanti dos Santos, Douglas Oscar Ceolin Mariano, and João Batista Teixeira Rocha Copyright © 2013 Diones Caeran Bueno et al. All rights reserved. Grappling the High Altitude for Safe Edible Bamboo Shoots with Rich Nutritional Attributes and Escaping Cyanogenic Toxicity Tue, 19 Nov 2013 14:32:00 +0000 Consumption of bamboo species with high level of total cyanogenic content (TCC) in Asia by many ethnic groups is significantly associated with food poisoning and occasionally Konzo (a neurological disorder). Adequate characterization of edible bamboo species with low level of TCC and high nutritious attributes is required for consumer’s safety as well as for the conservation of the gene pool. Here, we employed morphological descriptors, atomic absorption spectrophotometer, RAPD, and trnL-F intergenic spacer to characterize 15 indigenous edible bamboo species of north-east India. The study indicates that morphologically and genetically evolved edible bamboo species having large and robust bamboo-shoot texture and growing at low altitude contain high level of TCC, low antioxidant properties, and low levels of beneficial macronutrients and micronutrients. Importantly, Dendrocalamus species are shown to be rich in TCC irrespective of the growing altitude while Bambusa species are found to have moderate level of TCC. The findings clearly demonstrated that Chimonobambusa callosa growing at high altitude represents safe edible bamboo species with nutritious attributes. Sayanika Devi Waikhom, Bengyella Louis, Chandradev K. Sharma, Pushpa Kumari, Bharat G. Somkuwar, Mohendro W. Singh, and Narayan C. Talukdar Copyright © 2013 Sayanika Devi Waikhom et al. All rights reserved. Prooxidant Mechanisms in Iron Overload Cardiomyopathy Tue, 19 Nov 2013 11:26:16 +0000 Iron overload cardiomyopathy (IOC), defined as the presence of systolic or diastolic cardiac dysfunction secondary to increased deposition of iron, is emerging as an important cause of heart failure due to the increased incidence of this disorder seen in thalassemic patients and in patients of primary hemochromatosis. At present, although palliative treatment by regular iron chelation was recommended; whereas IOC is still the major cause for mortality in patient with chronic heart failure induced by iron-overloading. Because iron is a prooxidant and the associated mechanism seen in iron-overload heart is still unclear; therefore, we intend to delineate the multiple signaling pathways involved in IOC. These pathways may include organelles such as calcium channels, mitochondria; paracrine effects from both macrophages and fibroblast, and novel mediators such as thromboxane A2 and adiponectin; with increased oxidative stress and inflammation found commonly in these signaling pathways. With further understanding on these complex and inter-related molecular mechanisms, we can propose potential therapeutic strategies to ameliorate the cardiac toxicity induced by iron-overloading. Ching-Feng Cheng and Wei-Shiung Lian Copyright © 2013 Ching-Feng Cheng and Wei-Shiung Lian. All rights reserved. Teratogenic Potential of Antiepileptic Drugs in the Zebrafish Model Thu, 14 Nov 2013 12:09:14 +0000 The zebrafish model is an attractive candidate for screening of developmental toxicity during early drug development. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) arouse concern for the risk of teratogenicity, but the data are limited. In this study, we evaluated the teratogenic potential of seven AEDs (carbamazepine (CBZ), ethosuximide (ETX), valproic acid (VPN), lamotrigine (LMT), lacosamide (LCM), levetiracetam (LVT), and topiramate (TPM)) in the zebrafish model. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to AEDs from initiation of gastrula (5.25 hours post-fertilization (hpf)) to termination of hatching (72 hpf) which mimic the mammalian teratogenic experimental design. The lethality and teratogenic index (TI) of AEDs were determined and the TI values of each drug were compared with the US FDA human pregnancy categories. Zebrafish model was useful screening model for teratogenic potential of antiepilepsy drugs and was in concordance with in vivo mammalian data and human clinical data. Sung Hak Lee, Jung Won Kang, Tao Lin, Jae Eun Lee, and Dong Il Jin Copyright © 2013 Sung Hak Lee et al. All rights reserved. In Vitro Manganese Exposure Disrupts MAPK Signaling Pathways in Striatal and Hippocampal Slices from Immature Rats Wed, 13 Nov 2013 10:34:57 +0000 The molecular mechanisms mediating manganese (Mn)-induced neurotoxicity, particularly in the immature central nervous system, have yet to be completely understood. In this study, we investigated whether mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) could represent potential targets of Mn in striatal and hippocampal slices obtained from immature rats (14 days old). The aim of this study was to evaluate if the MAPK pathways are modulated after subtoxic Mn exposure, which do not significantly affect cell viability. The concentrations of manganese chloride (MnCl2; 10–1,000 μM) caused no change in cell viability in slices exposed for 3 or 6 hours. However, Mn exposure significantly increased extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, as well as c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) 1/2/3 phosphorylation at both 3 and 6 hours incubations, in both brain structures. Furthermore, Mn exposure did not change the total content or phosphorylation of TH at the serine 40 site in striatal slices. Thus, Mn at concentrations that do not disrupt cell viability causes activation of MAPKs (ERK1/2 and JNK1/2/3) in immature hippocampal and striatal slices. These findings suggest that altered intracellular MAPKs signaling pathways may represent an early event concerning the effects of Mn in the immature brain. Tanara Vieira Peres, Daniela Zótico Pedro, Fabiano Mendes de Cordova, Mark William Lopes, Filipe Marques Gonçalves, Cláudia Beatriz Nedel Mendes-de-Aguiar, Roger Walz, Marcelo Farina, Michael Aschner, and Rodrigo Bainy Leal Copyright © 2013 Tanara Vieira Peres et al. All rights reserved. Exogenous Nucleotides Antagonize the Developmental Toxicity of Ethanol In Vitro Mon, 11 Nov 2013 14:06:48 +0000 The objective of this study was to assess whether nucleotides supplementation in vitro could suppress ethanol-induced developmental toxicity in mouse. The models of whole embryo culture (WEC) and midbrain (MB) cell micromass culture were used in this study. In WEC system, exposure to 4.0 mg/mL ethanol for 48 h yielded various developmental malformations of the mice embryos. Nucleotides supplementation (0.16, 0.80, 4.00, 20.00, and 100.00 mg/L) improved the growth parameters to some extent, and the protective effects peaked at 4.00 mg/L. In MB cell micromass culture system, exposure to 4.0 mg/mL ethanol for 5 days resulted in suppression of proliferation and differentiation. Supplementation of nucleotides (0.16, 0.80, 4.00, 20.00, and 100.00 mg/L) showed some protective effects, which peaked at 4.00 mg/L, too. The present research indicated that nucleotides supplementation might be of some benefit in the prevention of ethanol-induced birth defects; however, appropriate dosage requires attention. Jie Zhao, Jia-Xi Zhao, and Ya-Jun Xu Copyright © 2013 Jie Zhao et al. All rights reserved. Role of NADPH Oxidase-Mediated Reactive Oxygen Species in Podocyte Injury Mon, 11 Nov 2013 08:59:26 +0000 Proteinuria is an independent risk factor for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (Shankland, 2006). Recent studies highlighted the mechanisms of podocyte injury and implications for potential treatment strategies in proteinuric kidney diseases (Zhang et al., 2012). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are cellular signals which are closely associated with the development and progression of glomerular sclerosis. NADPH oxidase is a district enzymatic source of cellular ROS production and prominently expressed in podocytes (Zhang et al., 2010). In the last decade, it has become evident that NADPH oxidase-derived ROS overproduction is a key trigger of podocyte injury, such as renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activation (Whaley-Connell et al., 2006), epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (Zhang et al., 2011), and inflammatory priming (Abais et al., 2013). This review focuses on the mechanism of NADPH oxidase-mediated ROS in podocyte injury under different pathophysiological conditions. In addition, we also reviewed the therapeutic perspectives of NADPH oxidase in kidney diseases related to podocyte injury. Shan Chen, Xian-Fang Meng, and Chun Zhang Copyright © 2013 Shan Chen et al. All rights reserved. Citrus Flavanones Affect Hepatic Fatty Acid Oxidation in Rats by Acting as Prooxidant Agents Thu, 31 Oct 2013 18:25:45 +0000 Citrus flavonoids have a wide range of biological activities and positive health effects on mammalian cells because of their antioxidant properties. However, they also act as prooxidants and thus may interfere with metabolic pathways. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effects of three citrus flavanones, hesperidin, hesperetin, and naringenin, on several parameters linked to fatty acid oxidation in mitochondria, peroxisomes, and perfused livers of rats. When exogenous octanoate was used as substrate, hesperetin and naringenin reduced the mitochondrial NADH/NAD+ ratio and stimulated the citric acid cycle without significant changes on oxygen uptake or ketogenesis. When fatty acid oxidation from endogenous sources was evaluated, hesperetin and naringenin strongly reduced the mitochondrial NADH/NAD+ ratio. They also inhibited both oxygen uptake and ketogenesis and stimulated the citric acid cycle. Hesperidin, on the other hand, had little to no effect on these parameters. These results confirm the hypothesis that citrus flavanones are able to induce a more oxidised state in liver cells, altering parameters related to hepatic fatty acid oxidation. The prooxidant effect is most likely a consequence of the ability of these substances to oxidise NADH upon production of phenoxyl radicals in the presence of peroxidases and hydrogen peroxide. Rodrigo Polimeni Constantin, Gilson Soares do Nascimento, Renato Polimeni Constantin, Clairce Luzia Salgueiro, Adelar Bracht, Emy Luiza Ishii-Iwamoto, Nair Seiko Yamamoto, and Jorgete Constantin Copyright © 2013 Rodrigo Polimeni Constantin et al. All rights reserved. Antioxidant, Lipid Lowering, and Membrane Stabilization Effect of Sesamol against Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiomyopathy in Experimental Rats Mon, 21 Oct 2013 08:52:01 +0000 The present study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective effect of sesamol against doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy in rats. In this study, the cardioprotective effect of sesamol against doxorubicin induced cardiomyopathy in experimental rats was evaluated at the dosage of 50 mg/kg bw. Doxorubicin was administered to rats at a total cumulative dose of 15 mg/kg through intraperitoneal route for 2 weeks in six-divided dose on 8th, 10th, 14th, 16th, 18th, and 21st day. After the last dose administration, the endogenous antioxidants and lipid peroxidation were estimated in heart tissue homogenate. Cardiac biomarkers such as troponin T, LDH, CK, and AST and lipid profiles such as cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL, and VLDL were estimated in serum. Sesamol has cardioprotective activity through normalization of doxorubicin-induced-altered biochemical parameters. Biochemical study was further supported by histopathological study, which shows that sesamol offered myocardial protection from necrotic damage. From these findings, it has been concluded that the sesamol has significant cardioprotection against doxorubicin induced cardiomyopathy via amelioration of oxidative stress, lipid lowering, and membrane stabilization effect. Anusha Chennuru and Mohamed T. S. Saleem Copyright © 2013 Anusha Chennuru and Mohamed T. S. Saleem. All rights reserved. Myricitrin Inhibits Acrylamide-Mediated Cytotoxicity in Human Caco-2 Cells by Preventing Oxidative Stress Wed, 09 Oct 2013 12:07:54 +0000 Oxidative stress was thought to be associated with acrylamide cytotoxicity, but the link between oxidative stress and acrylamide cytotoxicity in the gastrointestinal tract, the primary organ in contact with dietary acrylamide, is still unclear. This study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant activity of natural dietary compound myricitrin and its protective role against acrylamide cytotoxicity. We found that myricitrin can effectively scavenge multiple free radicals (including DPPH free radical, hydroxyl radical, and ABTS free radical) in a concentration-dependent manner. Our results further indicated that the presence of myricitrin (2.5–10 μg/mL) was found to significantly inhibit acrylamide-induced cytotoxicity in human gastrointestinal Caco-2 cells. Moreover, acrylamide-induced cytotoxicity is closely related to oxidative stress in Caco-2 cells. Interestingly, myricitrin was able to suppress acrylamide toxicity by inhibiting ROS generation. Taken together, these results demonstrate that myricitrin had a profound antioxidant effect and can protect against acrylamide-mediated cytotoxicity. Wei Chen, Lina Feng, Yang Shen, Hongming Su, Ya Li, Jingjing Zhuang, Lingxia Zhang, and Xiaodong Zheng Copyright © 2013 Wei Chen et al. All rights reserved. Acute and Chronic Oral Toxicity of a Partially Purified Plaunotol Extract from Croton stellatopilosus Ohba Mon, 30 Sep 2013 14:42:43 +0000 Plaunotol, an acyclic diterpenoid with highly effective antigastric ulcer properties, has been commercially isolated from leaves of Croton stellatopilosus Ohba. This Thai medicinal plant was traditionally used in the form of crude extracts, suggesting that it is possible to administer these plaunotol-containing extracts without toxicity. To confirm its safety, the oral toxicity of a partially purified plaunotol extract (PPE) was evaluated in vivo. The PPE was simply prepared by 95% ethanol reflux extraction followed by hexane partition. The obtained extract was analyzed and found to contain 43% w/w of plaunotol and another compound, likely a fatty acid-plaunotol conjugate that is considered a major impurity. Oral administration of PPE to ICR mice and Wistar rats was conducted to evaluate acute and chronic toxicity of the plaunotol extract, respectively. The acute toxicity study demonstrated that PPE was practically nontoxic based on its high median lethal dose value ( g/kg). The chronic toxicity studies also showed the absence of mortality and clinical symptoms in all rats treated with 11–1,100 mg/kg/day of PPE during a 6-month period. Histopathological and hematological analyses revealed that altered liver and kidney function and increased blood platelet number, but only at the high doses (550–1,100 mg/kg/day). These results suggest that PPE is potentially safe for further development as a therapeutic agent in humans. Chatchai Chaotham, Songpol Chivapat, Anan Chaikitwattana, and Wanchai De-Eknamkul Copyright © 2013 Chatchai Chaotham et al. All rights reserved. Altered mRNA Expression Related to the Apoptotic Effect of Three Xanthones on Human Melanoma SK-MEL-28 Cell Line Mon, 23 Sep 2013 08:25:50 +0000 We previously demonstrated that α-mangostin, γ-mangostin, and 8-deoxygartanin have significant cytotoxic effects on human melanoma SK-MEL-28 cell line. The current study revealed the underlying mechanisms. α-Mangostin (7.5 μg/mL) activated caspase activity, with a 3-fold and 4-fold increased caspase 8 and 9 activity, respectively. The molecular mechanisms were investigated by qRT-PCR for mRNA related to cell cycle arrest in G1 phase ( and cyclin D1), apoptosis (cytochrome C, Bcl-2, and Bax), and survival pathways (Akt1, NFκB, and IκBα). α-Mangostin significantly upregulated mRNA expression of cytochrome C and and downregulated that of cyclin D1, Akt1, and NFκB. γ-Mangostin significantly downregulated mRNA expression of Akt1 and NFκB and upregulated and IκBα. 8-Deoxygartanin significantly upregulated the mRNA expression of and downregulated that of cyclin D1 and NFκB. The three xanthones significantly inhibited the mRNA expression of the BRAF V600E mutation. Moreover, α-mangostin and γ-mangostin significantly downregulated Akt phosphorylation at Ser473. In conclusion, the three xanthones induced an inhibitory effect on SK-MEL-28 cells by modulating the molecular targets involved in the apoptotic pathways. Jing J. Wang, Wei Zhang, and Barbara J. S. Sanderson Copyright © 2013 Jing J. Wang et al. All rights reserved. Snake Venom PLA2s Inhibitors Isolated from Brazilian Plants: Synthetic and Natural Molecules Sun, 22 Sep 2013 10:33:18 +0000 Ophidian envenomation is an important health problem in Brazil and other South American countries. In folk medicine, especially in developing countries, several vegetal species are employed for the treatment of snakebites in communities that lack prompt access to serum therapy. However, the identification and characterization of the effects of several new plants or their isolated compounds, which are able to inhibit the activities of snake venom, are extremely important and such studies are imperative. Snake venom contains several organic and inorganic compounds; phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) are one of the principal toxic components of venom. PLA2s display a wide variety of pharmacological activities, such as neurotoxicity, myotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, anticoagulant, hemorrhagic, and edema-inducing effects. PLA2 inhibition is of pharmacological and therapeutic interests as these enzymes are involved in several inflammatory diseases. This review describes the results of several studies of plant extracts and their isolated active principles, when used against crude snake venoms or their toxic fractions. Isolated inhibitors, such as steroids, terpenoids, and phenolic compounds, are able to inhibit PLA2s from different snake venoms. The design of specific inhibitors of PLA2s might help in the development of new pharmaceutical drugs, more specific antivenom, or even as alternative approaches for treating snakebites. B. M. A. Carvalho, J. D. L. Santos, B. M. Xavier, J. R. Almeida, L. M. Resende, W. Martins, S. Marcussi, S. Marangoni, R. G. Stábeli, L. A. Calderon, A. M. Soares, S. L. Da Silva, and D. P. Marchi-Salvador Copyright © 2013 B. M. A. Carvalho et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of the Presence of Endocrine-Disrupting Compounds in Dissolved and Solid Wastewater Treatment Plant Samples of Gran Canaria Island (Spain) Thu, 19 Sep 2013 13:49:29 +0000 Liquid and solid samples from two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on Gran Canaria Island (Spain) have been tested for the presence of compounds with endocrine-disrupting properties. The selected degradation stages were sampled bimonthly from each WWTP over the 12-month period from July 2010 to July 2011. The analytical methods used for the determination of the endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) were based on on-line solid phase extraction, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), and ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) coupled to UHPLC-MS/MS. All of the hyphenated methodologies employed in this work showed good recoveries (72–104%) and sensitivities, with LODs lower than 7.0 ng L−1 and 6.3 ng g−1 for the dissolved and solid fractions, respectively. We have also evaluated the estrogenicity of the samples in terms of their estradiol equivalent concentrations (EEQs). The chemical analysis of the selected EDCs revealed fairly low concentrations for both natural and synthetic oestrogens, alkylphenolic compounds, and bisphenol-A in each of the dissolved, particulate, and sludge samples (ng L−1 or ng g−1). However, the estimated estrogenic activity indicated that the majority of samples could represent an important environmental risk, clearly surpassing the threshold to exert deleterious consequences on living beings. T. Vega-Morales, Z. Sosa-Ferrera, and J. J. Santana-Rodríguez Copyright © 2013 T. Vega-Morales et al. All rights reserved. Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals Pollution in Agricultural Soils of Siling Reservoir Watershed in Zhejiang Province, China Sun, 15 Sep 2013 13:39:50 +0000 Presence of heavy metals in agriculture soils above the permissible limit poses threats to public health. In this study, concentrations of seven metals were determined in agricultural soils from Yuhang county, Zhejiang, China. Multivariate statistical approaches were used to study the variation of metals in soils during summer and winter seasons. Contamination of soils was evaluated on the basis of enrichment factor (), geoaccumulation index (), contamination factor (), and degree of contamination (). Heavy metal concentrations were observed higher in winter as compared to summer season. Cr and Cd revealed random distribution with diverse correlations in both seasons. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis showed significant anthropogenic intrusions of Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, and Cu in the soils. Enrichment factor revealed significant enrichment () of Zn, Cd, and Pb, whereas geoaccumulation index and contamination factor exhibited moderate to high contamination for Zn, Cr, Cd, and Pb. In light of the studied parameters, permissible limit to very high degree of contamination () was observed in both seasons. Naveedullah, Muhammad Zaffar Hashmi, Chunna Yu, Hui Shen, Dechao Duan, Chaofeng Shen, Liping Lou, and Yingxu Chen Copyright © 2013 Naveedullah et al. All rights reserved. Effectiveness of Naltrexone in the Prevention of Delayed Respiratory Arrest in Opioid-Naive Methadone-Intoxicated Patients Mon, 09 Sep 2013 13:24:06 +0000 Acute methadone toxicity is a major public health concern in Iran. Methadone-intoxicated patients are in a great risk of recurrent or delayed respiratory arrest despite the prescription of initial doses of naloxone. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of oral naltrexone in the management of acute methadone overdose in opioid-naive patients and check if it could be a substitute of continuous infusion of naloxone in maintaining adequate ventilation. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, a total of 54 opioid-naive patients with acute methadone toxicity were enrolled. The patients received either oral naltrexone or placebo capsules after awakening by naloxone. All patients underwent close monitoring of respiration. Frequency of respiratory depression or arrest, need for another dose of naloxone, duration of hospital stay, and adverse outcomes compared between the two groups. The incidence of respiratory depression was significantly less in those who had received naltrexone. Our results show that single oral dose of naltrexone is quite efficient in the prevention of recurrent or delayed respiratory arrest in opioid-naive methadone-intoxicated patients. It can shorten the duration of hospitalization and, as a consequence, decreased the risk of complications. Further studies are warranted before the generalization of this approach to other patient populations. Abbas Aghabiklooei, Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam, Nasim Zamani, Shahin Shadnia, Mohammad Mashayekhian, Mitra Rahimi, Soheil Nasouhi, and Ahmad Ghoochani Copyright © 2013 Abbas Aghabiklooei et al. All rights reserved. DNA Methylation Pyrosequencing Assay Is Applicable for the Assessment of Epigenetic Active Environmental or Clinical Relevant Chemicals Wed, 04 Sep 2013 13:31:51 +0000 Exposure of cells and organisms to stressors might result in epigenetic changes. Here it is shown that investigation of DNA methylation using pyrosequencing is an alternative for in vitro and in vivo toxicological testing of epigenetic effects induced by chemicals and drugs. An in vitro evaluation of global and CpG site specific DNA methylation upon treatment of cells with chemicals/drugs is shown. Bisulfite genomic sequencing of methylation controls showed high methylation of LINE1 in methylation positive control and low methylation in the negative controls. The CpG sites within the LINE1 element are methylated at different levels. In vitro cell cultures show a methylation level ranging from 56% to 49%. Cultures of drug resistant tumor cells show significant hypomethylation as compared with the originating nonresistant tumor cells. The in vitro testing of epigenetically active chemicals (5-methyl-2’-deoxycytidine and trichostatin A) revealed a significant change of LINE1 methylation status upon treatment, while specific CpG sites were more prone to demethylation than others (focal methylation). In conclusion, DNA methylation using pyrosequencing might be used not only for testing epigenetic toxins/drugs but also in risk assessment of drugs, food, and environmental relevant pollutants. Ana-Maria Florea Copyright © 2013 Ana-Maria Florea. All rights reserved. Oxidative Stress and Antimicrobial Activity of Chromium(III) and Ruthenium(II) Complexes on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli Wed, 04 Sep 2013 12:18:56 +0000 The prevalence of antibiotic resistance has resulted in the need for new approaches to be developed to combat previously easily treatable infections. The main aim of this work was to establish the potential of the synthetic α-diimine chromium(III) and ruthenium(II) complexes (where the α-diimine ligands are bpy = 2,2-bipyridine, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, and dppz = dipyrido[3,2-a:2′,3′-c]-phenazine) like [Cr(phen)3]3+, [Cr(phen)2(dppz)]3+, [Ru(phen)3]2+, and [Ru(bpy)3]2+ as antibacterial agents by generating oxidative stress. The [Cr(phen)3]3+ and [Cr(phen)2(dppz)]3+ complexes showed activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging from 0.125 μg/mL to 1 μg/mL, while [Ru(phen)3]2+ and [Ru(bpy)3]2+ do not exhibit antimicrobial activity against the two bacterial genera studied at the concentration range used. When ciprofloxacin was combined with [Cr(phen)3]3+ for the inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, an important synergistic effect was observed, FIC 0.066 for S. aureus and FIC 0.064 for E. coli. The work described here shows that chromium(III) complexes are bactericidal for S. aureus and E. coli. Our results indicate that α-diimine chromium(III) complexes may be interesting to open new paths for metallodrug chemotherapy against different bacterial genera since some of these complexes have been found to exhibit remarkable antibacterial activities. Paulina L. Páez, Claudia M. Bazán, María E. Bongiovanni, Judith Toneatto, Inés Albesa, María C. Becerra, and Gerardo A. Argüello Copyright © 2013 Paulina L. Páez et al. All rights reserved. Wild Plant Assessment for Heavy Metal Phytoremediation Potential along the Mafic and Ultramafic Terrain in Northern Pakistan Tue, 03 Sep 2013 15:41:33 +0000 This study investigates the wild plant species for their phytoremediation potential of macro and trace metals (MTM). For this purpose, soil and wild plant species samples were collected along mafic and ultramafic terrain in the Jijal, Dubair, and Alpuri areas of Kohistan region, northern Pakistan. These samples were analyzed for the concentrations of MTM (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, and Co) using atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS-PEA-700). Soil showed significant () contamination level, while plants had greater variability in metal uptake from the contaminated sites. Plant species such as Selaginella jacquemontii, Rumex hastatus, and Plectranthus rugosus showed multifold enrichment factor (EF) of Fe, Mn, Cr, Ni, and Co as compared to background area. Results revealed that these wild plant species have the ability to uptake and accumulate higher metals concentration. Therefore, these plant species may be used for phytoremediation of metals contaminated soil. However, higher MTM concentrations in the wild plant species could cause environmental hazards in the study area, as selected metals (Fe, Mn, Cr, Ni, Co, and Pb) have toxicological concerns. Said Muhammad, Mohammad Tahir Shah, Sardar Khan, Umar Saddique, Nida Gul, Muhammad Usman Khan, Riffat Naseem Malik, Muhammad Farooq, and Alia Naz Copyright © 2013 Said Muhammad et al. All rights reserved. Uraemic Toxins Generated in the Presence of Fullerene , Carbon-Encapsulated Magnetic Nanoparticles, and Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Mon, 02 Sep 2013 13:19:02 +0000 Uraemic toxins—creatol and N-methylguanidine—are generated in conversion of creatinine in water in the presence of various forms of carbon such as fullerene C60, carbon-encapsulated magnetic nanoparticles, and multiwalled carbon nanotubes and oxygen. The conversion degree for creatinine was different for fullerene C60, CEMNPs, and MWCNTs and was 9% (3.6% creatol, 5.4% N-methylguanidine), 35% (12% creatol, 23% N-methylguanidine), and 75% (16% creatol, 59% N-methylguanidine), respectively. Magdalena Popławska and Hanna Krawczyk Copyright © 2013 Magdalena Popławska and Hanna Krawczyk. All rights reserved. Oxidative Damage and Mutagenic Potency of Fast Neutron and UV-B Radiation in Pollen Mother Cells and Seed Yield of Vicia faba L. Wed, 28 Aug 2013 17:44:31 +0000 In recent years, there has been a great deal of attention toward free radicals, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by exposure of crop plant cells to physical radiations. Henceforth, the current study was planned to compare oxidative stress and mutagenic potential of different irradiation doses of fast neutron (FN) and UV-B on meiotic-pollen mother cells (PMCs), pollen grains (PGs) and seeds yielded from irradiated faba beans seedlings. On the cytogenetic level, each irradiation type had special interference with DNA of PMC and exhibited wide range of mutagenic action on the frequency and type of chromosomal anomalies, fertility of PGs and seed yield productivity based on the irradiation exposure dose and radiation sensitivity of faba bean plants compared with un-irradiated ones. On the molecular level, SDS-PAGE and RPAD-PCR analyses of seeds yielded from irradiated seedlings exhibited distinctive polymorphisms based on size, intensity, appearance, and disappearance of polypeptides bands compared with un-irradiated ones. The total values of protein and DNA polymorphisms reached 88% and 90.80% respectively. The neutron fluency (2.3 × 106 n/cm2) and UV-B dose for 1 hr were recorded as bio-positive effects. The present study proved that genetic variations revealed by cytogenetic test could be supported by gene expression (alterations in RAPD and protein profiles). Ekram Abdel Haliem, Hanan Abdullah, and Asma A. AL-Huqail Copyright © 2013 Ekram Abdel Haliem et al. All rights reserved. Radioprotective Effects of Gallic Acid in Mice Wed, 28 Aug 2013 15:35:32 +0000 Radioprotecting ability of the natural polyphenol, gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, GA), was investigated in Swiss albino mice. Oral administration of GA (100 mg/kg body weight), one hour prior to whole body gamma radiation exposure (2–8 Gy; 6 animals/group), reduced the radiation-induced cellular DNA damage in mouse peripheral blood leukocytes, bone marrow cells, and spleenocytes as revealed by comet assay. The GA administration also prevented the radiation-induced decrease in the levels of the antioxidant enzyme, glutathione peroxidise (GPx), and nonprotein thiol glutathione (GSH) and inhibited the peroxidation of membrane lipids in these animals. Exposure of mice to whole body gamma radiation also caused the formation of micronuclei in blood reticulocytes and chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells, and the administration of GA resulted in the inhibition of micronucleus formation and chromosomal aberrations. In irradiated animals, administration of GA elicited an enhancement in the rate of DNA repair process and a significant increase in endogenous spleen colony formation. The administration of GA also prevented the radiation-induced weight loss and mortality in animals (10 animals/group) exposed to lethal dose (10 Gy) of gamma radiation. (For every experiment unirradiated animals without GA administration were taken as normal control; specific dose (Gy) irradiated animals without GA administration serve as radiation control; and unirradiated GA treated animals were taken as drug alone control). Gopakumar Gopinathan Nair and Cherupally Krishnan Krishnan Nair Copyright © 2013 Gopakumar Gopinathan Nair and Cherupally Krishnan Krishnan Nair. All rights reserved. Evaluation of In Vitro Cytoxicity and Genotoxicity of Size-Fractionated Air Particles Sampled during Road Tunnel Construction Wed, 28 Aug 2013 09:33:51 +0000 In tunnel construction, workers exposed to dust from blasting, gases, diesel exhausts, and oil mist have shown higher risk for pulmonary diseases. A clear mechanism to explain how these pollutants determine diseases is lacking, and alveolar epithelium’s capacity to ingest inhaled fine particles is not well characterized. The objective of this study was to assess the genotoxic effect exerted by fine particles collected in seven tunnels using the cytokinesis-block micronuclei test in an in vitro model on type II lung epithelium A549 cells. For each tunnel, five fractions with different aerodynamic diameters of particulate matter were collected with a multistage cascade sampler. The human epithelial cell line A549 was exposed to 0.2 m3/mL equivalent of particulate for 24 h before testing. The cytotoxic effects of particulate matter on A549 cells were also evaluated in two different viability tests. In order to evaluate the cells’ ability to take up fine particles, imaging with transmission electron microscopy of cells after exposure to particulate matter was performed. Particle endocytosis after 24 h exposure was observed as intracellular aggregates of membrane-bound particles. This morphologic evidence did not correspond to an increase in genotoxicity detected by the micronucleus test. Luca Dominici, Elena Guerrera, Milena Villarini, Cristina Fatigoni, Massimo Moretti, Paolo Blasi, and Silvano Monarca Copyright © 2013 Luca Dominici et al. All rights reserved. Rapid Purification and Procoagulant and Platelet Aggregating Activities of Rhombeobin: A Thrombin-Like/Gyroxin-Like Enzyme from Lachesis muta rhombeata Snake Venom Sat, 24 Aug 2013 10:54:23 +0000 We report a rapid purification method using one-step chromatography of SVSP Rhombeobin (LMR-47) from Lachesis muta rhombeata venom and its procoagulant activities and effects on platelet aggregation. The venom was fractionated by a single chromatographic step in RP-HPLC on a C8 Discovery BIO Wide Pore, showing high degree of molecular homogeneity with molecular mass of 47035.49 Da. Rhombeobin showed amidolytic activity upon BAρNA, with a broad optimum pH (7–10) and was stable in solution up to 60°C. The amidolytic activity was inhibited by serine proteinase inhibitors and reducing agents, but not chelating agents. Rhombeobin showed high coagulant activity on mice plasma and bovine fibrinogen. The deduced amino acid sequence of Rhombeobin showed homology with other SVSPs, especially with LM-TL (L. m. muta) and Gyroxin (C. d. terrificus). Rhombeobin acts, in vitro, as a strong procoagulant enzyme on mice citrated plasma, shortening the APTT and PT tests in adose-dependent manner. The protein showed, “ex vivo”, a strong defibrinogenating effect with 1 µg/animal. Lower doses activated the intrinsic and extrinsic coagulation pathways and impaired the platelet aggregation induced by ADP. Thus, this is the first report of a venom component that produces a venom-induced consumptive coagulopathy (VICC). Frank Denis Torres-Huaco, Cláudio C. Werneck, Cristina Pontes Vicente, Talita Vassequi-Silva, Ana Cláudia Coelho Nery-Diez, Camila B. Mendes, Edson Antunes, Sérgio Marangoni, and Daniela C. S. Damico Copyright © 2013 Frank Denis Torres-Huaco et al. All rights reserved. Mechanisms of Nanoparticle-Induced Oxidative Stress and Toxicity Tue, 20 Aug 2013 10:35:35 +0000 The rapidly emerging field of nanotechnology has offered innovative discoveries in the medical, industrial, and consumer sectors. The unique physicochemical and electrical properties of engineered nanoparticles (NP) make them highly desirable in a variety of applications. However, these novel properties of NP are fraught with concerns for environmental and occupational exposure. Changes in structural and physicochemical properties of NP can lead to changes in biological activities including ROS generation, one of the most frequently reported NP-associated toxicities. Oxidative stress induced by engineered NP is due to acellular factors such as particle surface, size, composition, and presence of metals, while cellular responses such as mitochondrial respiration, NP-cell interaction, and immune cell activation are responsible for ROS-mediated damage. NP-induced oxidative stress responses are torch bearers for further pathophysiological effects including genotoxicity, inflammation, and fibrosis as demonstrated by activation of associated cell signaling pathways. Since oxidative stress is a key determinant of NP-induced injury, it is necessary to characterize the ROS response resulting from NP. Through physicochemical characterization and understanding of the multiple signaling cascades activated by NP-induced ROS, a systemic toxicity screen with oxidative stress as a predictive model for NP-induced injury can be developed. Amruta Manke, Liying Wang, and Yon Rojanasakul Copyright © 2013 Amruta Manke et al. All rights reserved. Dissolution of Silver Nanowires and Nanospheres Dictates Their Toxicity to Escherichia coli Tue, 20 Aug 2013 09:40:47 +0000 Silver nanoparticles are extensively used in antibacterial applications. However, the mechanisms of their antibacterial action are not yet fully explored. We studied the solubility-driven toxicity of  nm (mean primary diameter × length) silver nanowires (NWs) to recombinant bioluminescent Escherichia coli as a target representative of enteric pathogens. The bacteria were exposed to silver nanostructures in water to exclude the speciation-driven alterations. Spherical silver nanoparticles (83 nm mean primary size) were used as a control for the effect of NPs shape. Toxicity of both Ag NWs and spheres to E. coli was observed at similar nominal concentrations: the 4h EC50 values, calculated on the basis of inhibition of bacterial bioluminescence, were 0.42 ± 0.06 and 0.68 ± 0.01 mg Ag/L, respectively. Dissolution and bioavailability of Ag from NWs and nanospheres, analyzed with AAS or Ag-sensor bacteria, respectively, suggested that the toxic effects were caused by solubilized Ag+ ions. Moreover, the antibacterial activities of Ag NWs suspension and its ultracentrifuged particle-free supernatant were equal. The latter indicated that the toxic effects of ~80–100 nm Ag nanostructures to Escherichia coli were solely dependent on their dissolution and no shape-induced/related effects were observed. Yet, additional nanospecific effects could come into play in case of smaller nanosilver particles. Meeri Visnapuu, Urmas Joost, Katre Juganson, Kai Künnis-Beres, Anne Kahru, Vambola Kisand, and Angela Ivask Copyright © 2013 Meeri Visnapuu et al. All rights reserved. Analysis of IL-1β Release from Cryopreserved Pooled Lymphocytes in Response to Lipopolysaccharide and Lipoteichoic Acid Tue, 20 Aug 2013 08:31:34 +0000 Pyrogens are heterogeneous group of fever-inducing substances derived from Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, fungi, and viruses. They incite immune response by producing endogenous pyrogens such as prostaglandins and other proinflammatory cytokines like IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α. The present study was to analyze the influence of cryopreservation in IL-1β release, a marker for inflammatory response from human lymphocytes, in response to exogenous pyrogenic stimulants. Lymphocytes isolated from pooled blood of multiple healthy individuals were cryopreserved in DMSO and glycerol for periods of 7, 14, 30, and 60 days and were challenged with LPS and LTA in vitro. The inflammatory cytokine, IL-1β release, was measured by ELISA method. It was observed that the release of IL-1β increases instantaneously after the initiation of incubation and reaches a maximum at 3 to 5 hours and then gradually decreases and gets stabilized for both pyrogens. Moreover it was also observed that the effect of cryoprotectants, DMSO (10%) and glycerol (10%), showed almost similar results for short-term storage, but DMSO-preserved lymphocytes yielded a better viability for long-term storage. Thus, the isolated cryopreserved lymphocytes system can be a promising approach for the total replacement/alteration to animal experimentation for pyrogenicity evaluation. Sreelekshmi R. Nair, C. S. Geetha, and P. V. Mohanan Copyright © 2013 Sreelekshmi R. Nair et al. All rights reserved. Modulation of Vasodilator Response via the Nitric Oxide Pathway after Acute Methyl Mercury Chloride Exposure in Rats Mon, 19 Aug 2013 08:17:34 +0000 Mercury exposure induces endothelial dysfunction leading to loss of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation due to decreased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability via increased oxidative stress. Our aim was to investigate whether acute treatment with methyl mercury chloride changes the endothelium-dependent vasodilator response and to explore the possible mechanisms behind the observed effects. Wistar rats were treated with methyl mercury chloride (5 mg/kg, po.). The methyl mercury chloride treatment resulted in an increased aortic vasorelaxant response to acetylcholine (ACh). In methyl-mercury-chloride-exposed rats, the % change in vasorelaxant response of ACh in presence of Nω-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME;  M) was significantly increased, and in presence of glybenclamide ( M), the response was similar to that of untreated rats, indicating the involvement of NO and not of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF). In addition, superoxide dismutase (SOD) + catalase treatment increased the NO modulation of vasodilator response in methyl-mercury-chloride-exposed rats. Our results demonstrate an increase in the vascular reactivity to ACh in aorta of rats acutely exposed to methyl mercury chloride. Methyl mercury chloride induces nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and increases the NO production along with inducing oxidative stress without affecting the EDHF pathway. S. Omanwar, B. Saidullah, K. Ravi, and M. Fahim Copyright © 2013 S. Omanwar et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Nanosilver Exposure on Cholinesterase Activities, CD41, and CDF/LIF-Like Expression in ZebraFish (Danio rerio) Larvae Tue, 06 Aug 2013 08:26:36 +0000 Metal nanosolicoparticles are suspected to cause diseases in a number of organisms, including man. In this paper, we report the effects of nanosilver (Ag, 1–20 nm particles) on the early development of the zebrafish, a well-established vertebrate model. Embryos at the midgastrula stage were exposed to concentrations ranging from 100 to 0.001 mg/L to verify the effects on different endpoints: lethality, morphology, expression of cholinergic molecules, and development of the immune system. (1) Relative risk of mortality was exponential in the range between 0.001 and 10 mg/L. Exposure to 100 mg/L caused 100% death of embryos before reaching the tail-bud stage. (2) Developmental anomalies were present in the 72 h larvae obtained from embryos exposed to nanosilver: whole body length, decreased eye dimension, and slow response to solicitation by gentle touch with a needle tip, with a significant threshold at 0.1 mg/L. (3) Dose-dependent inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity was significant among the exposures, except between 1 mg/L and 10 mg/L. (4) The distribution of CD41+ cells and of CDF/LIF-like immunoreactivity was altered according to the Ag concentration. The possible effect of nanosilver in impairing immune system differentiation through the inhibition of molecules related to the cholinergic system is discussed. Marzhan Myrzakhanova, Chiara Gambardella, Carla Falugi, Antonietta M. Gatti, Grazia Tagliafierro, Paola Ramoino, Paolo Bianchini, and Alberto Diaspro Copyright © 2013 Marzhan Myrzakhanova et al. All rights reserved. Pinocembrin: A Novel Natural Compound with Versatile Pharmacological and Biological Activities Mon, 05 Aug 2013 11:57:05 +0000 Pinocembrin (5,7-dihydroxyflavanone) is one of the primary flavonoids isolated from the variety of plants, mainly from Pinus heartwood, Eucalyptus, Populus, Euphorbia, and Sparattosperma leucanthum, in the diverse flora and purified by various chromatographic techniques. Pinocembrin is a major flavonoid molecule incorporated as multifunctional in the pharmaceutical industry. Its vast range of pharmacological activities has been well researched including antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer activities. In addition, pinocembrin can be used as neuroprotective against cerebral ischemic injury with a wide therapeutic time window, which may be attributed to its antiexcitotoxic effects. Pinocembrin exhibits pharmacological effects on almost all systems, and our aim is to review the pharmacological and therapeutic applications of pinocembrin with specific emphasis on mechanisms of actions. The design of new drugs based on the pharmacological effects of pinocembrin could be beneficial. This review suggests that pinocembrin is a potentially promising pharmacological candidate, but additional studies and clinical trials are required to determine its specific intracellular sites of action and derivative targets in order to fully understand the mechanism of its anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and apoptotic effects to further validate its medical applications. Azhar Rasul, Faya Martin Millimouno, Wafa Ali Eltayb, Muhammad Ali, Jiang Li, and Xiaomeng Li Copyright © 2013 Azhar Rasul et al. All rights reserved. 1H NMR Based Targeted Metabolite Profiling for Understanding the Complex Relationship Connecting Oxidative Stress with Endometriosis Mon, 05 Aug 2013 08:30:46 +0000 Accumulating evidence indicates the active role of oxidative stress in the development of endometriosis; however, the mechanism of reactive oxygen species generation is poorly understood. Metabonomics/metabolomics is a scientific discipline that can be used to study changes in metabolite ensembles associated with disease pathophysiology. The present study focuses on the use of proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy based targeted metabolite profiling approach to explore dysregulation in metabolites expression in women with endometriosis. Further, association of oxidative stress with the metabolite ensembles, if any, is investigated. Using multivariate statistics, partial least square discriminant analysis model was generated which could classify endometriosis patients with sensitivity and specificity of 92.83% and 100%, respectively, and with a classification rate of 96.4%. In conjunction with increased glucose metabolism, citrate and succinate were found to be elevated in endometriosis patients. Higher levels of reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, and advanced oxidation protein products and lower levels of total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione were also observed. Increased glucose metabolism and defects in the mitochondrial respiratory system are suggested to be the possible sources of excessive reactive oxygen species generation in endometriosis. Saikat K. Jana, Mainak Dutta, Mamata Joshi, Sudha Srivastava, Baidyanath Chakravarty, and Koel Chaudhury Copyright © 2013 Saikat K. Jana et al. All rights reserved. The Effect of Msh2 Knockdown on Toxicity Induced by tert-Butyl-hydroperoxide, Potassium Bromate, and Hydrogen Peroxide in Base Excision Repair Proficient and Deficient Cells Sun, 04 Aug 2013 10:44:44 +0000 The DNA mismatch repair (MMR) and base excision repair (BER) systems are important determinants of cellular toxicity following exposure to agents that cause oxidative DNA damage. To examine the interactions between these different repair systems, we examined whether toxicity, induced by t-BOOH and KBrO3, differs in BER proficient (Mpg+/+, Nth1+/+) and deficient (Mpg−/−, Nth1−/−) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) following Msh2 knockdown of between 79 and 88% using an shRNA expression vector. Msh2 knockdown in Nth1+/+ cells had no effect on t-BOOH and KBrO3 induced toxicity as assessed by an MTT assay; knockdown in Nth1−/− cells resulted in increased resistance to t-BOOH and KBrO3, a result consistent with Nth1 removing oxidised pyrimidines. Msh2 knockdown in Mpg+/+ cells had no effect on t-BOOH toxicity but increased resistance to KBrO3; in Mpg−/− cells, Msh2 knockdown increased cellular sensitivity to KBrO3 but increased resistance to t-BOOH, suggesting a role for Mpg in removing DNA damage induced by these agents. MSH2 dependent and independent pathways then determine cellular toxicity induced by oxidising agents. A complex interaction between MMR and BER repair systems, that is, exposure dependent, also exists to determine cellular toxicity. N. Cooley, R. H. Elder, and A. C. Povey Copyright © 2013 N. Cooley et al. All rights reserved. Stepwise Embryonic Toxicity of Silver Nanoparticles on Oryzias latipes Tue, 30 Jul 2013 11:47:35 +0000 The developmental toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was investigated following exposure of Oryzias latipes (medaka) embryos to 0.1−1 mg/L of homogeneously dispersed AgNPs for 14 days. During this period, developmental endpoints, including lethality, heart rate, and hatching rate, were evaluated by microscopy for different stages of medaka embryonic development. To compare toxic sensitivity, acute adult toxicity was assessed. There was no difference in acute lethal toxicity between embryo and adult medaka. Interestingly, we found that the increase in stepwise toxicity was dependent on the developmental stage of the embryo. Lethal embryonic toxicity increased from exposure days 1 to 3 and exposure days 5 to 8, whereas there was no change from exposure days 3 to 5. In addition, 7 d exposure to 0.8 mg/L AgNPs resulted in significant heart beat retardation in medaka embryos. AgNPs also caused a dose-dependent decrease in the hatching rate and body length of larvae. These results indicate that AgNP exposure causes severe developmental toxicity to medaka embryos and that toxicity levels are enhanced at certain developmental stages, which should be taken into consideration in assessments of metallic NPs toxicity to embryos. Jae-Gu Cho, Kyung-Tae Kim, Tae-Kwon Ryu, Jae-woo Lee, Ji-Eun Kim, Jungkon Kim, Byoung-Cheun Lee, Eun-Hye Jo, Junheon Yoon, Ig-chun Eom, Kyunghee Choi, and Pilje Kim Copyright © 2013 Jae-Gu Cho et al. All rights reserved. Metabolite Profile Resulting from the Activation/Inactivation of 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine and 2-Methyltetrahydro-β-carboline by Oxidative Enzymes Sun, 28 Jul 2013 14:01:51 +0000 Metabolic enzymes are involved in the activation/deactivation of the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyiridine (MPTP) neurotoxin and its naturally occurring analogs 2-methyltetrahydro-β-carbolines. The metabolic profile and biotransformation of these protoxins by three enzymes, monoamine oxidase (MAO), cytochrome P450, and heme peroxidases (myeloperoxidase and lactoperoxidase), were investigated and compared. The metabolite profile differed among the enzymes investigated. MAO and heme peroxidases activated these substances to toxic pyridinium and β-carbolinium species. MAO catalyzed the oxidation of MPTP to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-2,3-dihydropyridinium cation (MPDP+), whereas heme peroxidases catalyzed the oxidation of MPDP+ to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) and of 2-methyltetrahydro-β-carboline to 2-methyl-3,4-dihydro-β-carbolinium cation (2-Me-3,4-DHβC+). These substances were inactivated by cytochrome P450 2D6 through N-demethylation and aromatic hydroxylation (MPTP) and aromatic hydroxylation (2-methyltetrahydro-β-carboline). In conclusion, the toxicological effects of these protoxins might result from a balance between the rate of their activation to toxic products (i.e., N-methylpyridinium-MPP+ and MPDP+- and N-methyl-β-carbolinium—βC+—) by MAO and heme peroxidases and the rate of inactivation (i.e., N-demethylation, aromatic hydroxylation) by cytochrome P450 2D6. Tomás Herraiz, Hugo Guillén, and Juan Galisteo Copyright © 2013 Tomás Herraiz et al. All rights reserved. Modulation of the Rat Hepatic Cytochrome P4501A Subfamily Using Biotin Supplementation Sun, 28 Jul 2013 08:34:43 +0000 Studies have found that biotin favors glucose and lipid metabolism, and medications containing biotin have been developed. Despite the use of biotin as a pharmacological agent, few studies have addressed toxicity aspects including the possible interaction with cytochrome P450 enzyme family. This study analyzed the effects of pharmacological doses of biotin on the expression and activity of the cytochrome P4501A subfamily involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics. Wistar rats were treated daily with biotin (2 mg/kg, i.p.), while the control groups were treated with saline. All of the rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation after 1, 3, 5, or 7 days of treatment. CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 mRNAs were modified by biotin while enzyme activity and protein concentration were not affected. The lack of an effect of biotin on CYP1A activity was confirmed using other experimental strategies, including (i) cotreatment of the animals with biotin and a known CYP1A inducer; (ii) the addition of biotin to the reaction mixtures for the measurement of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 activities; and (iii) the use of an S9 mixture that was prepared from control and biotin-treated rats to analyze the activation of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) into mutagenic metabolites using the Ames test. The results suggest that biotin does not influence the CYP1A-mediated metabolism of xenobiotics. M. D. Ronquillo-Sánchez, R. Camacho-Carranza, C. Fernandez-Mejia, S. Hernández-Ojeda, M. Elinos-Baez, and J. J. Espinosa-Aguirre Copyright © 2013 M. D. Ronquillo-Sánchez et al. All rights reserved. Bees' Honey Protects the Liver of Male Rats against Melamine Toxicity Sun, 21 Jul 2013 08:02:52 +0000 The protective effect of natural bees' honey to the liver of male albino rats against melamine toxicity was studied. Melamine supplementation at a dose of 20000 ppm in the diet for 28 days induced adverse effects on the liver, decreased serum total protein and increased liver enzyme: alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase. Histological changes of the melamine supplemented group showed necrosis in the hepatic tissues around the central veins of the liver and precipitation of melamine crystals. Treating the male albino rats (that were presupplemented regularly with 20000 ppm melamine) with natural bees' honey at a dose of 2.5 g/kg body weight for 28 days improved both liver functions and increased serum protein. In addition, a positive impact on the shape of the cells after treatment with honey compared to the positive melamine supplemented group was observed. In conclusion, the results of this study revealed that the use of natural bees' honey has the ability to protect the liver of rats against the toxic effects of melamine. Haddad A. El Rabey, Madeha N. Al-Seeni, and Suad M. Al-Solamy Copyright © 2013 Haddad A. El Rabey et al. All rights reserved. The Stepwise Behavioral Responses: Behavioral Adjustment of the Chinese Rare Minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) in the Exposure of Carbamate Pesticides Tue, 16 Jul 2013 15:03:47 +0000 In order to illustrate the behavioral regulation in environmental stress, the behavioral responses of the Chinese rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) to arprocarb, carbofuran, and oxamyl were analyzed with an online monitoring system. The Self-Organizing Map (SOM) was used to define the patterns of the behavioral data obtained from treatments at concentrations of 0.1 toxic unit (TU), 1 TU, 2 TU, 5 TU, 10 TU, and 20 TU and a control. In certain cases, differences among the carbamate pesticides (CPs) tested were observed. The profiles of behavioral strength (BS) in SOM varied according to the concentration used. The time of the first significant decrease of the BS varied inversely with the CP concentrations. The results suggested that the behavioral regulation in the stepwise behavioral responses (SBR) was evident. The primary movement behaviors shown by the SBR model included no effect, stimulation, acclimation, adjustment (readjustment), and toxic effect, especially at the lower concentrations. However, higher stress (10 TU and 20 TU) might limit the function of the behavioral adjustment produced by the intrinsic response mechanisms. It was concluded that SBR, which were affected by both the concentration and the exposure time, could be used as a suitable indicator in the ecotoxicological risk assessment of CPs. Zongming Ren, Liang Liu, Rongshu Fu, and Mingsheng Miao Copyright © 2013 Zongming Ren et al. All rights reserved. Absorption of Hazardous Pollutants by a Medicinal Fern Blechnum orientale L. Mon, 15 Jul 2013 11:01:19 +0000 A Chinese medicinal fern Blechnum orientale (Linn) was separately collected from polluted and unpolluted sites to determine whether it could accumulate hazardous pollutants or not. Metal concentrations (Cu, Zn, Mn, Pb, Cd, Cr, As, and Hg) both in the fronds and roots and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the fronds of this fern were quantified. At both sites, roots of B. orientale had significantly higher heavy metals than the fronds. Concentrations of Pb, As, Hg, Cd, and Cu in the fronds at the polluted site were more than 2, 6, 7, 14, 5, and 13 times of those at the unpolluted site. Translocation factor and bioaccumulation factor implied that B. orientale did not have a good ability to transport heavy metals from the roots to the fronds. Total PAHs in the fronds at the polluted site were significantly higher than those at the unpolluted site, indicating the physiological PAHs absorption by B. orientale growing at polluted sites. Uptake of pollutants via stomata might be the main reason causing the significant accumulation of hazardous pollutants in the fronds of B. orientale. Large-scale systematical survey and intensive monitoring on pollutants in this medicinal fern should be necessarily strengthened. Xiao-min Zhu, Yuan-wen Kuang, Dan Xi, Jiong Li, and Fa-guo Wang Copyright © 2013 Xiao-min Zhu et al. All rights reserved. Embryotoxic and Teratogenic Effects of Nickel in Swiss Albino Mice during Organogenetic Period Mon, 15 Jul 2013 07:55:51 +0000 The present study evaluates potential hazardous of nickel (Ni+2 as NiCl2·6H2O) to Swiss albino mice fetus. Ni was administered orally on body weight base from days 6 to 13 of gestation period. Based on LD50, Ni doses (46.125, 92.25, and 184.5) mg Ni/kg b.wt. were used. On day 18 of gestation, uteri of the sacrificed dams were examined. A dose-dependent decrease () in the body weight of the pregnant females and fetuses during the gestation period was observed. Number of implant sites and placental weight at all the three dose levels was lower compared with their respective control groups. Average number of live fetuses/dams reduced significantly () at 184.5 mg Ni/kg b.wt. with concomitant increase in the percentage of postimplantation death and percentage of resorbed, macerated, and dead fetuses, respectively. Exposure increased the fetal malformations, namely, hydrocephaly, open eyelids, microphthalmia, exophthalmia, club foot, umbilical hernia, and skeletal anomalies. Reduced ossification of nasal, frontal, parietal, intraparietal, and supraoccipital bones, absence/gap between the ribs, reduced/fused sternebrae, vertebral centra, and caudal vertebrae, reduced pelvic elements, absence of carpals, metacarpals, tarsals, metatarsals, and phalanges were distinct. This indicates vulnerability of the mice fetus to nickel during prenatal exposure. Shivi Saini, Neena Nair, and Mali Ram Saini Copyright © 2013 Shivi Saini et al. All rights reserved. Long-Term Impact of Immunosuppressants at Therapeutic Doses on Male Reproductive System in Unilateral Nephrectomized Rats: A Comparative Study Thu, 11 Jul 2013 14:02:48 +0000 Cyclosporine, tacrolimus, and sirolimus are commonly used in renal transplant recipients to prevent rejection. However, information for comparative effects of these agents on the male productive system is extremely limited and controversial. In a physiologically and clinically relevant rat model of unilateral nephrectomy, we demonstrated that long-term oral administration of both cyclosporine and sirolimus at doses equivalent to the therapeutic levels used for postrenal transplant patients significantly affects testicular development and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis accompanied by profound histological changes of testicular structures on both light and electron microscopic examinations. Spermatogenesis was also severely impaired as indicated by low total sperm counts along with reduction of sperm motility and increase in sperm abnormality after treatment with these agents, which may lead to male infertility. On the other hand, treatment with therapeutic dose of tacrolimus only induced mild reduction of sperm count without histological evidence of testicular injury. The current study clearly demonstrates that commonly used immunosuppressants have various impacts on male reproductive system even at therapeutic levels. Our data provide useful information for the assessment of male infertility in renal transplant recipients who wish to father children. Clinical trials to address these issues should be urged. Yehui Chen, Zhi Zhang, Yun Lin, Huaxin Lin, Miaoyuan Li, Pin Nie, Lizhong Chen, Jiang Qiu, Yanmeng Lu, Linqiang Chen, Banglao Xu, Wuzhou Lin, Jing Zhang, Hong Du, Jianjian Liang, and Zhiwei Zhang Copyright © 2013 Yehui Chen et al. All rights reserved. Levels of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Polychlorinated Biphenyls, and Organochlorine Pesticides in Various Tissues of White-Backed Vulture in India Tue, 09 Jul 2013 10:39:07 +0000 This study provides information on the current status of contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the tissues of endangered White-backed Vulture Gyps bengalensis in India. Chemical analyses revealed detectable amounts of PAHs, PCBs, and OCPs. Concentration ranges of ∑PAHs, ∑PCBs, and ∑OCPs in tissues were 60–2037 ng/g, 30–5790 ng/g, and 3.2–5836 ng/g wet weight, respectively. 1,1-Dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p′-DDE) concentrations ranged from below detectable level to 599 ng/g wet weight, representing more than 90% of the total dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). Among the various OCPs analyzed, p,p′-DDE was detected most frequently. All the contaminants recorded show higher accumulation in liver than other tissues. Levels of contaminants measured in the tissues of vulture are comparable with the levels documented in a number of avian species and are lower than those reported to have caused deleterious effects. Although no threat is expected from the current level of contamination, the presence of varying levels of contaminants and their additive or synergistic toxicity is a cause of concern to vultures. Values reported in this study can serve as guideline for future research. V. Dhananjayan and S. Muralidharan Copyright © 2013 V. Dhananjayan and S. Muralidharan. All rights reserved. Particulate Matter and Nanoparticles Toxicology Mon, 01 Jul 2013 13:54:11 +0000 Ernesto Alfaro-Moreno, Tim S. Nawrot, Abderrahim Nemmar, Irma Rosas, and Per Schwarze Copyright © 2013 Ernesto Alfaro-Moreno et al. All rights reserved. The Effect of Chlorpyrifos on Isolated Thoracic Aorta in Rats Wed, 26 Jun 2013 08:52:17 +0000 This study investigated the effect of chlorpyrifos on thoracic aorta and on the level of NO in plasma and aorta. The effect of chlorpyrifos on thoracic aorta in organ bath was determined in 10 rats. Another 45 rats were assigned to 3 groups with 15 rats each: control group 1 received distilled water, control group 2 was given corn oil, and the last group was given 13.5 mg/kg chlorpyrifos dissolved in corn oil every other day for 8 weeks orally. Chlorpyrifos (10−10 M–10−5 M) showed no effect on isolated thoracic aorta. Plasma AChE activity was decreased, while LDH, ALT, GGT, and AST activities were increased in chlorpyrifos group compared to control groups. Plasma NO level was increased in chlorpyrifos group compared to control groups. iNOS expression was present in all groups in the cytoplasm of the endothelia and in the smooth muscle cells of aorta. According to semiquantitative histomorphological analysis, iNOS immunopositive reactions were seen in the decreasing order in chlorpyrifos, control 2, and control 1 groups. eNOS immunopositive reactions were observed in the endothelial cell cytoplasm, rarely in the subintimal layer, and the smooth muscle cells of aorta. There were no differences among the groups in terms of eNOS immunostaining. In conclusion, chlorpyrifos induced NO production in aorta following an increase in NOS expression. Ebru Yıldırım, Emine Baydan, Murat Kanbur, Oğuz Kul, Miyase Çınar, Hüsamettin Ekici, and Nurgül Atmaca Copyright © 2013 Ebru Yıldırım et al. All rights reserved. Intraperitoneal Exposure to Nano/Microparticles of Fullerene () Increases Acetylcholinesterase Activity and Lipid Peroxidation in Adult Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Brain Thu, 20 Jun 2013 11:34:12 +0000 Even though technologies involving nano/microparticles have great potential, it is crucial to determine possible toxicity of these technological products before extensive use. Fullerenes C60 are nanomaterials with unique physicochemical and biological properties that are important for the development of many technological applications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the consequences of nonphotoexcited fullerene C60 exposure in brain acetylcholinesterase expression and activity, antioxidant responses, and oxidative damage using adult zebrafish as an animal model. None of the doses tested (7.5, 15, and 30 mg/kg) altered AChE activity, antioxidant responses, and oxidative damage when zebrafish were exposed to nonphotoexcited C60 nano/microparticles during 6 and 12 hours. However, adult zebrafish exposed to the 30 mg/kg dose for 24 hours have shown enhanced AChE activity and augmented lipid peroxidation (TBARS assays) in brain. In addition, the up-regulation of brain AChE activity was neither related to the transcriptional control (RT-qPCR analysis) nor to the direct action of nonphotoexcited C60 nano/microparticles on the protein (in vitro results) but probably involved a posttranscriptional or posttranslational modulation of this enzymatic activity. Taken together these findings provided further evidence of toxic effects on brain after C60 exposure. Gonzalo Ogliari Dal Forno, Luiza Wilges Kist, Mariana Barbieri de Azevedo, Rachel Seemann Fritsch, Talita Carneiro Brandão Pereira, Roberta Socoowski Britto, Sílvia Stanisçuaski Guterres, Irene Clemes Külkamp-Guerreiro, Carla Denise Bonan, José María Monserrat, and Maurício Reis Bogo Copyright © 2013 Gonzalo Ogliari Dal Forno et al. All rights reserved. Recent Advances in Particulate Matter and Nanoparticle Toxicology: A Review of the In Vivo and In Vitro Studies Thu, 20 Jun 2013 10:10:05 +0000 Epidemiological and clinical studies have linked exposure to particulate matter (PM) to adverse health effects, which may be registered as increased mortality and morbidity from various cardiopulmonary diseases. Despite the evidence relating PM to health effects, the physiological, cellular, and molecular mechanisms causing such effects are still not fully characterized. Two main approaches are used to elucidate the mechanisms of toxicity. One is the use of in vivo experimental models, where various effects of PM on respiratory, cardiovascular, and nervous systems can be evaluated. To more closely examine the molecular and cellular mechanisms behind the different physiological effects, the use of various in vitro models has proven to be valuable. In the present review, we discuss the current advances on the toxicology of particulate matter and nanoparticles based on these techniques. Abderrahim Nemmar, Jørn A. Holme, Irma Rosas, Per E. Schwarze, and Ernesto Alfaro-Moreno Copyright © 2013 Abderrahim Nemmar et al. All rights reserved. Bioremediation of Direct Blue 14 and Extracellular Ligninolytic Enzyme Production by White Rot Fungi: Pleurotus Spp. Tue, 11 Jun 2013 11:30:14 +0000 In the present investigation, four species of white rot fungi (Pleurotus), that is, P. flabellatus, P. florida, P. ostreatus and P. sajor-caju were used for decolorization of direct blue 14 (DB14). Among all four species of Pleurotus, P. flabellatus showed the fastest decolorization in petri plates on different concentration, that is, 200 mg/L, 400 mg/L, and 600 mg/L. All these four species were also evaluated for extracellular ligninolytic enzymes (laccase and manganese peroxidase) production and it was observed that the twelve days old culture of P. flabellatus showed the maximum enzymatic activity, that is, 915.7 U/mL and 769.2 U/mL of laccase and manganese peroxidase, respectively. Other three Pleurotus species took more time for dye decolorization and exhibited less enzymatic activities. The rate of decolorization of DB14 dye solution (20 mg/L) by crude enzymes isolated from P. flabellatus was very fast, and it was observed that up to 90.39% dye solution was decolorized in 6 hrs of incubation. M. P. Singh, S. K. Vishwakarma, and A. K. Srivastava Copyright © 2013 M. P. Singh et al. All rights reserved. The Effect of Thiamine and Thiamine Pyrophosphate on Oxidative Liver Damage Induced in Rats with Cisplatin Thu, 06 Jun 2013 15:21:24 +0000 The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of thiamine and thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) on oxidative stress induced with cisplatin in liver tissue. Rats were divided into four groups; thiamine group (TG), TPP + cisplatin group (TPG), healthy animal group (HG), and cisplatin only group (CG). Oxidant and antioxidant parameters in liver tissue and AST, ALT, and LDH levels in rat sera were measured in all groups. Malondialdehyde levels in the CG, TG, TPG, and HG groups were 11 ± 1.4, 9 ± 0.5, 3 ± 0.5, and 2.2 ± 0.48 μmol/g protein, respectively. Total glutathione levels were 2 ± 0.7, 2.8 ± 0.4, 7 ± 0.8, and 9 ± 0.6 nmol/g protein, respectively. Levels of 8-OH/Gua, a product of DNA damage, were 2.7 ± 0.4 pmol/L, 2.5 ± 0.5, 1.1 ± 0.3, and 0.9 ± 0.3 pmol/L, respectively. A statistically significant difference was determined in oxidant/antioxidant parameters and AST, ALT, and LDH levels between the TPG and CG groups (). No significant difference was determined between the TG and CG groups (). In conclusion, cisplatin causes oxidative damage in liver tissue. TPP seems to have a preventive effect on oxidative stress in the liver caused by cisplatin. Mehmet Ibrahim Turan, Isil Siltelioglu Turan, Renad Mammadov, Konca Altınkaynak, and Abdullah Kisaoglu Copyright © 2013 Mehmet Ibrahim Turan et al. All rights reserved. Influence of Heavy Metal Stress on Antioxidant Status and DNA Damage in Urtica dioica Tue, 04 Jun 2013 11:30:55 +0000 Heavy metals have the potential to interact and induce several stress responses in the plants; thus, effects of heavy metal stress on DNA damages and total antioxidants level in Urtica dioica leaves and stems were investigated. The samples are sampled from areas with different metal exposition. Metal content was analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES), for total antioxidants level assessment the Ferric-Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assay was used, and genomic DNA isolation from frozen plant samples was performed to obtain DNA fingerprints of investigated plant. It was found that heavy metal contents in stems generally changed synchronously with those in leaves of the plant, and extraneous metals led to imbalance of mineral nutrient elements. DNA damages were investigated by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique, and the results demonstrated that the samples exposed to metals yielded a large number of new fragments (total 12) in comparison with the control sample. This study showed that DNA stability is highly affected by metal pollution which was identified by RAPD markers. Results suggested that heavy metal stress influences antioxidant status and also induces DNA damages in U. dioica which may help to understand the mechanisms of metals genotoxicity. Darinka Gjorgieva, Tatjana Kadifkova Panovska, Tatjana Ruskovska, Katerina Bačeva, and Trajče Stafilov Copyright © 2013 Darinka Gjorgieva et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Naked Gold Nanoparticles on Proinflammatory Cytokines mRNA Expression in Rat Liver and Kidney Sun, 26 May 2013 14:35:20 +0000 The data on the biocompatibility of naked gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are scarce, and their interpretation is controversial. We studied the acute (1 day) and subchronic (5 days) effects of GNPs (10 and 50 nm diameter) on expression of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in the liver and kidneys of rats. In the liver, the GNPs of both sizes (10 and 50 nm) significantly increased the cytokines gene expression on day 1 which was subsided on day 5; the GNPs of 50 nm size produced more severe inflammatory response as compared to smaller sized GNPs. In the kidney, the GNPs did not produce any significant change in the expression of IL-1β. Although the gene expression of IL-6 and TNF-α was not affected by GNPs of 10 nm size, 50 nm GNPs significantly increased the expression of IL-6 and TNF-α in the kidneys of rats on day 1 after treatment which returned to normalcy on day 5. These findings indicate the possible immunocompatibility of medium sized GNPs as they caused only a transient acute phase increase in proinflammatory cytokines expression followed by their normalcy during the repeated exposure. Haseeb A. Khan, Mohamed Anwar K. Abdelhalim, Abdullah S. Alhomida, and Mohammed S. Al-Ayed Copyright © 2013 Haseeb A. Khan et al. All rights reserved. Impact of Ciprofloxacin and Chloramphenicol on the Lipid Bilayer of Staphylococcus aureus: Changes in Membrane Potential Thu, 23 May 2013 15:04:42 +0000 The present study was undertaken to explore the interaction of ciprofloxacin and chloramphenicol with bacterial membranes in a sensitive and in a resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus by using 1-anilino-8-naphthalene sulfonate (ANS). The binding of this probe to the cell membrane depends on the surface potential, which modulates the binding constant to the membrane. We observed that these antibiotics interacted with the bilayer, thus affecting the electrostatic surface potential. Alterations caused by antibiotics on the surface of the bacteria were accompanied by a reduction in the number of binding sites and an increase in the ANS dissociation constant in the sensitive strain, whereas in the ciprofloxacin-resistant strain no significant changes were detected. The changes seen in the electrostatic surface potential generated in the membrane of S. aureus by the antibiotics provide new aspects concerning their action on the bacterial cell. Paulina L. Páez, María C. Becerra, and Inés Albesa Copyright © 2013 Paulina L. Páez et al. All rights reserved. Prediction of Clinically Relevant Safety Signals of Nephrotoxicity through Plasma Metabolite Profiling Tue, 21 May 2013 09:25:47 +0000 Addressing safety concerns such as drug-induced kidney injury (DIKI) early in the drug pharmaceutical development process ensures both patient safety and efficient clinical development. We describe a unique adjunct to standard safety assessment wherein the metabolite profile of treated animals is compared with the MetaMap Tox metabolomics database in order to predict the potential for a wide variety of adverse events, including DIKI. To examine this approach, a study of five compounds (phenytoin, cyclosporin A, doxorubicin, captopril, and lisinopril) was initiated by the Technology Evaluation Consortium under the auspices of the Drug Safety Executive Council (DSEC). The metabolite profiles for rats treated with these compounds matched established reference patterns in the MetaMap Tox metabolomics database indicative of each compound’s well-described clinical toxicities. For example, the DIKI associated with cyclosporine A and doxorubicin was correctly predicted by metabolite profiling, while no evidence for DIKI was found for phenytoin, consistent with its clinical picture. In some cases the clinical toxicity (hepatotoxicity), not generally seen in animal studies, was detected with MetaMap Tox. Thus metabolite profiling coupled with the MetaMap Tox metabolomics database offers a unique and powerful approach for augmenting safety assessment and avoiding clinical adverse events such as DIKI. W. B. Mattes, H. G. Kamp, E. Fabian, M. Herold, G. Krennrich, R. Looser, W. Mellert, A. Prokoudine, V. Strauss, B. van Ravenzwaay, T. Walk, H. Naraoka, K. Omura, I. Schuppe-Koistinen, S. Nadanaciva, E. D. Bush, N. Moeller, P. Ruiz-Noppinger, and S. P. Piccoli Copyright © 2013 W. B. Mattes et al. All rights reserved. Genotoxicity of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Nitro-Derived in Respirable Airborne Particulate Matter Collected from Urban Areas of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) Thu, 02 May 2013 11:28:08 +0000 Air pollution toxic effects are mainly attributed to small inhalable particulates with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 µm (PM 2.5). Our objective was to investigate mutagenic and clastogenic activity in PM samples collected in Rio de Janeiro. Samples were collected using a high-volume sampler at three sites: with low traffic and (2) and (3) with a heavy traffic. Six polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and the derivative strains YG1021 and YG1024 were used in mutagenicity assays in the presence of organic extracts (10–50 µg/ plate) with and without exogenous metabolization. Allium cepa test was performed to evaluate possible cytotoxic and clastogenic activities. The highest PM 2.5 µm (132.73 µm/m3) and PAH values (1.22 ng/m3 for benzo(a)pyrene) were detected at site 3. High mutagenic frameshift responses in absence and presence of metabolic activation were detected at site 3. The participation of nitroarenes and dinitroarenes was detected in the total mutagenicity of the extracts studied. The cytotoxic effect and the abnormalities detected by Allium cepa test can be attributed to the PAH nitroderivatives in the organic extracts. Evaluation of the genotoxicity of urban airborne particulate matter is important as a basis for decision making by regulatory authorities. Claudia Ramos de Rainho, Sérgio Machado Corrêa, José Luiz Mazzei, Claudia Alessandra Fortes Aiub, and Israel Felzenszwalb Copyright © 2013 Claudia Ramos de Rainho et al. All rights reserved. Tight Junction Proteins and Oxidative Stress in Heavy Metals-Induced Nephrotoxicity Mon, 22 Apr 2013 10:29:58 +0000 Kidney is a target organ for heavy metals. They accumulate in several segments of the nephron and cause profound alterations in morphology and function. Acute intoxication frequently causes acute renal failure. The effects of chronic exposure have not been fully disclosed. In recent years increasing awareness of the consequences of their presence in the kidney has evolved. In this review we focus on the alterations induced by heavy metals on the intercellular junctions of the kidney. We describe that in addition to the proximal tubule, which has been recognized as the main site of accumulation and injury, other segments of the nephron, such as glomeruli, vessels, and distal nephron, show also deleterious effects. We also emphasize the participation of oxidative stress as a relevant component of the renal damage induced by heavy metals and the beneficial effect that some antioxidant drugs, such as vitamin A (all-trans-retinoic acid) and vitamin E (α-tocopherol), depict on the morphological and functional alterations induced by heavy metals. José L. Reyes, Eduardo Molina-Jijón, Rafael Rodríguez-Muñoz, Pablo Bautista-García, Yazmin Debray-García, and María del Carmen Namorado Copyright © 2013 José L. Reyes et al. All rights reserved.