BioMed Research International The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Lentivirus-Mediated siRNA Targeting ER-α Inhibits Tumorigenesis and Induces Apoptosis in Hepatocarcinoma Cells Thu, 27 Aug 2015 14:11:28 +0000 Background and Objectives. Estrogen receptor-α (ER-α) plays important roles in hepatocarcinogenesis. Recent studies have shown that ER-α could lead to cell cycle progression or inhibition of apoptosis. To better understand the role of ER-α, RNA interference (RNAi) was used to inhibit ER-α expression in the human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. Methods. Lentivirus-mediated ER-α small interfering RNA (siRNA) was transfected into HCC cells Hep3B. ER-α expression was monitored by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blot. Cell proliferation, apoptosis, and invasion were examined by methyl thiazol tetrazolium (MTT), flow cytometry (FCM), and invasion assay, respectively. Results. ER-α siRNA efficiently downregulated the expression of ER-α in Hep3B cells at both mRNA and protein levels in a time-dependent manner. ER-α siRNA also inhibited cell proliferation and reduced cell invasion (compared with other groups, , resp.). Furthermore, knockdown of ER-α slowed down the cell population at S phase and increased the rate of apoptosis (, resp.). Conclusion. ER-α knockdown suppressed the growth of HCC cells. Thus, ER-α may play a very important role in carcinogenesis of HCC and its knockdown may offer a new potential gene therapy approach for human liver cancer in the future. Ping Jiang, Jun Cao, and Wen-Hui Bai Copyright © 2015 Ping Jiang et al. All rights reserved. MRI for Crohn’s Disease: Present and Future Thu, 27 Aug 2015 14:10:30 +0000 Crohn’s disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory condition with relapsing-remitting behavior, often causing strictures or penetrating bowel damage. Its lifelong clinical course necessitates frequent assessment of disease activity and complications. Computed tomography (CT) enterography has been used as primary imaging modality; however, the concern for radiation hazard limits its use especially in younger population. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has advantages of avoiding radiation exposure, lower incidence of adverse events, ability to obtain dynamic information, and good soft-tissue resolution. MR enterography (MRE) with oral contrast agent has been used as primary MR imaging modality of CD with high sensitivity, specificity, and interobserver agreement. The extent of inflammation as well as transmural ulcers and fibrostenotic diseases can be detected with MRE. Novel MR techniques such as diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI), motility study, PET-MRI, and molecular imaging are currently investigated for further improvement of diagnosis and management of CD. MR spectroscopy is a remarkable molecular imaging tool to analyze metabolic profile of CD with human samples such as plasma, urine, or feces, as well as colonic mucosa itself. Kichul Yoon, Kyu-Tae Chang, and Hong J. Lee Copyright © 2015 Kichul Yoon et al. All rights reserved. Two-Dimensional Crystallization Procedure, from Protein Expression to Sample Preparation Thu, 27 Aug 2015 14:07:58 +0000 Membrane proteins play important roles for living cells. Structural studies of membrane proteins provide deeper understanding of their mechanisms and further aid in drug design. As compared to other methods, electron microscopy is uniquely suitable for analysis of a broad range of specimens, from small proteins to large complexes. Of various electron microscopic methods, electron crystallography is particularly well-suited to study membrane proteins which are reconstituted into two-dimensional crystals in lipid environments. In this review, we discuss the steps and parameters for obtaining large and well-ordered two-dimensional crystals. A general description of the principle in each step is provided since this information can also be applied to other biochemical and biophysical methods. The examples are taken from our own studies and published results with related proteins. Our purpose is to give readers a more general idea of electron crystallography and to share our experiences in obtaining suitable crystals for data collection. Qie Kuang, Pasi Purhonen, and Hans Hebert Copyright © 2015 Qie Kuang et al. All rights reserved. Multiple Comparison of Age Groups in Bone Mineral Density under Heteroscedasticity Thu, 27 Aug 2015 14:06:42 +0000 Osteoporosis is a silent disease because individuals may not know that they have osteoporosis until their bones become so fragile. Bone mineral density (BMD) test helps to detect osteoporosis and determine the risk fractures. This study covers bone measurement data from total body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scans for 28,454 persons who participated in the 1996–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in USA Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) method is known as the primary method for detecting osteoporosis because of its high precision and accuracy. Testing the equality of the means of normal populations when the variances are unknown and unequal is a fundamental problem in clinical trials and biomedical research. In this study we compare age groups based upon BMD in case of unequal variance being present among the groups. First we test equality of variances among the age groups by the Hartley test. And then Scott-Smith test is used to test equality of BMD means for the age groups. Finally, Tukey-Cramer confidence intervals are constructed to detect which groups start to differ from the reference group in which BMD reaches the peak level. Ahmet Sezer, Lale Altan, and Özer Özdemir Copyright © 2015 Ahmet Sezer et al. All rights reserved. Anthropometric Measurements Usage in Medical Sciences Thu, 27 Aug 2015 14:05:38 +0000 Morphometry is introduced as quantitative approach to seek information concerning variations and changes in the forms of organisms that described the relationship between the human body and disease. Scientists of all civilization, who existed until today, examined the human body using anthropometric methods. For these reasons, anthropometric data are used in many contexts to screen for or monitor disease. Anthropometry, a branch of morphometry, is the study of the size and shape of the components of biological forms and their variations in populations. Morphometrics can also be defined as the quantitative analysis of biological forms. The field has developed rapidly over the last two decades to the extent that we now distinguish between traditional morphometrics and the more recent geometric morphometrics. Advances in imaging technology have resulted in the protection of a greater amount of morphological information and have permitted the analysis of this information. The oldest and most commonly used of these methods is radiography. With developments in this area, CT and MRI have also been started to be used in screening of the internal organs. Morphometric measurements that are used in medicine, are widely used in the diagnosis and the follow-up and the treatment of the disease, today. In addition, in cosmetology use of these new measurements is increasing every day. Nevin Utkualp and Ilker Ercan Copyright © 2015 Nevin Utkualp and Ilker Ercan. All rights reserved. Pretreatment Diffusion-Weighted MRI Can Predict the Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Patients with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Thu, 27 Aug 2015 14:04:16 +0000 Purpose. To explore the potential of diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) for predicting the response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods and Materials. Ninety-two consecutive patients with NPC who underwent three cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy were retrospectively analyzed. DW and anatomical MRI were performed before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy prior to radiotherapy. Pretreatment ADCs and percentage increases in ADC after chemotherapy were calculated for the primary lesions and metastatic adenopathies. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to select optimal pretreatment ADCs. Results. Pretreatment mean ADCs were significantly lower for responders than for nonresponders (primary lesions, ; metastatic adenopathies, ). Mean percentage increases in ADC were higher for responders than for nonresponders (primary lesions, ; metastatic adenopathies, ). The optimal pretreatment primary lesion and metastatic adenopathy ADCs for differentiating responders from nonresponders were 0.897 × 10−3 mm2/sec and 1.031 × 10−3 mm2/sec, respectively. Conclusions. NPC patients with low pretreatment ADCs tend to respond better to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Pretreatment ADCs could be used as a new pretreatment imaging biomarker of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Guo-Yi Zhang, Yue-Jian Wang, Jian-Ping Liu, Xin-Han Zhou, Zhi-Feng Xu, Xiang-Ping Chen, Tao Xu, Wei-Hong Wei, Yang Zhang, and Ying Huang Copyright © 2015 Guo-Yi Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Epigenomics of Neural Cells: REST-Induced Down- and Upregulation of Gene Expression in a Two-Clone PC12 Cell Model Thu, 27 Aug 2015 13:46:46 +0000 Cell epigenomics depends on the marks released by transcription factors operating via the assembly of complexes that induce focal changes of DNA and histone structure. Among these factors is REST, a repressor that, via its strong decrease, governs both neuronal and neural cell differentiation and specificity. REST operation on thousands of possible genes can occur directly or via indirect mechanisms including repression of other factors. In previous studies of gene down- and upregulation, processes had been only partially investigated in neural cells. PC12 are well-known neural cells sharing properties with neurons. In the widely used PC12 populations, low-REST cells coexist with few, spontaneous high-REST PC12 cells. High- and low-REST PC12 clones were employed to investigate the role and the mechanisms of the repressor action. Among 15,500 expressed genes we identified 1,770 target and nontarget, REST-dependent genes. Functionally, these genes were found to operate in many pathways, from synaptic function to extracellular matrix. Mechanistically, downregulated genes were predominantly repressed directly by REST; upregulated genes were mostly governed indirectly. Among other factors, Polycomb complexes cooperated with REST for downregulation, and Smad3 and Myod1 participated in upregulation. In conclusion, we have highlighted that PC12 clones are a useful model to investigate REST, opening opportunities to development of epigenomic investigation. Jose M. Garcia-Manteiga, Silvia Bonfiglio, Maria Luisa Malosio, Dejan Lazarevic, Elia Stupka, Davide Cittaro, and Jacopo Meldolesi Copyright © 2015 Jose M. Garcia-Manteiga et al. All rights reserved. Fast Imaging Technique for fMRI: Consecutive Multishot Echo Planar Imaging Accelerated with GRAPPA Technique Thu, 27 Aug 2015 13:42:35 +0000 This study was to evaluate the proposed consecutive multishot echo planar imaging (cmsEPI) combined with a parallel imaging technique in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and acceleration for a functional imaging study. We developed cmsEPI sequence using both consecutively acquired multishot EPI segments and variable flip angles to minimize the delay between segments and to maximize the SNR, respectively. We also combined cmsEPI with the generalized autocalibrating partially parallel acquisitions (GRAPPA) method. Temporal SNRs were measured at different acceleration factors and number of segments for functional sensitivity evaluation. We also examined the geometric distortions, which inherently occurred in EPI sequence. The practical acceleration factors, or , of the proposed technique improved the temporal SNR by maximally 18% in phantom test and by averagely 8.2% in in vivo experiment, compared to cmsEPI without parallel imaging. The data collection time was decreased in inverse proportion to the acceleration factor as well. The improved temporal SNR resulted in better statistical power when evaluated on the functional response of the brain. In this study, we demonstrated that the combination of cmsEPI with the parallel imaging technique could provide the improved functional sensitivity for functional imaging study, compensating for the lower SNR by cmsEPI. Daehun Kang, Yul-Wan Sung, and Chang-Ki Kang Copyright © 2015 Daehun Kang et al. All rights reserved. Three-Dimensional Assessment of Bilateral Symmetry of the Scaphoid: An Anatomic Study Thu, 27 Aug 2015 12:45:44 +0000 Preoperative 3D CT imaging techniques provide displacement analysis of the distal scaphoid fragment in 3D space, using the matched opposite scaphoid as reference. Its accuracy depends on the presence of anatomical bilateral symmetry, which has not been investigated yet using similar techniques. Our purpose was to investigate symmetry by comparing the relative positions of distal and proximal poles between sides. We used bilateral CT scans of 19 adult healthy volunteers to obtain 3D scaphoid models. Left proximal and distal poles were matched to corresponding mirrored right sides. The left-to-right positional differences between poles were quantified in terms of three translational and three rotational parameters. The mean (SD) of ulnar, dorsal, and distal translational differences of distal poles relative to proximal poles was 0.1 (0.6); 0.4 (1.2); 0.2 (0.6) mm and that of palmar rotation, ulnar deviation, and pronation differences was −1.1 (4.9); −1.5 (3.3); 1.0 (3.7)°, respectively. These differences did not significantly differ from zero and thus were not biased to left or right side. We proved that, on average, the articular surfaces of scaphoid poles were symmetrically aligned in 3D space. This suggests that the contralateral scaphoid can serve as reference in corrective surgery. No level of evidence is available. Paul W. L. ten Berg, Johannes G. G. Dobbe, Simon D. Strackee, and Geert J. Streekstra Copyright © 2015 Paul W. L. ten Berg et al. All rights reserved. Developmental Changes in Morphology of the Middle and Posterior External Cranial Base in Modern Homo sapiens Thu, 27 Aug 2015 12:41:40 +0000 The basicranium has been described as phylogenetically informative, developmentally stable, and minimally affected by external factors and consequently plays an important role in cranial size and shape in subadult humans. Here basicranial variation of subadults from several modern human populations was investigated and the impact of genetic relatedness on basicranial morphological similarities was investigated. Three-dimensional landmark data were digitized from subadult basicrania from seven populations. Published molecular data on short tandem repeats were statistically compared to morphological data from three ontogenetic stages. Basicranial and temporal bone morphology both reflect genetic distances in childhood and adolescence (5–18 years), but not in infancy (<5 years). The occipital bone reflects genetic distances only in adolescence (13–18 years). The sphenoid bone does not reflect genetic distances at any ontogenetic stage but was the most diagnostic region evaluated, resulting in high rates of correct classification among populations. These results suggest that the ontogenetic processes driving basicranial development are complex and cannot be succinctly summarized across populations or basicranial regions. However, the fact that certain regions reflect genetic distances suggests that the morphology of these regions may be useful in reconstructing population history in specimens for which direct DNA evidence is unavailable, such as archaeological sites. Deepal H. Dalal and Heather F. Smith Copyright © 2015 Deepal H. Dalal and Heather F. Smith. All rights reserved. The Effect of Omega-3 Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation on Gestational Length: Randomized Trial of Supplementation Compared to Nutrition Education for Increasing n-3 Intake from Foods Thu, 27 Aug 2015 12:40:35 +0000 Objective. DHA supplementation was compared to nutrition education to increase DHA consumption from fish and DHA fortified foods. Design. This two-part intervention included a randomized double-blind placebo controlled DHA supplementation arm and a nutrition education arm designed to increase intake of DHA from dietary sources by 300 mg per day. Setting. Denver Health Hospitals and Clinics, Denver, Colorado, USA. Population. 871 pregnant women aged 18–40 were recruited between16 and 20 weeks of gestation of whom 564 completed the study and complete delivery data was available in 505 women and infants. Methods. Subjects received either 300 or 600 mg DHA or olive oil placebo or nutrition education. Main Outcome Variable. Gestational length. Results. Gestational length was significantly increased by 4.0–4.5 days in women supplemented with 600 mg DHA per day or provided with nutrition education. Each 1% increase in RBC DHA at delivery was associated with a 1.6-day increase in gestational length. No significant effects on birth weight, birth length, or head circumference were demonstrated. The rate of early preterm birth (1.7%) in those supplemented with DHA (combined 300 and 600 mg/day) was significantly lower than in controls. Conclusion. Nutrition education or supplementation with DHA can be effective in increasing gestational length. Mary A. Harris, Melanie S. Reece, James A. McGregor, John W. Wilson, Shannon M. Burke, Marsha Wheeler, Jennifer E. Anderson, Garry W. Auld, Janice I. French, and Kenneth G. D. Allen Copyright © 2015 Mary A. Harris et al. All rights reserved. Exploring Dynamic Brain Functional Networks Using Continuous “State-Related” Functional MRI Thu, 27 Aug 2015 12:37:28 +0000 We applied a “temporal decomposition” method, which decomposed a single brain functional network into several “modes”; each of them dominated a short temporal period, on a continuous, “state-” related, “finger-force feedback” functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment. With the hypothesis that attention and internal/external information processing interaction could be manipulated by different (real and sham) feedback conditions, we investigated functional network dynamics of the “default mode,” “executive control,” and sensorimotor networks. They were decomposed into several modes. During real feedback, the occurrence of “default mode-executive control competition-related” mode was higher than that during sham feedback (); the “default mode-visual facilitation-related” mode more frequently appeared during sham than real feedback (). However, the dynamics of the sensorimotor network did not change significantly between two conditions (). Our results indicated that the visual-guided motor feedback involves higher cognitive functional networks rather than primary motor network. The dynamics monitoring of inner and outside environment and multisensory integration could be the mechanisms. This study is an extension of our previous region-specific and static-styled study of our brain functional architecture. Xun Li, Yu-Feng Zang, and Han Zhang Copyright © 2015 Xun Li et al. All rights reserved. Using Magnetic Resonance for Predicting Femoral Strength: Added Value with respect to Bone Densitometry Thu, 27 Aug 2015 12:37:19 +0000 Background and Purpose. To evaluate the added value of MRI with respect to peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for predicting femoral strength. Material and Methods. Bone mineral density (BMD) of eighteen femur specimens was assessed with pQCT, DXA, and MRI (using ultrashort echo times (UTE) and the MicroView software). Subsequently biomechanical testing was performed to assess failure load. Simple and multiple linear regression were used with failure load as the dependent variable. Results. Simple linear regression allowed a prediction of failure load with either pQCT, DXA, or MRI in an range of 0.41–0.48. Multiple linear regression with pQCT, DXA, and MRI yielded the best prediction (). Conclusions. The accuracy of MRI, using UTE and MicroView software, to predict femoral strength compares well with that of pQCT or DXA. Furthermore, the inclusion of MRI in a multiple-regression model yields the best prediction. Olivia Louis, Yves Fierens, Maria Strantza, Robert Luypaert, Johan de Mey, and Erik Cattrysse Copyright © 2015 Olivia Louis et al. All rights reserved. Tracking Transplanted Stem Cells Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging and the Nanoparticle Labeling Method in Urology Thu, 27 Aug 2015 12:34:28 +0000 A reliable in vivo imaging method to localize transplanted cells and monitor their viability would enable a systematic investigation of cell therapy. Most stem cell transplantation studies have used immunohistological staining, which does not provide information about the migration of transplanted cells in vivo in the same host. Molecular imaging visualizes targeted cells in a living host, which enables determining the biological processes occurring in transplanted stem cells. Molecular imaging with labeled nanoparticles provides the opportunity to monitor transplanted cells noninvasively without sacrifice and to repeatedly evaluate them. Among several molecular imaging techniques, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides high resolution and sensitivity of transplanted cells. MRI is a powerful noninvasive imaging modality with excellent image resolution for studying cellular dynamics. Several types of nanoparticles including superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and magnetic nanoparticles have been used to magnetically label stem cells and monitor viability by MRI in the urologic field. This review focuses on the current role and limitations of MRI with labeled nanoparticles for tracking transplanted stem cells in urology. Jae Heon Kim, Hong J. Lee, and Yun Seob Song Copyright © 2015 Jae Heon Kim et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Nutritional Status of Patients with Depression Thu, 27 Aug 2015 12:33:39 +0000 Aims and Objectives. Our goal was to determine nutritional status, body composition, and biochemical parameters of patients diagnosed with depression based on DSM-IV-TR criteria. Methods. A total of 59 individuals, aged 18–60 years admitted to Mental Health Centre of Kayseri Education and Research Hospital, were included in the study. The participants were randomly assigned to two groups; depression group () and control group (). Anthropometric measurements, some biochemical parameters, demographic data, and 24-hour dietary recall were evaluated. Results. 65.5% of depression and 60.0% of control group were female. Intake of vitamins A, thiamine, riboflavin, B6, folate, C, Na, K, Mg, Ca, P, Fe, Zn, and fibre () were lower in depression group. Median levels of body weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio () were significantly higher in depression group. Fasting blood glucose levels, serum vitamins B12, and folic acid () in depression group were lower than controls. Serum insulin and HOMA levels of two groups were similar. Conclusion. Some vitamin B consumption and serum vitamin B12 and folic acid levels were low while signs of abdominal obesity were high among patients with depression. Future research exploring nutritional status of individuals with depression is warranted. Gülşah Kaner, Meltem Soylu, Nimet Yüksel, Neriman Inanç, Dilek Ongan, and Eda Başmısırlı Copyright © 2015 Gülşah Kaner et al. All rights reserved. Tumour Relapse Prediction Using Multiparametric MR Data Recorded during Follow-Up of GBM Patients Thu, 27 Aug 2015 12:24:49 +0000 Purpose. We have focused on finding a classifier that best discriminates between tumour progression and regression based on multiparametric MR data retrieved from follow-up GBM patients. Materials and Methods. Multiparametric MR data consisting of conventional and advanced MRI (perfusion, diffusion, and spectroscopy) were acquired from 29 GBM patients treated with adjuvant therapy after surgery over a period of several months. A 27-feature vector was built for each time point, although not all features could be obtained at all time points due to missing data or quality issues. We tested classifiers using LOPO method on complete and imputed data. We measure the performance by computing BER for each time point and wBER for all time points. Results. If we train random forests, LogitBoost, or RobustBoost on data with complete features, we can differentiate between tumour progression and regression with 100% accuracy, one time point (i.e., about 1 month) earlier than the date when doctors had put a label (progressive or responsive) according to established radiological criteria. We obtain the same result when training the same classifiers solely on complete perfusion data. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that ensemble classifiers (i.e., random forests and boost classifiers) show promising results in predicting tumour progression earlier than established radiological criteria and should be further investigated. Adrian Ion-Margineanu, Sofie Van Cauter, Diana M. Sima, Frederik Maes, Stefaan W. Van Gool, Stefan Sunaert, Uwe Himmelreich, and Sabine Van Huffel Copyright © 2015 Adrian Ion-Margineanu et al. All rights reserved. Reexamination of Statistical Methods for Comparative Anatomy: Examples of Its Application and Comparisons with Other Parametric and Nonparametric Statistics Thu, 27 Aug 2015 12:22:51 +0000 Various statistical methods have been published for comparative anatomy. However, few studies compared parametric and nonparametric statistical methods. Moreover, some previous studies using statistical method for comparative anatomy (SMCA) proposed the formula for comparison of groups of anatomical structures (multiple structures) among different species. The present paper described the usage of SMCA and compared the results by SMCA with those by parametric test (t-test) and nonparametric analyses (cladistics) of anatomical data. In conclusion, the SMCA can offer a more exact and precise way to compare single and multiple anatomical structures across different species, which requires analyses of nominal features in comparative anatomy. Roqueline A. G. M. F. Aversi-Ferreira, Hisao Nishijo, and Tales Alexandre Aversi-Ferreira Copyright © 2015 Roqueline A. G. M. F. Aversi-Ferreira et al. All rights reserved. Association of Aortic Diameters with Coronary Artery Disease Severity and Albumin Excretion Thu, 27 Aug 2015 12:21:30 +0000 Introduction. Aortic diameters, aortic distensibility, microalbuminuria, coronary artery disease which are all together related to vascular aging are investigated in this paper. Methods. Eighty consecutive nondiabetic patients undergoing elective coronary angiography were enrolled into the study. Systolic and diastolic aortic diameters, aortic distensibility, CAD severity by angiogram with the use of Gensini scoring, and albumin excretion rates were determined. Results. Cases with CAD had significantly larger systolic (30,72 ± 3,21 mm versus 34,19 ± 4,03 mm for cases without and with CAD, resp.) and diastolic aortic diameters measured 3 cm above aortic valve compared to patients without CAD (33,56 ± 4,07 mm versus 29,75 ± 3,12 mm). The systolic and diastolic diameters were significantly higher in albuminuria positive patients compared to albuminuria negative patients (p = 0.017 and 0.008, resp., for systolic and diastolic diameters). Conclusion. In conclusion aortic diameters are increased in patients with coronary artery disease and in patients with microalbuminuria. In CAD patients, systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, aortic systolic and diastolic pressure, and albumin excretion rate were higher and aortic distensibility was lower. Bülent Özdemir, Ali Emül, Levent Özdemir, Saim Sağ, Murat Biçer, and Ali Aydınlar Copyright © 2015 Bülent Özdemir et al. All rights reserved. Psychobiobehavioral Model for Preterm Birth in Pregnant Women in Low- and Middle-Income Countries Thu, 27 Aug 2015 12:17:18 +0000 Preterm birth (PTB) is a final common outcome resulting from many interrelated etiological pathways; of particular interest is antenatal psychosocial distress (i.e., stress, anxiety, and depression). In LMI countries, both exposure to severe life stressors and rate of PTB are on average greater when compared with high-income countries. In LMI countries women are exposed to some of the most extreme psychosocial stress worldwide (e.g., absolute poverty, limited social resources). High prevalence of antenatal stress and depression have been observed in some studies from LMI countries. We propose a psychosocial, biological, and behavioral model for investigating the complex multisystem interactions in stress responses leading to PTB and explain the basis of this approach. We discuss ethical considerations for a psychosocial, biological, and behavioral screening tool to predict PTB from a LMI country perspective. Shahirose S. Premji, Ilona S. Yim, Aliyah Dosani (Mawji), Zeenatkhanu Kanji, Salima Sulaiman, Joseph W. Musana, Pauline Samia, Kiran Shaikh, Nicole Letourneau, and MiGHT Group Copyright © 2015 Shahirose S. Premji et al. All rights reserved. MRI for Assessing Response to Neoadjuvant Therapy in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer Using DCE-MR and DW-MR Data Sets: A Preliminary Report Thu, 27 Aug 2015 12:10:15 +0000 To evaluate MRI for neoadjuvant therapy response assessment in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) using dynamic contrast enhanced-MRI (DCE-MRI) and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), we have compared magnetic resonance volumetry based on DCE-MRI ((DCE)) and on DWI ((DWI)) scans with conventional T2-weighted volumetry ((C)) in LARC patients after neoadjuvant therapy. Twenty-nine patients with LARC underwent MR examination before and after neoadjuvant therapy. A manual segmentation was performed on DCE-MR postcontrast images, on DWI (-value 800 s/mm2), and on conventional T2-weighted images by two radiologists. DCE-MRI, DWI, and T2-weigthed volumetric changes before and after treatment were evaluated. Nonparametric sample tests, interobserver agreement, and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) were performed. Diagnostic performance linked to DCE-MRI volumetric change was superior to T2-w and DW-MRI volumetric changes performance (specificity 86%, sensitivity 93%, and accuracy 93%). Area Under ROC (AUC) of (DCE) was greater than AUCs of (C) and (DWI) resulting in an increase of 15.6% and 11.1%, respectively. Interobserver agreement between two radiologists was 0.977, 0.864, and 0.756 for (C), (DCE), and (DWI), respectively. (DCE) seems to be a promising tool for therapy response assessment in LARC. Further studies on large series of patients are needed to refine technique and evaluate its potential value. Mario Petrillo, Roberta Fusco, Orlando Catalano, Mario Sansone, Antonio Avallone, Paolo Delrio, Biagio Pecori, Fabiana Tatangelo, and Antonella Petrillo Copyright © 2015 Mario Petrillo et al. All rights reserved. Automatic Tooth Segmentation of Dental Mesh Based on Harmonic Fields Thu, 27 Aug 2015 12:08:22 +0000 An important preprocess in computer-aided orthodontics is to segment teeth from the dental models accurately, which should involve manual interactions as few as possible. But fully automatic partition of all teeth is not a trivial task, since teeth occur in different shapes and their arrangements vary substantially from one individual to another. The difficulty is exacerbated when severe teeth malocclusion and crowding problems occur, which is a common occurrence in clinical cases. Most published methods in this area either are inaccurate or require lots of manual interactions. Motivated by the state-of-the-art general mesh segmentation methods that adopted the theory of harmonic field to detect partition boundaries, this paper proposes a novel, dental-targeted segmentation framework for dental meshes. With a specially designed weighting scheme and a strategy of a priori knowledge to guide the assignment of harmonic constraints, this method can identify teeth partition boundaries effectively. Extensive experiments and quantitative analysis demonstrate that the proposed method is able to partition high-quality teeth automatically with robustness and efficiency. Sheng-hui Liao, Shi-jian Liu, Bei-ji Zou, Xi Ding, Ye Liang, and Jun-hui Huang Copyright © 2015 Sheng-hui Liao et al. All rights reserved. Compressed Sensing for fMRI: Feasibility Study on the Acceleration of Non-EPI fMRI at 9.4T Thu, 27 Aug 2015 12:07:05 +0000 Conventional functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique known as gradient-recalled echo (GRE) echo-planar imaging (EPI) is sensitive to image distortion and degradation caused by local magnetic field inhomogeneity at high magnetic fields. Non-EPI sequences such as spoiled gradient echo and balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) have been proposed as an alternative high-resolution fMRI technique; however, the temporal resolution of these sequences is lower than the typically used GRE-EPI fMRI. One potential approach to improve the temporal resolution is to use compressed sensing (CS). In this study, we tested the feasibility of k-t FOCUSS—one of the high performance CS algorithms for dynamic MRI—for non-EPI fMRI at 9.4T using the model of rat somatosensory stimulation. To optimize the performance of CS reconstruction, different sampling patterns and k-t FOCUSS variations were investigated. Experimental results show that an optimized k-t FOCUSS algorithm with acceleration by a factor of 4 works well for non-EPI fMRI at high field under various statistical criteria, which confirms that a combination of CS and a non-EPI sequence may be a good solution for high-resolution fMRI at high fields. Paul Kyu Han, Sung-Hong Park, Seong-Gi Kim, and Jong Chul Ye Copyright © 2015 Paul Kyu Han et al. All rights reserved. A Window into the Brain: Advances in Psychiatric fMRI Thu, 27 Aug 2015 11:57:50 +0000 Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) plays a key role in modern psychiatric research. It provides a means to assay differences in brain systems that underlie psychiatric illness, treatment response, and properties of brain structure and function that convey risk factor for mental diseases. Here we review recent advances in fMRI methods in general use and progress made in understanding the neural basis of mental illness. Drawing on concepts and findings from psychiatric fMRI, we propose that mental illness may not be associated with abnormalities in specific local regions but rather corresponds to variation in the overall organization of functional communication throughout the brain network. Future research may need to integrate neuroimaging information drawn from different analysis methods and delineate spatial and temporal patterns of brain responses that are specific to certain types of psychiatric disorders. Xiaoyan Zhan and Rongjun Yu Copyright © 2015 Xiaoyan Zhan and Rongjun Yu. All rights reserved. Tropomyosin and Actin Identified as Major Allergens of the Carpet Clam (Paphia textile) and the Effect of Cooking on Their Allergenicity Thu, 27 Aug 2015 11:50:27 +0000 Objectives. To identify the major allergenic proteins of clam (Paphia textile) and to investigate the effect of different cooking methods on the allergenicity of these identified proteins. Methods. Clam protein extracts were separated by denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. IgE reactive proteins were then analyzed by immunoblotting with sera from patients with positive skin prick tests (SPT) to the raw clam extract. Mass spectrometry was used to identify the major allergenic proteins of this clam. Results. Raw extract showed 12 protein bands (18–150 kDa). In contrast, fewer protein bands were seen in the boiled extract; those ranging from 40 to 150 kDa were denatured. The protein profiles were similarly altered by frying or roasting. The immunoblots of raw and boiled extracts yielded 10 and 2 IgE-binding proteins, respectively. The fried and roasted extracts showed only a single IgE-binding protein at 37 kDa. Mass spectrometry analysis of the 37 and 42 kDa major allergens indicated that these spots were tropomyosin and actin, respectively. Conclusion. The two major allergens of Paphia textile were identified as the thermostable tropomyosin and a new thermolabile allergen actin. Zailatul Hani Mohamad Yadzir, Rosmilah Misnan, Faizal Bakhtiar, Noormalin Abdullah, and Shahnaz Murad Copyright © 2015 Zailatul Hani Mohamad Yadzir et al. All rights reserved. Preliminary Observations on Sensitivity and Specificity of Magnetization Transfer Asymmetry for Imaging Myelin of Rat Brain at High Field Thu, 27 Aug 2015 11:50:16 +0000 Magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) has been often used for imaging myelination. Despite its high sensitivity, the specificity of MTR to myelination is not high because tissues with no myelin such as muscle can also show high MTR. In this study, we propose a new magnetization transfer (MT) indicator, MT asymmetry (MTA), as a new method of myelin imaging. The experiments were performed on rat brain at 9.4 T. MTA revealed high signals in white matter and significantly low signals in gray matter and muscle, indicating that MTA has higher specificity than MTR. Demyelination and remyelination studies demonstrated that the sensitivity of MTA to myelination was as high as that of MTR. These experimental results indicate that MTA can be a good biomarker for imaging myelination. In addition, MTA images can be efficiently acquired with an interslice MTA method, which may accelerate clinical application of myelin imaging. Jae-Woong Kim, Jiye Choi, Janggeun Cho, Chulhyun Lee, Daejong Jeon, and Sung-Hong Park Copyright © 2015 Jae-Woong Kim et al. All rights reserved. Preterm Birth: A Prominent Risk Factor for Low Apgar Scores Thu, 27 Aug 2015 11:49:43 +0000 Objective. To determine predictive risk factors for Apgar scores < 7 at 5 minutes at two hospitals providing tertiary care and secondary care, respectively. Methods. A retrospective registry cohort study of 21126 births (2006–2010) using data from digital medical records. Risk factors were analyzed by logistic regression analyses. Results.   was multivariately associated with the following: preterm birth; gestational week 32 + 0–36 + 6, (95% CI 2.9–5.3); week 28 + 0–31 + 6, (5–12); week < 28 + 0, (8–29); postterm birth, (1.7–2.3); multiple pregnancy, (1.79–6.96); previous cesarean section, (2.31–5.81); BMI 25–29, (1.09–1.55);    (1.20–2.41); nonnormal CTG at admission, (1.48–2.66). ≥1-para was associated with a decreased risk for , (0.25–0.47). In the univariate logistic regression analysis was associated with tertiary level care, (1.17–1.87); however, in the multivariate analysis there was no significant difference. Conclusion. A number of partially preventable risk factors were identified, preterm birth being the most evident. Further, no significant difference between the two hospital levels regarding the risk for low Apgar scores was detected. Maria Svenvik, Lars Brudin, and Marie Blomberg Copyright © 2015 Maria Svenvik et al. All rights reserved. Added Value of Assessing Adnexal Masses with Advanced MRI Techniques Thu, 27 Aug 2015 11:47:09 +0000 This review will present the added value of perfusion and diffusion MR sequences to characterize adnexal masses. These two functional MR techniques are readily available in routine clinical practice. We will describe the acquisition parameters and a method of analysis to optimize their added value compared with conventional images. We will then propose a model of interpretation that combines the anatomical and morphological information from conventional MRI sequences with the functional information provided by perfusion and diffusion weighted sequences. I. Thomassin-Naggara, D. Balvay, A. Rockall, M. F. Carette, M. Ballester, E. Darai, and M. Bazot Copyright © 2015 I. Thomassin-Naggara et al. All rights reserved. MRI Guided Brain Stimulation without the Use of a Neuronavigation System Thu, 27 Aug 2015 11:41:18 +0000 A key issue in the field of noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) is the accurate localization of scalp positions that correspond to targeted cortical areas. The current gold standard is to combine structural and functional brain imaging with a commercially available “neuronavigation” system. However, neuronavigation systems are not commonplace outside of specialized research environments. Here we describe a technique that allows for the use of participant-specific functional and structural MRI data to guide NIBS without a neuronavigation system. Surface mesh representations of the head were generated using Brain Voyager and vectors linking key anatomical landmarks were drawn on the mesh. Our technique was then used to calculate the precise distances on the scalp corresponding to these vectors. These calculations were verified using actual measurements of the head and the technique was used to identify a scalp position corresponding to a brain area localized using functional MRI. Ehsan Vaghefi, Peng Cai, Fang Fang, Winston D. Byblow, Cathy M. Stinear, and Benjamin Thompson Copyright © 2015 Ehsan Vaghefi et al. All rights reserved. Volumetric Growth of the Liver in the Human Fetus: An Anatomical, Hydrostatic, and Statistical Study Thu, 27 Aug 2015 11:39:41 +0000 Using anatomical, hydrostatic, and statistical methods, liver volumes were assessed in 69 human fetuses of both sexes aged 18–30 weeks. No sex differences were found. The median of liver volume achieved by hydrostatic measurements increased from 6.57 cm3 at 18–21 weeks through 14.36 cm3 at 22–25 weeks to 20.77 cm3 at 26–30 weeks, according to the following regression: y = −26.95 + 1.74 age ± Z   (−3.15 + 0.27 age). The median of liver volume calculated indirectly according to the formula liver volume = 0.55 liver length liver transverse diameter liver sagittal diameter increased from 12.41 cm3 at 18–21 weeks through 28.21 cm3 at 22–25 weeks to 49.69 cm3 at 26–30 weeks. There was a strong relationship (, ) between the liver volumes achieved by hydrostatic (x) and indirect (y) methods, expressed by y = −0.05 + 2.16  ± 7.26. The liver volume should be calculated as follows liver volume = 0.26 liver length liver transverse diameter liver sagittal diameter. The age-specific liver volumes are of great relevance in the evaluation of the normal hepatic growth and the early diagnosis of fetal micro- and macrosomias. Michał Szpinda, Monika Paruszewska-Achtel, Alina Woźniak, Celestyna Mila-Kierzenkowska, Gabriela Elminowska-Wenda, Małgorzata Dombek, Anna Szpinda, and Mateusz Badura Copyright © 2015 Michał Szpinda et al. All rights reserved. Morphometric Evaluation of Korean Femurs by Geometric Computation: Comparisons of the Sex and the Population Thu, 27 Aug 2015 11:37:27 +0000 We measured 28 parameters of 202 femurs from Koreans by an automated geometric computation program using 3D models generated from computed tomography images. The measurement parameters were selected with reference to physical and forensic anthropology studies as well as orthopedic implant design studies. All measurements were calculated using 3D reconstructions on a computer using scientific computation language. We also analyzed sex and population differences by comparison with data from previous studies. Most parameters were larger in males than in females. The height, head diameter, head center offset, and chord length of the diaphysis, most parameters in the distal femur, and the isthmic width of the medullary canal were smaller in Koreans than in other populations. However, the neck-shaft angle, subtense, and width of the intercondylar notch in the distal femur were larger than those in other populations. The results of this study will be useful as a reference for physical and forensic anthropology as well as the design of medical devices suitable for Koreans. Ho-Jung Cho, Dai-Soon Kwak, and In-Beom Kim Copyright © 2015 Ho-Jung Cho et al. All rights reserved.