BioMed Research International The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. The Association between Endometriomas and Ovarian Cancer: Preventive Effect of Inhibiting Ovulation and Menstruation during Reproductive Life Sun, 30 Aug 2015 14:19:54 +0000 Although endometriosis frequently involves multiple sites in the pelvis, malignancies associated with this disease are mostly confined to the ovaries, evolving from an endometrioma. Endometriomas present a 2-3-fold increased risk of transformation in clear-cell, endometrioid, and possibly low-grade serous ovarian cancers, but not in mucinous ovarian cancers. These last cancers are, in some aspects, different from the other epithelial ovarian cancers, as they do not appear to be decreased by the inhibition of ovulation and menstruation. The step by step process of transformation from typical endometrioma, through atypical endometrioma, finally to ovarian cancer seems mainly related to oxidative stress, inflammation, hyperestrogenism, and specific molecular alterations. Particularly, activation of oncogenic KRAS and PI3K pathways and inactivation of tumor suppressor genes PTEN and ARID1A are suggested as major pathogenic mechanisms for endometriosis associated clear-cell and endometrioid ovarian cancer. Both the risk for endometriomas and their associated ovarian cancers seems to be highly and similarly decreased by the inhibition of ovulation and retrograde menstruation, suggesting a common pathogenetic mechanism and common possible preventive strategies during reproductive life. Giovanni Grandi, Angela Toss, Laura Cortesi, Laura Botticelli, Annibale Volpe, and Angelo Cagnacci Copyright © 2015 Giovanni Grandi et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Bone Cement Implantation on Haemodynamics in Elderly Patients and Preventive Measure in Cemented Hemiarthroplasty Sun, 30 Aug 2015 14:18:05 +0000 This study was to investigate the influence of bone cement implantation on haemodynamics and the preventive effect of epinephrine hydrochloride on pulmonary embolism in elderly patients with cemented semihip replacement. 128 patients were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were treated with (group A, 64 cases) or without (group B, 64 cases) epinephrine hydrochloride saline. The monitoring indicators included systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and pulse oxygen saturation (SPO2). The indicators of the two groups were compared before and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 minutes after bone cement implantation. Analysis of variance and SNK-q test were used for the statistical analysis. Blood pressure and SPO2 of group B decreased with statistical difference () and HR increased without statistical significance, comparing with those of group A. In group A, SBP, DBP, MAP, HR, and SPO2 after bone cement implantation did not change significantly at each time point comparing with before implantation (). Bone cement implantation has significant influence on hemodynamics in elderly patients with hemiarthroplasty. Flushing the bone marrow cavity with saline epinephrine hydrochloride is an effective measure to reduce the incidence of bone cement pulmonary embolism. Xiangbei Qi, Yingze Zhang, Jinshe Pan, Lijie Ma, Lin Wang, and Jianzhao Wang Copyright © 2015 Xiangbei Qi et al. All rights reserved. Comment on “Transmission Model of Hepatitis B Virus with the Migration Effect” Sun, 30 Aug 2015 13:53:53 +0000 Some consequences of erroneous results concerning eigenvalues in the recent literature of mathematical biology are highlighted. Furthermore, an improved stability criterion and the true value of the basic reproduction number is presented. Abid Ali Lashari Copyright © 2015 Abid Ali Lashari. All rights reserved. Epidemiological Scenario of Dengue in Brazil Sun, 30 Aug 2015 13:39:32 +0000 Dengue is the most important reemerging mosquito-borne viral disease worldwide. It is caused by any of four Dengue virus types or serotypes (DENV-1 to DENV-4) and is transmitted by mosquitoes from the genus Aedes. Ecological changes have favored the geographic expansion of the vector and, since the dengue pandemic in the Asian and Pacific regions, the infection became widely distributed worldwide, reaching Brazil in 1845. The incidence of dengue in Brazil has been frequently high, and the number of cases in the country has at some point in time represented up to 60% of the dengue reported cases worldwide. This review addresses vector distribution, dengue outbreaks, circulating serotypes and genotypes, and prevention approaches being utilized in Brazil. Rafaelle C. G. Fares, Katia P. R. Souza, Germán Añez, and Maria Rios Copyright © 2015 Rafaelle C. G. Fares et al. All rights reserved. Correction for Eddy Current-Induced Echo-Shifting Effect in Partial-Fourier Diffusion Tensor Imaging Sun, 30 Aug 2015 12:18:30 +0000 In most diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies, images are acquired with either a partial-Fourier or a parallel partial-Fourier echo-planar imaging (EPI) sequence, in order to shorten the echo time and increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). However, eddy currents induced by the diffusion-sensitizing gradients can often lead to a shift of the echo in k-space, resulting in three distinct types of artifacts in partial-Fourier DTI. Here, we present an improved DTI acquisition and reconstruction scheme, capable of generating high-quality and high-SNR DTI data without eddy current-induced artifacts. This new scheme consists of three components, respectively, addressing the three distinct types of artifacts. First, a k-space energy-anchored DTI sequence is designed to recover eddy current-induced signal loss (i.e., Type 1 artifact). Second, a multischeme partial-Fourier reconstruction is used to eliminate artificial signal elevation (i.e., Type 2 artifact) associated with the conventional partial-Fourier reconstruction. Third, a signal intensity correction is applied to remove artificial signal modulations due to eddy current-induced erroneous -weighting (i.e., Type 3 artifact). These systematic improvements will greatly increase the consistency and accuracy of DTI measurements, expanding the utility of DTI in translational applications where quantitative robustness is much needed. Trong-Kha Truong, Allen W. Song, and Nan-kuei Chen Copyright © 2015 Trong-Kha Truong et al. All rights reserved. To Compare Time-Weighted Graphs to Evaluate the Inclination of the Acetabular Component of Patients Who Had Total Hip Replacement Surgery Sun, 30 Aug 2015 08:26:37 +0000 Time-weighted graphs are used to detect small shifts in statistical process control. The aim of this study is to evaluate the inclination of the acetabular component with CUmulative SUM (CUSUM) chart, Moving Average (MA) chart, and Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) chart. The data were obtained directly from thirty patients who had undergone total hip replacement surgery at Ondokuz Mayis University, Faculty of Medicine. The inclination of the acetabular component of these people, after total hip replacement, was evaluated. CUSUM chart, Moving Average chart, and Exponentially Weighted Moving Average were used to evaluate the quality control process of acetabular component inclination. MINITAB Statistical Software 15.0 was used to generate these control charts. The assessment done with time-weighted charts revealed that the acetabular inclination angles were settled within control limits and the process was under control. It was determined that the change within the control limits had a random pattern. As a result of this study it has been obtained that time-weighted quality control charts which are used mostly in the field of industry can also be used in the field of medicine. It has provided us with a faster visual decision. Leman Tomak, Yuksel Bek, and Yılmaz Tomak Copyright © 2015 Leman Tomak et al. All rights reserved. Preterm Birth: Pathophysiology, Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment Sun, 30 Aug 2015 08:00:33 +0000 Igor Hudić, Babill Stray-Pedersen, and Vajdana Tomić Copyright © 2015 Igor Hudić et al. All rights reserved. Volumetric MR-Guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound with Direct Skin Cooling for the Treatment of Symptomatic Uterine Fibroids: Proof-of-Concept Study Sun, 30 Aug 2015 06:30:59 +0000 Objective. To prospectively assess the safety and technical feasibility of volumetric magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) ablation with direct skin cooling (DISC) during treatment of uterine fibroids. Methods. In this proof-of-concept study, eight patients were consecutively selected for clinical MR-HIFU ablation of uterine fibroids with the use of an additional DISC device to maintain a constant temperature () at the interface between the HIFU table top and the skin. Technical feasibility was verified by successful completion of MR-HIFU ablation. Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MRI was used to measure the treatment effect (nonperfused volume (NPV) ratio). Safety was evaluated by recording of adverse events (AEs) within 30 days’ follow-up. Results. All MR-HIFU treatments were successfully completed in an outpatient setting. The median NPV ratio was 0.56 (IQR [0.27–0.72]). Immediately after treatment, two patients experienced coldness related discomfort which resolved at the same day. No serious (device-related) AEs were reported. Specifically, no skin burns, cold injuries, or subcutaneous edema were observed. Conclusion. This study showed that it is safe and technically feasible to complete a volumetric MR-HIFU ablation with DISC. This technique may reduce the risk of thermal injury to the abdominal wall during MR-HIFU ablation of uterine fibroids. This trial is registered with NTR4189. Marlijne E. Ikink, Johanna M. M. van Breugel, Gerald Schubert, Robbert J. Nijenhuis, Lambertus W. Bartels, Chrit T. W. Moonen, and Maurice A. A. J. van den Bosch Copyright © 2015 Marlijne E. Ikink et al. All rights reserved. Lentivirus-Mediated siRNA Targeting ER-α Inhibits Tumorigenesis and Induces Apoptosis in Hepatocarcinoma Cells Thu, 27 Aug 2015 14:11:28 +0000 Background and Objectives. Estrogen receptor-α (ER-α) plays important roles in hepatocarcinogenesis. Recent studies have shown that ER-α could lead to cell cycle progression or inhibition of apoptosis. To better understand the role of ER-α, RNA interference (RNAi) was used to inhibit ER-α expression in the human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. Methods. Lentivirus-mediated ER-α small interfering RNA (siRNA) was transfected into HCC cells Hep3B. ER-α expression was monitored by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blot. Cell proliferation, apoptosis, and invasion were examined by methyl thiazol tetrazolium (MTT), flow cytometry (FCM), and invasion assay, respectively. Results. ER-α siRNA efficiently downregulated the expression of ER-α in Hep3B cells at both mRNA and protein levels in a time-dependent manner. ER-α siRNA also inhibited cell proliferation and reduced cell invasion (compared with other groups, , resp.). Furthermore, knockdown of ER-α slowed down the cell population at S phase and increased the rate of apoptosis (, resp.). Conclusion. ER-α knockdown suppressed the growth of HCC cells. Thus, ER-α may play a very important role in carcinogenesis of HCC and its knockdown may offer a new potential gene therapy approach for human liver cancer in the future. Ping Jiang, Jun Cao, and Wen-Hui Bai Copyright © 2015 Ping Jiang et al. All rights reserved. MRI for Crohn’s Disease: Present and Future Thu, 27 Aug 2015 14:10:30 +0000 Crohn’s disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory condition with relapsing-remitting behavior, often causing strictures or penetrating bowel damage. Its lifelong clinical course necessitates frequent assessment of disease activity and complications. Computed tomography (CT) enterography has been used as primary imaging modality; however, the concern for radiation hazard limits its use especially in younger population. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has advantages of avoiding radiation exposure, lower incidence of adverse events, ability to obtain dynamic information, and good soft-tissue resolution. MR enterography (MRE) with oral contrast agent has been used as primary MR imaging modality of CD with high sensitivity, specificity, and interobserver agreement. The extent of inflammation as well as transmural ulcers and fibrostenotic diseases can be detected with MRE. Novel MR techniques such as diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI), motility study, PET-MRI, and molecular imaging are currently investigated for further improvement of diagnosis and management of CD. MR spectroscopy is a remarkable molecular imaging tool to analyze metabolic profile of CD with human samples such as plasma, urine, or feces, as well as colonic mucosa itself. Kichul Yoon, Kyu-Tae Chang, and Hong J. Lee Copyright © 2015 Kichul Yoon et al. All rights reserved. Two-Dimensional Crystallization Procedure, from Protein Expression to Sample Preparation Thu, 27 Aug 2015 14:07:58 +0000 Membrane proteins play important roles for living cells. Structural studies of membrane proteins provide deeper understanding of their mechanisms and further aid in drug design. As compared to other methods, electron microscopy is uniquely suitable for analysis of a broad range of specimens, from small proteins to large complexes. Of various electron microscopic methods, electron crystallography is particularly well-suited to study membrane proteins which are reconstituted into two-dimensional crystals in lipid environments. In this review, we discuss the steps and parameters for obtaining large and well-ordered two-dimensional crystals. A general description of the principle in each step is provided since this information can also be applied to other biochemical and biophysical methods. The examples are taken from our own studies and published results with related proteins. Our purpose is to give readers a more general idea of electron crystallography and to share our experiences in obtaining suitable crystals for data collection. Qie Kuang, Pasi Purhonen, and Hans Hebert Copyright © 2015 Qie Kuang et al. All rights reserved. Multiple Comparison of Age Groups in Bone Mineral Density under Heteroscedasticity Thu, 27 Aug 2015 14:06:42 +0000 Osteoporosis is a silent disease because individuals may not know that they have osteoporosis until their bones become so fragile. Bone mineral density (BMD) test helps to detect osteoporosis and determine the risk fractures. This study covers bone measurement data from total body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scans for 28,454 persons who participated in the 1996–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in USA Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) method is known as the primary method for detecting osteoporosis because of its high precision and accuracy. Testing the equality of the means of normal populations when the variances are unknown and unequal is a fundamental problem in clinical trials and biomedical research. In this study we compare age groups based upon BMD in case of unequal variance being present among the groups. First we test equality of variances among the age groups by the Hartley test. And then Scott-Smith test is used to test equality of BMD means for the age groups. Finally, Tukey-Cramer confidence intervals are constructed to detect which groups start to differ from the reference group in which BMD reaches the peak level. Ahmet Sezer, Lale Altan, and Özer Özdemir Copyright © 2015 Ahmet Sezer et al. All rights reserved. Anthropometric Measurements Usage in Medical Sciences Thu, 27 Aug 2015 14:05:38 +0000 Morphometry is introduced as quantitative approach to seek information concerning variations and changes in the forms of organisms that described the relationship between the human body and disease. Scientists of all civilization, who existed until today, examined the human body using anthropometric methods. For these reasons, anthropometric data are used in many contexts to screen for or monitor disease. Anthropometry, a branch of morphometry, is the study of the size and shape of the components of biological forms and their variations in populations. Morphometrics can also be defined as the quantitative analysis of biological forms. The field has developed rapidly over the last two decades to the extent that we now distinguish between traditional morphometrics and the more recent geometric morphometrics. Advances in imaging technology have resulted in the protection of a greater amount of morphological information and have permitted the analysis of this information. The oldest and most commonly used of these methods is radiography. With developments in this area, CT and MRI have also been started to be used in screening of the internal organs. Morphometric measurements that are used in medicine, are widely used in the diagnosis and the follow-up and the treatment of the disease, today. In addition, in cosmetology use of these new measurements is increasing every day. Nevin Utkualp and Ilker Ercan Copyright © 2015 Nevin Utkualp and Ilker Ercan. All rights reserved. Pretreatment Diffusion-Weighted MRI Can Predict the Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Patients with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Thu, 27 Aug 2015 14:04:16 +0000 Purpose. To explore the potential of diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) for predicting the response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods and Materials. Ninety-two consecutive patients with NPC who underwent three cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy were retrospectively analyzed. DW and anatomical MRI were performed before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy prior to radiotherapy. Pretreatment ADCs and percentage increases in ADC after chemotherapy were calculated for the primary lesions and metastatic adenopathies. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to select optimal pretreatment ADCs. Results. Pretreatment mean ADCs were significantly lower for responders than for nonresponders (primary lesions, ; metastatic adenopathies, ). Mean percentage increases in ADC were higher for responders than for nonresponders (primary lesions, ; metastatic adenopathies, ). The optimal pretreatment primary lesion and metastatic adenopathy ADCs for differentiating responders from nonresponders were 0.897 × 10−3 mm2/sec and 1.031 × 10−3 mm2/sec, respectively. Conclusions. NPC patients with low pretreatment ADCs tend to respond better to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Pretreatment ADCs could be used as a new pretreatment imaging biomarker of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Guo-Yi Zhang, Yue-Jian Wang, Jian-Ping Liu, Xin-Han Zhou, Zhi-Feng Xu, Xiang-Ping Chen, Tao Xu, Wei-Hong Wei, Yang Zhang, and Ying Huang Copyright © 2015 Guo-Yi Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Epigenomics of Neural Cells: REST-Induced Down- and Upregulation of Gene Expression in a Two-Clone PC12 Cell Model Thu, 27 Aug 2015 13:46:46 +0000 Cell epigenomics depends on the marks released by transcription factors operating via the assembly of complexes that induce focal changes of DNA and histone structure. Among these factors is REST, a repressor that, via its strong decrease, governs both neuronal and neural cell differentiation and specificity. REST operation on thousands of possible genes can occur directly or via indirect mechanisms including repression of other factors. In previous studies of gene down- and upregulation, processes had been only partially investigated in neural cells. PC12 are well-known neural cells sharing properties with neurons. In the widely used PC12 populations, low-REST cells coexist with few, spontaneous high-REST PC12 cells. High- and low-REST PC12 clones were employed to investigate the role and the mechanisms of the repressor action. Among 15,500 expressed genes we identified 1,770 target and nontarget, REST-dependent genes. Functionally, these genes were found to operate in many pathways, from synaptic function to extracellular matrix. Mechanistically, downregulated genes were predominantly repressed directly by REST; upregulated genes were mostly governed indirectly. Among other factors, Polycomb complexes cooperated with REST for downregulation, and Smad3 and Myod1 participated in upregulation. In conclusion, we have highlighted that PC12 clones are a useful model to investigate REST, opening opportunities to development of epigenomic investigation. Jose M. Garcia-Manteiga, Silvia Bonfiglio, Maria Luisa Malosio, Dejan Lazarevic, Elia Stupka, Davide Cittaro, and Jacopo Meldolesi Copyright © 2015 Jose M. Garcia-Manteiga et al. All rights reserved. Fast Imaging Technique for fMRI: Consecutive Multishot Echo Planar Imaging Accelerated with GRAPPA Technique Thu, 27 Aug 2015 13:42:35 +0000 This study was to evaluate the proposed consecutive multishot echo planar imaging (cmsEPI) combined with a parallel imaging technique in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and acceleration for a functional imaging study. We developed cmsEPI sequence using both consecutively acquired multishot EPI segments and variable flip angles to minimize the delay between segments and to maximize the SNR, respectively. We also combined cmsEPI with the generalized autocalibrating partially parallel acquisitions (GRAPPA) method. Temporal SNRs were measured at different acceleration factors and number of segments for functional sensitivity evaluation. We also examined the geometric distortions, which inherently occurred in EPI sequence. The practical acceleration factors, or , of the proposed technique improved the temporal SNR by maximally 18% in phantom test and by averagely 8.2% in in vivo experiment, compared to cmsEPI without parallel imaging. The data collection time was decreased in inverse proportion to the acceleration factor as well. The improved temporal SNR resulted in better statistical power when evaluated on the functional response of the brain. In this study, we demonstrated that the combination of cmsEPI with the parallel imaging technique could provide the improved functional sensitivity for functional imaging study, compensating for the lower SNR by cmsEPI. Daehun Kang, Yul-Wan Sung, and Chang-Ki Kang Copyright © 2015 Daehun Kang et al. All rights reserved. Three-Dimensional Assessment of Bilateral Symmetry of the Scaphoid: An Anatomic Study Thu, 27 Aug 2015 12:45:44 +0000 Preoperative 3D CT imaging techniques provide displacement analysis of the distal scaphoid fragment in 3D space, using the matched opposite scaphoid as reference. Its accuracy depends on the presence of anatomical bilateral symmetry, which has not been investigated yet using similar techniques. Our purpose was to investigate symmetry by comparing the relative positions of distal and proximal poles between sides. We used bilateral CT scans of 19 adult healthy volunteers to obtain 3D scaphoid models. Left proximal and distal poles were matched to corresponding mirrored right sides. The left-to-right positional differences between poles were quantified in terms of three translational and three rotational parameters. The mean (SD) of ulnar, dorsal, and distal translational differences of distal poles relative to proximal poles was 0.1 (0.6); 0.4 (1.2); 0.2 (0.6) mm and that of palmar rotation, ulnar deviation, and pronation differences was −1.1 (4.9); −1.5 (3.3); 1.0 (3.7)°, respectively. These differences did not significantly differ from zero and thus were not biased to left or right side. We proved that, on average, the articular surfaces of scaphoid poles were symmetrically aligned in 3D space. This suggests that the contralateral scaphoid can serve as reference in corrective surgery. No level of evidence is available. Paul W. L. ten Berg, Johannes G. G. Dobbe, Simon D. Strackee, and Geert J. Streekstra Copyright © 2015 Paul W. L. ten Berg et al. All rights reserved. Developmental Changes in Morphology of the Middle and Posterior External Cranial Base in Modern Homo sapiens Thu, 27 Aug 2015 12:41:40 +0000 The basicranium has been described as phylogenetically informative, developmentally stable, and minimally affected by external factors and consequently plays an important role in cranial size and shape in subadult humans. Here basicranial variation of subadults from several modern human populations was investigated and the impact of genetic relatedness on basicranial morphological similarities was investigated. Three-dimensional landmark data were digitized from subadult basicrania from seven populations. Published molecular data on short tandem repeats were statistically compared to morphological data from three ontogenetic stages. Basicranial and temporal bone morphology both reflect genetic distances in childhood and adolescence (5–18 years), but not in infancy (<5 years). The occipital bone reflects genetic distances only in adolescence (13–18 years). The sphenoid bone does not reflect genetic distances at any ontogenetic stage but was the most diagnostic region evaluated, resulting in high rates of correct classification among populations. These results suggest that the ontogenetic processes driving basicranial development are complex and cannot be succinctly summarized across populations or basicranial regions. However, the fact that certain regions reflect genetic distances suggests that the morphology of these regions may be useful in reconstructing population history in specimens for which direct DNA evidence is unavailable, such as archaeological sites. Deepal H. Dalal and Heather F. Smith Copyright © 2015 Deepal H. Dalal and Heather F. Smith. All rights reserved. The Effect of Omega-3 Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation on Gestational Length: Randomized Trial of Supplementation Compared to Nutrition Education for Increasing n-3 Intake from Foods Thu, 27 Aug 2015 12:40:35 +0000 Objective. DHA supplementation was compared to nutrition education to increase DHA consumption from fish and DHA fortified foods. Design. This two-part intervention included a randomized double-blind placebo controlled DHA supplementation arm and a nutrition education arm designed to increase intake of DHA from dietary sources by 300 mg per day. Setting. Denver Health Hospitals and Clinics, Denver, Colorado, USA. Population. 871 pregnant women aged 18–40 were recruited between16 and 20 weeks of gestation of whom 564 completed the study and complete delivery data was available in 505 women and infants. Methods. Subjects received either 300 or 600 mg DHA or olive oil placebo or nutrition education. Main Outcome Variable. Gestational length. Results. Gestational length was significantly increased by 4.0–4.5 days in women supplemented with 600 mg DHA per day or provided with nutrition education. Each 1% increase in RBC DHA at delivery was associated with a 1.6-day increase in gestational length. No significant effects on birth weight, birth length, or head circumference were demonstrated. The rate of early preterm birth (1.7%) in those supplemented with DHA (combined 300 and 600 mg/day) was significantly lower than in controls. Conclusion. Nutrition education or supplementation with DHA can be effective in increasing gestational length. Mary A. Harris, Melanie S. Reece, James A. McGregor, John W. Wilson, Shannon M. Burke, Marsha Wheeler, Jennifer E. Anderson, Garry W. Auld, Janice I. French, and Kenneth G. D. Allen Copyright © 2015 Mary A. Harris et al. All rights reserved. Exploring Dynamic Brain Functional Networks Using Continuous “State-Related” Functional MRI Thu, 27 Aug 2015 12:37:28 +0000 We applied a “temporal decomposition” method, which decomposed a single brain functional network into several “modes”; each of them dominated a short temporal period, on a continuous, “state-” related, “finger-force feedback” functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment. With the hypothesis that attention and internal/external information processing interaction could be manipulated by different (real and sham) feedback conditions, we investigated functional network dynamics of the “default mode,” “executive control,” and sensorimotor networks. They were decomposed into several modes. During real feedback, the occurrence of “default mode-executive control competition-related” mode was higher than that during sham feedback (); the “default mode-visual facilitation-related” mode more frequently appeared during sham than real feedback (). However, the dynamics of the sensorimotor network did not change significantly between two conditions (). Our results indicated that the visual-guided motor feedback involves higher cognitive functional networks rather than primary motor network. The dynamics monitoring of inner and outside environment and multisensory integration could be the mechanisms. This study is an extension of our previous region-specific and static-styled study of our brain functional architecture. Xun Li, Yu-Feng Zang, and Han Zhang Copyright © 2015 Xun Li et al. All rights reserved. Using Magnetic Resonance for Predicting Femoral Strength: Added Value with respect to Bone Densitometry Thu, 27 Aug 2015 12:37:19 +0000 Background and Purpose. To evaluate the added value of MRI with respect to peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for predicting femoral strength. Material and Methods. Bone mineral density (BMD) of eighteen femur specimens was assessed with pQCT, DXA, and MRI (using ultrashort echo times (UTE) and the MicroView software). Subsequently biomechanical testing was performed to assess failure load. Simple and multiple linear regression were used with failure load as the dependent variable. Results. Simple linear regression allowed a prediction of failure load with either pQCT, DXA, or MRI in an range of 0.41–0.48. Multiple linear regression with pQCT, DXA, and MRI yielded the best prediction (). Conclusions. The accuracy of MRI, using UTE and MicroView software, to predict femoral strength compares well with that of pQCT or DXA. Furthermore, the inclusion of MRI in a multiple-regression model yields the best prediction. Olivia Louis, Yves Fierens, Maria Strantza, Robert Luypaert, Johan de Mey, and Erik Cattrysse Copyright © 2015 Olivia Louis et al. All rights reserved. Tracking Transplanted Stem Cells Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging and the Nanoparticle Labeling Method in Urology Thu, 27 Aug 2015 12:34:28 +0000 A reliable in vivo imaging method to localize transplanted cells and monitor their viability would enable a systematic investigation of cell therapy. Most stem cell transplantation studies have used immunohistological staining, which does not provide information about the migration of transplanted cells in vivo in the same host. Molecular imaging visualizes targeted cells in a living host, which enables determining the biological processes occurring in transplanted stem cells. Molecular imaging with labeled nanoparticles provides the opportunity to monitor transplanted cells noninvasively without sacrifice and to repeatedly evaluate them. Among several molecular imaging techniques, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides high resolution and sensitivity of transplanted cells. MRI is a powerful noninvasive imaging modality with excellent image resolution for studying cellular dynamics. Several types of nanoparticles including superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and magnetic nanoparticles have been used to magnetically label stem cells and monitor viability by MRI in the urologic field. This review focuses on the current role and limitations of MRI with labeled nanoparticles for tracking transplanted stem cells in urology. Jae Heon Kim, Hong J. Lee, and Yun Seob Song Copyright © 2015 Jae Heon Kim et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Nutritional Status of Patients with Depression Thu, 27 Aug 2015 12:33:39 +0000 Aims and Objectives. Our goal was to determine nutritional status, body composition, and biochemical parameters of patients diagnosed with depression based on DSM-IV-TR criteria. Methods. A total of 59 individuals, aged 18–60 years admitted to Mental Health Centre of Kayseri Education and Research Hospital, were included in the study. The participants were randomly assigned to two groups; depression group () and control group (). Anthropometric measurements, some biochemical parameters, demographic data, and 24-hour dietary recall were evaluated. Results. 65.5% of depression and 60.0% of control group were female. Intake of vitamins A, thiamine, riboflavin, B6, folate, C, Na, K, Mg, Ca, P, Fe, Zn, and fibre () were lower in depression group. Median levels of body weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio () were significantly higher in depression group. Fasting blood glucose levels, serum vitamins B12, and folic acid () in depression group were lower than controls. Serum insulin and HOMA levels of two groups were similar. Conclusion. Some vitamin B consumption and serum vitamin B12 and folic acid levels were low while signs of abdominal obesity were high among patients with depression. Future research exploring nutritional status of individuals with depression is warranted. Gülşah Kaner, Meltem Soylu, Nimet Yüksel, Neriman Inanç, Dilek Ongan, and Eda Başmısırlı Copyright © 2015 Gülşah Kaner et al. All rights reserved. Tumour Relapse Prediction Using Multiparametric MR Data Recorded during Follow-Up of GBM Patients Thu, 27 Aug 2015 12:24:49 +0000 Purpose. We have focused on finding a classifier that best discriminates between tumour progression and regression based on multiparametric MR data retrieved from follow-up GBM patients. Materials and Methods. Multiparametric MR data consisting of conventional and advanced MRI (perfusion, diffusion, and spectroscopy) were acquired from 29 GBM patients treated with adjuvant therapy after surgery over a period of several months. A 27-feature vector was built for each time point, although not all features could be obtained at all time points due to missing data or quality issues. We tested classifiers using LOPO method on complete and imputed data. We measure the performance by computing BER for each time point and wBER for all time points. Results. If we train random forests, LogitBoost, or RobustBoost on data with complete features, we can differentiate between tumour progression and regression with 100% accuracy, one time point (i.e., about 1 month) earlier than the date when doctors had put a label (progressive or responsive) according to established radiological criteria. We obtain the same result when training the same classifiers solely on complete perfusion data. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that ensemble classifiers (i.e., random forests and boost classifiers) show promising results in predicting tumour progression earlier than established radiological criteria and should be further investigated. Adrian Ion-Margineanu, Sofie Van Cauter, Diana M. Sima, Frederik Maes, Stefaan W. Van Gool, Stefan Sunaert, Uwe Himmelreich, and Sabine Van Huffel Copyright © 2015 Adrian Ion-Margineanu et al. All rights reserved. Reexamination of Statistical Methods for Comparative Anatomy: Examples of Its Application and Comparisons with Other Parametric and Nonparametric Statistics Thu, 27 Aug 2015 12:22:51 +0000 Various statistical methods have been published for comparative anatomy. However, few studies compared parametric and nonparametric statistical methods. Moreover, some previous studies using statistical method for comparative anatomy (SMCA) proposed the formula for comparison of groups of anatomical structures (multiple structures) among different species. The present paper described the usage of SMCA and compared the results by SMCA with those by parametric test (t-test) and nonparametric analyses (cladistics) of anatomical data. In conclusion, the SMCA can offer a more exact and precise way to compare single and multiple anatomical structures across different species, which requires analyses of nominal features in comparative anatomy. Roqueline A. G. M. F. Aversi-Ferreira, Hisao Nishijo, and Tales Alexandre Aversi-Ferreira Copyright © 2015 Roqueline A. G. M. F. Aversi-Ferreira et al. All rights reserved. Association of Aortic Diameters with Coronary Artery Disease Severity and Albumin Excretion Thu, 27 Aug 2015 12:21:30 +0000 Introduction. Aortic diameters, aortic distensibility, microalbuminuria, coronary artery disease which are all together related to vascular aging are investigated in this paper. Methods. Eighty consecutive nondiabetic patients undergoing elective coronary angiography were enrolled into the study. Systolic and diastolic aortic diameters, aortic distensibility, CAD severity by angiogram with the use of Gensini scoring, and albumin excretion rates were determined. Results. Cases with CAD had significantly larger systolic (30,72 ± 3,21 mm versus 34,19 ± 4,03 mm for cases without and with CAD, resp.) and diastolic aortic diameters measured 3 cm above aortic valve compared to patients without CAD (33,56 ± 4,07 mm versus 29,75 ± 3,12 mm). The systolic and diastolic diameters were significantly higher in albuminuria positive patients compared to albuminuria negative patients (p = 0.017 and 0.008, resp., for systolic and diastolic diameters). Conclusion. In conclusion aortic diameters are increased in patients with coronary artery disease and in patients with microalbuminuria. In CAD patients, systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, aortic systolic and diastolic pressure, and albumin excretion rate were higher and aortic distensibility was lower. Bülent Özdemir, Ali Emül, Levent Özdemir, Saim Sağ, Murat Biçer, and Ali Aydınlar Copyright © 2015 Bülent Özdemir et al. All rights reserved. Psychobiobehavioral Model for Preterm Birth in Pregnant Women in Low- and Middle-Income Countries Thu, 27 Aug 2015 12:17:18 +0000 Preterm birth (PTB) is a final common outcome resulting from many interrelated etiological pathways; of particular interest is antenatal psychosocial distress (i.e., stress, anxiety, and depression). In LMI countries, both exposure to severe life stressors and rate of PTB are on average greater when compared with high-income countries. In LMI countries women are exposed to some of the most extreme psychosocial stress worldwide (e.g., absolute poverty, limited social resources). High prevalence of antenatal stress and depression have been observed in some studies from LMI countries. We propose a psychosocial, biological, and behavioral model for investigating the complex multisystem interactions in stress responses leading to PTB and explain the basis of this approach. We discuss ethical considerations for a psychosocial, biological, and behavioral screening tool to predict PTB from a LMI country perspective. Shahirose S. Premji, Ilona S. Yim, Aliyah Dosani (Mawji), Zeenatkhanu Kanji, Salima Sulaiman, Joseph W. Musana, Pauline Samia, Kiran Shaikh, Nicole Letourneau, and MiGHT Group Copyright © 2015 Shahirose S. Premji et al. All rights reserved. MRI for Assessing Response to Neoadjuvant Therapy in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer Using DCE-MR and DW-MR Data Sets: A Preliminary Report Thu, 27 Aug 2015 12:10:15 +0000 To evaluate MRI for neoadjuvant therapy response assessment in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) using dynamic contrast enhanced-MRI (DCE-MRI) and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), we have compared magnetic resonance volumetry based on DCE-MRI ((DCE)) and on DWI ((DWI)) scans with conventional T2-weighted volumetry ((C)) in LARC patients after neoadjuvant therapy. Twenty-nine patients with LARC underwent MR examination before and after neoadjuvant therapy. A manual segmentation was performed on DCE-MR postcontrast images, on DWI (-value 800 s/mm2), and on conventional T2-weighted images by two radiologists. DCE-MRI, DWI, and T2-weigthed volumetric changes before and after treatment were evaluated. Nonparametric sample tests, interobserver agreement, and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) were performed. Diagnostic performance linked to DCE-MRI volumetric change was superior to T2-w and DW-MRI volumetric changes performance (specificity 86%, sensitivity 93%, and accuracy 93%). Area Under ROC (AUC) of (DCE) was greater than AUCs of (C) and (DWI) resulting in an increase of 15.6% and 11.1%, respectively. Interobserver agreement between two radiologists was 0.977, 0.864, and 0.756 for (C), (DCE), and (DWI), respectively. (DCE) seems to be a promising tool for therapy response assessment in LARC. Further studies on large series of patients are needed to refine technique and evaluate its potential value. Mario Petrillo, Roberta Fusco, Orlando Catalano, Mario Sansone, Antonio Avallone, Paolo Delrio, Biagio Pecori, Fabiana Tatangelo, and Antonella Petrillo Copyright © 2015 Mario Petrillo et al. All rights reserved. Automatic Tooth Segmentation of Dental Mesh Based on Harmonic Fields Thu, 27 Aug 2015 12:08:22 +0000 An important preprocess in computer-aided orthodontics is to segment teeth from the dental models accurately, which should involve manual interactions as few as possible. But fully automatic partition of all teeth is not a trivial task, since teeth occur in different shapes and their arrangements vary substantially from one individual to another. The difficulty is exacerbated when severe teeth malocclusion and crowding problems occur, which is a common occurrence in clinical cases. Most published methods in this area either are inaccurate or require lots of manual interactions. Motivated by the state-of-the-art general mesh segmentation methods that adopted the theory of harmonic field to detect partition boundaries, this paper proposes a novel, dental-targeted segmentation framework for dental meshes. With a specially designed weighting scheme and a strategy of a priori knowledge to guide the assignment of harmonic constraints, this method can identify teeth partition boundaries effectively. Extensive experiments and quantitative analysis demonstrate that the proposed method is able to partition high-quality teeth automatically with robustness and efficiency. Sheng-hui Liao, Shi-jian Liu, Bei-ji Zou, Xi Ding, Ye Liang, and Jun-hui Huang Copyright © 2015 Sheng-hui Liao et al. All rights reserved. Compressed Sensing for fMRI: Feasibility Study on the Acceleration of Non-EPI fMRI at 9.4T Thu, 27 Aug 2015 12:07:05 +0000 Conventional functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique known as gradient-recalled echo (GRE) echo-planar imaging (EPI) is sensitive to image distortion and degradation caused by local magnetic field inhomogeneity at high magnetic fields. Non-EPI sequences such as spoiled gradient echo and balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) have been proposed as an alternative high-resolution fMRI technique; however, the temporal resolution of these sequences is lower than the typically used GRE-EPI fMRI. One potential approach to improve the temporal resolution is to use compressed sensing (CS). In this study, we tested the feasibility of k-t FOCUSS—one of the high performance CS algorithms for dynamic MRI—for non-EPI fMRI at 9.4T using the model of rat somatosensory stimulation. To optimize the performance of CS reconstruction, different sampling patterns and k-t FOCUSS variations were investigated. Experimental results show that an optimized k-t FOCUSS algorithm with acceleration by a factor of 4 works well for non-EPI fMRI at high field under various statistical criteria, which confirms that a combination of CS and a non-EPI sequence may be a good solution for high-resolution fMRI at high fields. Paul Kyu Han, Sung-Hong Park, Seong-Gi Kim, and Jong Chul Ye Copyright © 2015 Paul Kyu Han et al. All rights reserved.