BioMed Research International http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Comparison of Postoperative Events between Spinal Anesthesia and General Anesthesia in Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials Mon, 25 Jul 2016 16:33:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/9480539/ Background. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is usually carried out under general anesthesia. There were a few studies which have found spinal anesthesia as a safe alternative. We aimed to evaluate the postoperative events between spinal anesthesia and general anesthesia in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods. We searched PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library (from inception to January 2016) for eligible studies. The primary outcome was the visual analogue scale score. Secondary outcomes included postoperative nausea and vomiting and urine retention 24 hours postoperatively. We calculated pooled risk ratios and 95% confidence interval using random- or fixed-effects models. Results. Eight trials involving 723 patients were listed. Meta-analysis showed that patients in spinal anesthesia groups have lower visual analogue scale score 24 hours postoperatively. There were significant decreases in the occurrence of postoperative nausea and vomiting in spinal anesthesia group when compared with general anesthesia group (odds ratios: 0.38, 95% confidence interval: 0.19–0.76; ) with heterogeneity accepted (; ), while urine retention rate was increased in patients with spinal anesthesia (odds ratios: 4.95, 95% confidence interval: 1.24–19.71; ) without any heterogeneity (; ). Conclusions. Spinal anesthesia may be associated with less postoperative pain and postoperative nausea and vomiting compared with general anesthesia. Xian-Xue Wang, Quan Zhou, Dao-Bo Pan, Hui-Wei Deng, Ai-Guo Zhou, Hua-Jing Guo, and Fu-Rong Huang Copyright © 2016 Xian-Xue Wang et al. All rights reserved. Phosphorylated and Nonphosphorylated PfMAP2 Are Localized in the Nucleus, Dependent on the Stage of Plasmodium falciparum Asexual Maturation Mon, 25 Jul 2016 14:29:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/1645097/ Plasmodium falciparum mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, a family of enzymes central to signal transduction processes including inflammatory responses, are a promising target for antimalarial drug development. Our study shows for the first time that the P. falciparum specific MAP kinase 2 (PfMAP2) is colocalized in the nucleus of all of the asexual erythrocytic stages of P. falciparum and is particularly elevated in its phosphorylated form. It was also discovered that PfMAP2 is expressed in its highest quantity during the early trophozoite (ring form) stage and significantly reduced in the mature trophozoite and schizont stages. Although the phosphorylated form of the kinase is always more prevalent, its ratio relative to the nonphosphorylated form remained constant irrespective of the parasites’ developmental stage. We have also shown that the TSH motif specifically renders PfMAP2 genetically divergent from the other plasmodial MAP kinase activation sites using Neighbour Joining analysis. Furthermore, TSH motif-specific designed antibody is crucial in determining the location of the expression of the PfMAP2 protein. However, by using immunoelectron microscopy, PPfMAP2 were detected ubiquitously in the parasitized erythrocytes. In summary, PfMAP2 may play a far more important role than previously thought and is a worthy candidate for research as an antimalarial. Farah Aida Dahalan, Hasidah Mohd Sidek, Mogana Das Murtey, Mohammed Noor Embi, Jamaiah Ibrahim, Lim Fei Tieng, Nurul Aiezzah Zakaria, and Noraishah Mydin Abdul-Aziz Copyright © 2016 Farah Aida Dahalan et al. All rights reserved. Macleaya cordata Extract Decreased Diarrhea Score and Enhanced Intestinal Barrier Function in Growing Piglets Mon, 25 Jul 2016 13:03:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/1069585/ Macleaya cordata extract is of great scientific and practical interest to researchers, due to its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory responses within experimental animals. This study was designed to determine the diarrhea score and innate immunity of growing piglets after they had received Macleaya cordata extract supplements. A total of 240 growing pigs were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments, with 8 replicates per treatment and 10 piglets per replicate. All pigs received a basal diet containing similar amounts of nutrients. The three treatments were a control (no additive), an antibiotic (200 mg/kg colistin), and the Macleaya cordata extract supplement group (40 mg/kg Macleaya cordata extract). The diarrhea score was calculated after D 28. The jejunal samples were obtained from five piglets selected randomly from each treatment on D 28. In comparison with the control group, the dietary Macleaya cordata extract and colistin group demonstrated a substantially decreased diarrhea score. The introduction of Macleaya cordata extract supplements to the diet significantly increased volumes of ZO-1 and claudin-1, particularly in comparison with the pigs in the control group (). The findings indicate that Macleaya cordata extract does enhance intestinal barrier function in growing piglets and that it could be used as a viable substitute for antibiotics. Gang Liu, Guiping Guan, Jun Fang, Yordan Martínez, Shuai Chen, Peng Bin, Veeramuthu Duraipandiyan, Ting Gong, Myrlene Carine B. Tossou, Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi, and Yulong Yin Copyright © 2016 Gang Liu et al. All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “Prognostic Factors of Returning to Work after Sick Leave due to Work-Related Common Mental Disorders: A One- and Three-Year Follow-Up Study” Mon, 25 Jul 2016 12:37:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/8305414/ Bo Netterstrøm, Nanna Hurwitz Eller, and Marianne Borritz Copyright © 2016 Bo Netterstrøm et al. All rights reserved. Quantitative Biomedical Imaging: Techniques and Clinical Applications Mon, 25 Jul 2016 12:36:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/3080965/ Guang Jia, Steven B. Heymsfield, Jinyuan Zhou, Guang Yang, and Yukihisa Takayama Copyright © 2016 Guang Jia et al. All rights reserved. Chemopreventive Properties and Toxicity of Kelulut Honey in Sprague Dawley Rats Induced with Azoxymethane Mon, 25 Jul 2016 10:01:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/4036926/ Ethnopharmacological Relevance. Colon cancer has been a major problem worldwide. Kelulut honey (KH) is produced by the stingless bees from Trigona species and has strong antioxidant activities that could be one of the potential chemopreventive agents from natural resources. Aim of This Study. This study investigated the chemopreventive properties and toxicity of KH in Sprague Dawley rats induced with azoxymethane (AOM). Material and Method. Twenty-four male Sprague Dawley rats aged 5 weeks were divided into 4 groups: (G1) untreated group not induced with AOM, (G2) untreated group induced with AOM, (G3) treated group induced with AOM, and (G4) treated group not induced with AOM. Injection of AOM (15 mg/kg) was via intraperitoneal route once a week for two subsequent weeks. The treatment groups were given oral administration of KH (1183 mg/kg body weight) twice daily for 8 weeks. Results. Treatment with KH significantly reduced the total number of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and aberrant crypts (AC) and crypt multiplicity. KH was not toxic to the animals since the level of blood profile parameters, liver enzymes, and kidney functions was in normal range. Conclusions. The current finding shows that KH has chemopreventive properties in rats induced with colorectal cancer and also was found not toxic towards the animals. Latifah Saiful Yazan, Muhamad Firdaus Shyfiq Muhamad Zali, Razana Mohd Ali, Nurul Amira Zainal, Nurulaidah Esa, Sarah Sapuan, Yong Sze Ong, Yin Sim Tor, Banulata Gopalsamy, Fui Ling Voon, and Sharifah Sakinah Syed Alwi Copyright © 2016 Latifah Saiful Yazan et al. All rights reserved. Luteolin Prevents H2O2-Induced Apoptosis in H9C2 Cells through Modulating Akt-P53/Mdm2 Signaling Pathway Mon, 25 Jul 2016 09:53:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/5125836/ Introduction. Luteolin, a falconoid compound in many Chinese herbs and formula, plays important roles in cardiovascular diseases. The underlying mechanism of luteolin remains to be further elaborated. Methods. A model of hydrogen peroxide- (H2O2-) induced H9C2 cells apoptosis was established. Cell viabilities were examined with an MTT assay. ,-Dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA) and flow cytometry were used to detect ROS level and apoptosis rate, respectively. The expressions of signaling proteins related to apoptosis were analyzed by western blot and mRNA levels were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Quercetin was applied as positive drug. Results. Incubation with various concentrations of H2O2 (0, 50, 100, and 200 μM) for 1 h caused dose-dependent loss of cell viability and 100 μM H2O2 reduced the cell viability to approximately 50%. Treatments with luteolin and quercetin protected cells from H2O2-induced cytotoxicity and reduced cellular ROS level and apoptosis rate. Moreover, luteolin could downregulate the expressions of Bax, caspase-8, cleaved-caspase-3, and p53 in apoptotic signaling pathway. Further study showed that the expressions of Akt, Bcl-2, and Mdm2 were upregulated by luteolin. Conclusion. Luteolin protects H9C2 cells from H2O2-induced apoptosis. The protective and antiapoptotic effects of luteolin could be mediated by regulating the Akt-P53/Mdm2 apoptotic pathway. Hong Chang, Chun Li, Kuiyuan Huo, Qiyan Wang, Linghui Lu, Qian Zhang, Yong Wang, and Wei Wang Copyright © 2016 Hong Chang et al. All rights reserved. Alzheimer’s Disease and Cognitive Frailty: Novel Therapeutic Technologies Mon, 25 Jul 2016 08:47:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/7242651/ Grazia D’Onofrio, Zhuowei Yu, and Orestes V. Forlenza Copyright © 2016 Grazia D’Onofrio et al. All rights reserved. Genotypes-Independent Optimization of Nitrogen Supply for Isolated Microspore Cultures in Barley Mon, 25 Jul 2016 06:48:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/1801646/ To establish a high-efficiency system of isolated microspore culture for different barley genotypes, we investigated the effects of nitrogen sources and concentrations on callus induction and plant regeneration in different barley genotypes. The results showed that the organic nitrogen sources greatly increased the callus induction, and the great reduction of total nitrogen sources would significantly decrease the callus induction. And the further optimization experiments revealed that the increasing of organic nitrogen sources was much important in callus induction while it seemed different in plant regeneration. Based on the great effects of organic nitrogen on callus induction, the medium of N6-ANO1/4-2000 might be the best choice for the microspore culture system. In addition, the phylogenetic analysis indicated that there were clear differences of genetic backgrounds among these barley genotypes, and it also suggested that this medium for microspore culture had widespread utilization in different barley genotypes. Ruiju Lu, Zhiwei Chen, Runhong Gao, Ting He, Yifei Wang, Hongwei Xu, Guimei Guo, Yingbo Li, Chenghong Liu, and Jianhua Huang Copyright © 2016 Ruiju Lu et al. All rights reserved. CBCT-Aided Microscopic and Ultrasonic Treatment for Upper or Middle Thirds Calcified Root Canals Mon, 25 Jul 2016 06:08:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/4793146/ Root canal calcification is considered a great challenge during root canal treatment. Although the application of ultrasonic instruments and dental operating microscope (DOM) has advantages, dealing with calcified root canals still suffers a great risk of failure because of limited information about the location, length, and direction of obliteration on periapical radiographs. In this work, a cone-beam computed tomography- (CBCT-) aided method aimed at solving complicated calcified root canals in which conventional approaches could not work was proposed. Thirteen teeth with sixteen calcified canals (12 calcified in the upper third, 4 calcified in the middle third), which cannot be negotiated with conventional methods, were treated with the aid of CBCT. The location of calcification and depth of instrumentation and operating direction were calculated and assessed in three dimensions with ultrasonic instruments under DOM. In all thirteen teeth, canals with upper and middle thirds calcification were treated successfully. Finally, a guideline was proposed to help achieve consistent apical patency in calcified canals. Ying-Ming Yang, Bin Guo, Li-Yang Guo, Yan Yang, Xiao Hong, Hong-Ying Pan, Wen-Ling Zou, and Tao Hu Copyright © 2016 Ying-Ming Yang et al. All rights reserved. aCGH Analysis to Estimate Genetic Variations among Domesticated Chickens Thu, 21 Jul 2016 12:03:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/1794329/ Chickens have been familiar to humans since ancient times and have been used not only for culinary purposes but also for cultural purposes including ritual ceremonies and traditional entertainment. The various chicken breeds developed for these purposes often display distinct morphological and/or behavioural traits. For example, the Japanese Shamo is larger and more aggressive than other domesticated chickens, reflecting its role as a fighting cock breed, whereas Japanese Naganakidori breeds, which have long-crowing behaviour, were bred instead for their entertaining and aesthetic qualities. However, the genetic backgrounds of these distinct morphological and behavioural traits remain unclear. Therefore, the question arises as to which genomic regions in these chickens were acted upon by selective pressures through breeding. We compared the entire genomes of six chicken breeds domesticated for various cultural purposes by utilizing array comparative genomic hybridization. From these analyses, we identified 782 regions that underwent insertions, deletions, or mutations, representing man-made selection pressure in these chickens. Furthermore, we found that a number of genes diversified in domesticated chickens bred for cultural or entertainment purposes were different from those diversified in chickens bred for food, such as broilers and layers. Tomoyoshi Komiyama, Mengjie Lin, and Atsushi Ogura Copyright © 2016 Tomoyoshi Komiyama et al. All rights reserved. Clinical Outcomes of Patients with Rare and Heavily Pretreated Solid Tumors Treated according to the Results of Tumor Molecular Profiling Thu, 21 Jul 2016 09:54:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/4627214/ Patients with heavily pretreated advanced cancer or with rare tumors are difficult to treat. Molecular profiling (MP) of tumors to identify biomarkers that predict potential outcomes with individual therapies is an emerging strategy to guide treatment decisions. Patients with rare tumors for which standard-of-care therapy was unavailable or more common tumors for which standard-of-care options had been exhausted underwent MP at a single Australian center. Data regarding treating physicians’ choice of therapy, MP results and recommendations, and patient outcomes were collected. Seven patients had received prior standard first-line therapy (PST), 16 had rare tumors, and 31 had been heavily pretreated (HPT; ≥2 prior lines). Most treatments suggested by MP (541/594; 91.1%) were common chemotherapy drugs available in generic formulations. MP-guided therapy recommendations differed from physician’s recommendations in 48 patients (88.9%). MP-guided therapy produced clinical benefit (improved QOL and/or performance status, symptoms, bodyweight, or RECIST) in 19/31 (61.3%), 11/16 (68.8%), and 3/7 (42.9%) patients with HPTs, rare tumors, and PSTs, respectively, and had a PFS ratio ≥1.3 in 22/37 evaluable patients (59.5%; 95% confidence interval 44–76%). The null hypothesis that ≤15% of these patients would have a PFS ratio ≥1.3 was rejected (one-sided ). In conclusion, using MP to guide therapy selection is feasible in clinical practice and may improve patient outcomes. Andrew Dean, Aisling Byrne, Mira Marinova, and Ingrid Hayden Copyright © 2016 Andrew Dean et al. All rights reserved. Influenza Virus Induces Inflammatory Response in Mouse Primary Cortical Neurons with Limited Viral Replication Thu, 21 Jul 2016 08:19:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/8076989/ Unlike stereotypical neurotropic viruses, influenza A viruses have been detected in the brain tissues of human and animal models. To investigate the interaction between neurons and influenza A viruses, mouse cortical neurons were isolated, infected with human H1N1 influenza virus, and then examined for the production of various inflammatory molecules involved in immune response. We found that replication of the influenza virus in neurons was limited, although early viral transcription was not affected. Virus-induced neuron viability decreased at 6 h postinfection (p.i.) but increased at 24 h p.i. depending upon the viral strain. Virus-induced apoptosis and cytopathy in primary cortical neurons were not apparent at 24 h p.i. The mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and type I interferons were upregulated at 6 h and 24 h p.i. These results indicate that the influenza virus induces inflammatory response in mouse primary cortical neurons with limited viral replication. The cytokines released in viral infection-induced neuroinflammation might play critical roles in influenza encephalopathy, rather than in viral replication-induced cytopathy. Gefei Wang, Rui Li, Zhiwu Jiang, Liming Gu, Yanxia Chen, Jianping Dai, and Kangsheng Li Copyright © 2016 Gefei Wang et al. All rights reserved. Pains and Gains from China’s Experiences with Emerging Epidemics: From SARS to H7N9 Wed, 20 Jul 2016 16:46:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/5717108/ Over the recent decades, China experienced several emerging virus outbreaks including those caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome- (SARS-) coronavirus (Cov), H5N1 virus, and H7N9 virus. The SARS tragedy revealed faults in China’s infectious disease prevention system, propelling the Chinese government to enact reforms that enabled better combating of the subsequent H1N1 and H7N9 avian flu epidemics. The system is buttressed by three fundamental, mutually reinforcing components: (1) enduring government administration reforms, including legislation establishing a unified public health emergency management system; (2) prioritized funding for biotechnology and biomedicine industrialization, especially in the areas of pathogen identification, drug production, and the development of vaccines and diagnostics; and (3) increasing investment for public health and establishment of a rapid-response infectious diseases prevention and control system. China is now using its hard-gained experience to support the fight against Ebola in Africa and the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome in its own country. Pengfei Wei, Zelang Cai, Jinwen Hua, Weijia Yu, Jiajie Chen, Kang Kang, Congling Qiu, Lanlan Ye, Jiayun Hu, and Kunmei Ji Copyright © 2016 Pengfei Wei et al. All rights reserved. Skin Treatment with Pulsed Monochromatic UVA1 355 Device and Computerized Morphometric Analysis of Histochemically Identified Langerhans Cells Wed, 20 Jul 2016 16:46:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/3415136/ Fluorescent or metal halide lamps are widely used in therapeutic applications in dermatological diseases, with broadband or narrow band emission UVA/UVA1 (320–400 nm) obtained with suitable passive filters. Recently, it has been possible for us to use a new machine provided with solid state source emitting pulsed monochromatic UVA1 355 nm. In order to evaluate the effects of this emission on immunocells of the skin, human skin samples were irradiated with monochromatic 355 nm UVA1 with different energetic fluences and after irradiation Langerhans cells were labeled with CD1a antibodies. The immunohistochemical identification of these cells permitted evaluating their modifications in terms of density into the skin. Obtained results are promising for therapeutical applications, also considering that a monochromatic radiation minimizes thermic load and DNA damage in the skin tissues. Nicola Zerbinati, Federica Riva, Marco Paulli, Pier Camillo Parodi, and Alberto Calligaro Copyright © 2016 Nicola Zerbinati et al. All rights reserved. Postural Control and Gait Performance in the Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy: A Systematic Review Wed, 20 Jul 2016 16:41:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/9305025/ Purpose. The aim of this paper is to review the published studies on the characteristics of impairments in the postural control and gait performance in diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Methods. A review was performed by obtaining publication of all papers reporting on the postural control and gait performance in DPN from Google Scholar, Ovid, SAGE, Springerlink, Science Direct (SD), EBSCO Discovery Service, and Web of Science databases. The keywords used for searching were “postural control,” “balance,” “gait performance,” “diabetes mellitus,” and “diabetic peripheral neuropathy.” Results. Total of 4,337 studies were hit in the search. 1,524 studies were screened on their titles and citations. Then, 79 studies were screened on their abstract. Only 38 studies were eligible to be selected: 17 studies on postural control and 21 studies on the gait performance. Most previous researches were found to have strong evidence of postural control impairments and noticeable gait deficits in DPN. Deterioration of somatosensory, visual, and vestibular systems with the pathologic condition of diabetes on cognitive impairment causes further instability of postural and gait performance in DPN. Conclusions. Postural instability and gait imbalance in DPN may contribute to high risk of fall incidence, especially in the geriatric population. Thus, further works are crucial to highlight this fact in the hospital based and community adults. Amirah Mustapa, Maria Justine, Nadia Mohd Mustafah, Nursuriati Jamil, and Haidzir Manaf Copyright © 2016 Amirah Mustapa et al. All rights reserved. Molecular Characterization of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus in Women in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso Wed, 20 Jul 2016 11:42:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/7092583/ High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is found in over 99% of cervical cancers. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HPV in a population of women in Bobo-Dioulasso and to identify the high-risk types present in these women. From May to June, 2015, 181 women who came for consultation at the Souro Sanou University Hospital of Bobo-Dioulasso have been included in this study. Uterine endocervical swabs have been taken in these women. DNA obtained by extraction from the samples thus collected was used to determine the prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus genotypes through real-time PCR. The age of the women ranged from 20 to 56 years with a mean of years. The prevalence of infection by high-risk HPV types was 25.4% (46/181). The most common high-risk HPV genotypes were HPV 39 (18.5%), HPV 52 (16.7%), HPV 18 (14.8%), and HPV 35 (13.0%). HPV 16 which is included in the HPV vaccines was not found in the population studied. This type of study which is the first one in Bobo-Dioulasso has showed a high prevalence of genotypes HPV 39, HPV 52, and HPV 35 which are not yet covered by a vaccine. Ina Marie Angèle Traore, Théodora Mahoukèdè Zohoncon, Adama Dembele, Florencia W. Djigma, Dorcas Obiri-Yeboah, Germain Traore, Moussa Bambara, Charlemagne Ouedraogo, Yves Traore, and Jacques Simpore Copyright © 2016 Ina Marie Angèle Traore et al. All rights reserved. Utilization of Waste Materials for Microbial Carrier in Wastewater Treatment Wed, 20 Jul 2016 11:38:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/6957358/ This research focused on the ammonium-nitrogen (NH4-N) removal from the domestic wastewater using the attached growth reactors. Two types of waste material of corncob (biodegradable material) and concrete (nonbiodegradable material) were used as the carrier for microorganisms’ attachment. During operation, both reactors achieved absolutely high performance of ammonium removal (up to 99%) and total nitrogen removal (up to 95%). The significant advantage of corncob carrier was that the corncob was able to be a source of carbon for biological denitrification, leading to no external carbon requirement for operating the system. However, the corncob caused an increasing turbidity of the effluent. On the other hand, the concrete carrier required the minimal external carbon of 3.5 C/N ratio to reach the good performance. Moreover, a longer period for microorganisms’ adaptation was found in the concrete carrier rather than the corncob carrier. Further, the same physiological and biochemical characteristics of active bacteria were found at the two carriers, which were negative gram, cocci shape, and smooth and white-turbid colony. Due to the effluent quality, the concrete was more appropriate carrier than the corncob for wastewater treatment. H. T. Le, N. Jantarat, W. Khanitchaidecha, K. Ratananikom, and A. Nakaruk Copyright © 2016 H. T. Le et al. All rights reserved. Association of Aortic Compliance and Brachial Endothelial Function with Cerebral Small Vessel Disease in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients: Assessment with High-Resolution MRI Wed, 20 Jul 2016 09:30:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/1609317/ Objective. To assess the possible association of aortic compliance and brachial endothelial function with cerebral small vessel disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) patients by using 3.0 T high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. Methods. Sixty-two clinically confirmed DM2 patients (25 women and 37 men; mean age: years) were prospectively enrolled for noninvasive MR examinations of the aorta, brachial artery, and brain. Aortic arch pulse wave velocity (PWV), flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of brachial artery, lacunar brain infarcts, and periventricular and deep white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) were assessed. Pearson and Spearman correlation analysis were performed to analyze the association between PWV and FMD with clinical data and biochemical test results. Univariable logistic regression analyses were used to analyze the association between PWV and FMD with cerebral small vessel disease. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to find out the independent predictive factors of cerebral small vessel disease. Results. Mean PWV was  m/s and FMD was %. After adjustment for compounding factors, PWV was found significantly associated with lacunar brain infarcts (OR = 2.00; 95% CI: 1.14–3.2; ) and FMD was significantly associated with periventricular WMHs (OR = 0.82; 95% CI: 0.71–0.95; ). Conclusions. Quantitative evaluation of aortic compliance and endothelial function by using high-resolution MRI may be potentially useful to stratify DM2 patients with risk of cerebral small vessel disease. Yan Shan, Jiang Lin, Pengju Xu, Mengsu Zeng, Huandong Lin, and Hongmei Yan Copyright © 2016 Yan Shan et al. All rights reserved. Signal Transduction and Regulation: Insights into Evolution Wed, 20 Jul 2016 08:11:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/8604245/ Song Yi, Sidi Chen, Luoying Zhang, and Nidhi Sahni Copyright © 2016 Song Yi et al. All rights reserved. Physicochemical Characteristics of Transferon™ Batches Wed, 20 Jul 2016 08:02:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/7935181/ Transferon, a biotherapeutic agent that has been used for the past 2 decades for diseases with an inflammatory component, has been approved by regulatory authorities in Mexico (COFEPRIS) for the treatment of patients with herpes infection. The active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) of Transferon is based on polydispersion of peptides that have been extracted from lysed human leukocytes by a dialysis process and a subsequent ultrafiltration step to select molecules below 10 kDa. To physicochemically characterize the drug product, we developed chromatographic methods and an SDS-PAGE approach to analyze the composition and the overall variability of Transferon. Reversed-phase chromatographic profiles of peptide populations demonstrated batch-to-batch consistency from 10 representative batches that harbored 4 primary peaks with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of less than 7%. Aminogram profiles exhibited 17 proteinogenic amino acids and showed that glycine was the most abundant amino acid, with a relative content of approximately 18%. Further, based on their electrophoretic migration, the peptide populations exhibited a molecular mass of about 10 kDa. Finally, we determined the Transferon fingerprint using a mass spectrometry tool. Because each batch was produced from independent pooled buffy coat samples from healthy donors, supplied by a local blood bank, our results support the consistency of the production of Transferon and reveal its peptide identity with regard to its physicochemical attributes. Emilio Medina-Rivero, Luis Vallejo-Castillo, Said Vázquez-Leyva, Gilberto Pérez-Sánchez, Liliana Favari, Marco Velasco-Velázquez, Sergio Estrada-Parra, Lenin Pavón, and Sonia Mayra Pérez-Tapia Copyright © 2016 Emilio Medina-Rivero et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Associated Autoimmune Diseases on Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Incidence and Metabolic Control in Children and Adolescents Wed, 20 Jul 2016 07:42:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/6219730/ Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is one of the most common chronic diseases developing in childhood. The incidence of the disease in children increases for unknown reasons at a rate from 3 to 5% every year worldwide. The background of T1DM is associated with the autoimmune process of pancreatic beta cell destruction, which leads to absolute insulin deficiency and organ damage. Complex interactions between environmental and genetic factors contribute to the development of T1DM in genetically predisposed patients. The T1DM-inducing autoimmune process can also affect other organs, resulting in development of additional autoimmune diseases in the patient, thereby impeding diabetes control. The most common T1DM comorbidities include autoimmune thyroid diseases, celiac disease, and autoimmune gastritis; additionally, diabetes can be a component of PAS (Polyglandular Autoimmune Syndrome). The aim of this review is to assess the prevalence of T1DM-associated autoimmune diseases in children and adolescents and their impact on the course of T1DM. We also present suggestions concerning screening tests. Aleksandra Krzewska and Iwona Ben-Skowronek Copyright © 2016 Aleksandra Krzewska and Iwona Ben-Skowronek. All rights reserved. Advances in Molecular Genetics and the Molecular Biology of Deafness Wed, 20 Jul 2016 06:16:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/5629093/ Shin-ya Nishio, Isabelle Schrauwen, Hideaki Moteki, and Hela Azaiez Copyright © 2016 Shin-ya Nishio et al. All rights reserved. Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Eremomastax speciosa (Acanthaceae) on Sexual Behavior in Normal Male Rats Wed, 20 Jul 2016 05:58:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/9706429/ Objective. We studied prosexual effects of Eremomastax speciosa aqueous extract in male adult rats. Materials and Methods. 100 and 500 mg/kg of extract were administered orally (days 0, 1, 4, 7, 14, and 28 (posttreatment)). The sexual behavior of rats receiving a single dose (500 mg/kg) was also evaluated after pretreatment with Lω-NAME (10 mg/kg), haloperidol (1 mg/kg), or atropine (5 mg/kg). Controls received distilled water or testosterone enanthate (20 mg/kg/day/3 days (s.c.) before the test). Results. The extract (days 1–14) had no significant effect on mount, intromission, and ejaculation frequencies but on day 28 (14 days after treatment), it increased frequency of mounts and intromissions at 500 mg/kg. Mount, intromission, and ejaculation latencies reduced and postejaculatory intervals decreased but the effect did not persist 2 weeks after treatment. Extract prosex effects were greatly reduced by atropine and completely abolished by haloperidol, while Lω-NAME increased mount latency and potentiated extract effect on intromission and ejaculation latencies. Conclusion. In summary, E. speciosa extract can have positive effects on male sexual motivation and performance when administered for two weeks at the dose of 500 mg/kg. The effects (dopaminergic and/or cholinergic dependent) tend to appear during the posttreatment period. B. Nchegang, C. Mezui, F. Longo, Z. E. Nkwengoua, A. P. Amang, and P. V. Tan Copyright © 2016 B. Nchegang et al. All rights reserved. Long-Term Fatigue and Its Probability of Failure Applied to Dental Implants Tue, 19 Jul 2016 14:23:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/8927156/ It is well known that dental implants have a high success rate but even so, there are a lot of factors that can cause dental implants failure. Fatigue is very sensitive to many variables involved in this phenomenon. This paper takes a close look at fatigue analysis and explains a new method to study fatigue from a probabilistic point of view, based on a cumulative damage model and probabilistic finite elements, with the goal of obtaining the expected life and the probability of failure. Two different dental implants were analysed. The model simulated a load of 178 N applied with an angle of 0°, 15°, and 20° and a force of 489 N with the same angles. Von Mises stress distribution was evaluated and once the methodology proposed here was used, the statistic of the fatigue life and the probability cumulative function were obtained. This function allows us to relate each cycle life with its probability of failure. Cylindrical implant has a worst behaviour under the same loading force compared to the conical implant analysed here. Methodology employed in the present study provides very accuracy results because all possible uncertainties have been taken in mind from the beginning. María Prados-Privado, Juan Carlos Prados-Frutos, Sérgio Alexandre Gehrke, Mariano Sánchez Siles, José Luis Calvo Guirado, and José Antonio Bea Copyright © 2016 María Prados-Privado et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Arm Weight Support Training to Promote Recovery of Upper Limb Function for Subacute Patients after Stroke with Different Levels of Arm Impairments Tue, 19 Jul 2016 13:43:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/9346374/ Purpose. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of arm weight support training using the ArmeoSpring for subacute patients after stroke with different levels of hemiplegic arm impairments. Methods. 48 inpatients with subacute stroke, stratified into 3 groups from mild to severe upper extremity impairment, were engaged in ArmeoSpring training for 45 minutes daily, 5 days per week for 3 weeks, in addition to conventional rehabilitation. Evaluations were conducted at three measurement occasions: immediately before training (T1); immediately after training (T2); and at a 3-week follow-up (T3) by a blind rater. Results. Shoulder flexion active range of motion, Upper Extremity Scores in the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA), and Vertical Catch had the greatest differences in gain scores for patients between severe and moderate impairments, whereas FMA Hand Scores had significant differences in gain scores between moderate and mild impairments. There was no significant change in muscle tone or hand-path ratios between T1, T2, and T3 within the groups. Conclusion. Arm weight support training is beneficial for subacute stroke patients with moderate to severe arm impairments, especially to improve vertical control such as shoulder flexion, and there were no adverse effects in muscle tone. Irene H. L. Chan, Kenneth N. K. Fong, Dora Y. L. Chan, Apple Q. L. Wang, Eddy K. N. Cheng, Pinky H. Y. Chau, Kathy K. Y. Chow, and Hobby K. Y. Cheung Copyright © 2016 Irene H. L. Chan et al. All rights reserved. Three-Dimensional Assessment of Volumetric Changes in Sinuses Augmented with Two Different Bone Substitutes Tue, 19 Jul 2016 13:28:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/4085079/ Introduction. The bone volume of the posterior maxilla may not be appropriate for implant placement, due to factors such as pneumatized maxillary sinus. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the percentage of graft volume reduction following sinus floor elevation (SFE), with either slow resorbable bone substitute only or a composite of slow and fast resorbable bone substitutes, using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Methods. In this retrospective study, CBCT scans of SFE procedures were evaluated to determine the volume of grafted sinus with either deproteinized bovine bone (DBB) or a 2 : 1 mixture of biphasic calcium sulfate (CS) and DBB, as a composite. The volumetric changes of sinus augmentations were measured 2 weeks (V-I) and 6 months (V-II) after operation. Results. Thirty-three patients were included in this study. The average percentage volume reduction was % and % for DBB and composite grafts, respectively. A significant graft volume reduction was observed between V-I and V-II for both groups (). The DBB group exhibited significantly less volume reduction than the composite group (). Conclusions. Augmented sinus volume may change before implant placement. DBB offers greater volume stability during healing than composite grafts. B. Alper Gultekin, Oguz Borahan, Ali Sirali, Z. Cuneyt Karabuda, and Eitan Mijiritsky Copyright © 2016 B. Alper Gultekin et al. All rights reserved. The Role of Resorbable Plate and Artificial Bone Substitute in Reconstruction of Large Orbital Floor Defect Tue, 19 Jul 2016 13:04:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/1358312/ It is essential to reduce and reconstruct bony defects adequately in large orbital floor fracture and defect. Among many reconstructive methods, alloplastic materials have attracted attention because of their safety and ease of use. We have used resorbable plates combined with artificial bone substitutes in large orbital floor defect reconstructions and have evaluated their long-term reliability compared with porous polyethylene plate. A total of 147 patients with traumatic orbital floor fracture were included in the study. Surgical results were evaluated by clinical evaluations, exophthalmometry, and computed tomography at least 12 months postoperatively. Both orbital floor height discrepancy and orbital volume change were calculated and compared with preoperative CT findings. The average volume discrepancy and vertical height discrepancies were not different between two groups. Also, exophthalmometric measurements were not significantly different between the two groups. No significant postoperative complication including permanent diplopia, proptosis, and enophthalmos was noted. Use of a resorbable plate with an artificial bone substitute to repair orbital floor defects larger than 2.5 cm2 in size yielded long-lasting, effective reconstruction without significant complications. We therefore propose our approach as an effective alternative method for large orbital floor reconstructions. Ho Kwon, Ho Jun Kim, Bommie F. Seo, Yeon Jin Jeong, Sung-No Jung, and Hyung-Sup Shim Copyright © 2016 Ho Kwon et al. All rights reserved. Soft Tissue Augmentation Techniques in Implants Placed and Provisionalized Immediately: A Systematic Review Tue, 19 Jul 2016 12:18:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/7374129/ The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of techniques for soft tissue augmentation in the placement of immediate implants with and without provisionalization and to assess the quality of the reports in the literature. Randomized clinical trials, prospective clinical trials, and case series were included in this review. Clinical questions were formulated and organised according to the PICOS strategy. An electronic search was performed in PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Scopus, and ISI Web up until June 2016. Interexaminer agreement on eligibility (; ) and quality (; ) was high. Methodological approaches were assessed using criteria based on design related forms designed by the Dutch Cochrane Collaboration. Finally, 14 papers were identified. In two studies, the implant survival was 90%; for the rest of the studies it was 100%. All studies reported favourable aesthetic, biological, and radiographic outcomes. Surgical and biomechanical complications of this technique were not relevant. This technique effectively compensates for the expected loss of volume of the oral soft tissues and maintains high success rates with good aesthetic results over time. Rosa Rojo, Juan Carlos Prados-Frutos, Ángel Manchón, Jesús Rodríguez-Molinero, Gilberto Sammartino, José Luis Calvo Guirado, and Rafael Gómez-de Diego Copyright © 2016 Rosa Rojo et al. All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “α-Actinin TvACTN3 of Trichomonas vaginalis Is an RNA-Binding Protein That Could Participate in Its Posttranscriptional Iron Regulatory Mechanism” Tue, 19 Jul 2016 11:49:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/2676598/ Jaeson Santos Calla-Choque, Elisa Elvira Figueroa-Angulo, Leticia Ávila-González, and Rossana Arroyo Copyright © 2016 Jaeson Santos Calla-Choque et al. All rights reserved.