BioMed Research International The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. aCGH Analysis to Estimate Genetic Variations among Domesticated Chickens Thu, 21 Jul 2016 12:03:57 +0000 Chickens have been familiar to humans since ancient times and have been used not only for culinary purposes but also for cultural purposes including ritual ceremonies and traditional entertainment. The various chicken breeds developed for these purposes often display distinct morphological and/or behavioural traits. For example, the Japanese Shamo is larger and more aggressive than other domesticated chickens, reflecting its role as a fighting cock breed, whereas Japanese Naganakidori breeds, which have long-crowing behaviour, were bred instead for their entertaining and aesthetic qualities. However, the genetic backgrounds of these distinct morphological and behavioural traits remain unclear. Therefore, the question arises as to which genomic regions in these chickens were acted upon by selective pressures through breeding. We compared the entire genomes of six chicken breeds domesticated for various cultural purposes by utilizing array comparative genomic hybridization. From these analyses, we identified 782 regions that underwent insertions, deletions, or mutations, representing man-made selection pressure in these chickens. Furthermore, we found that a number of genes diversified in domesticated chickens bred for cultural or entertainment purposes were different from those diversified in chickens bred for food, such as broilers and layers. Tomoyoshi Komiyama, Mengjie Lin, and Atsushi Ogura Copyright © 2016 Tomoyoshi Komiyama et al. All rights reserved. Clinical Outcomes of Patients with Rare and Heavily Pretreated Solid Tumors Treated according to the Results of Tumor Molecular Profiling Thu, 21 Jul 2016 09:54:07 +0000 Patients with heavily pretreated advanced cancer or with rare tumors are difficult to treat. Molecular profiling (MP) of tumors to identify biomarkers that predict potential outcomes with individual therapies is an emerging strategy to guide treatment decisions. Patients with rare tumors for which standard-of-care therapy was unavailable or more common tumors for which standard-of-care options had been exhausted underwent MP at a single Australian center. Data regarding treating physicians’ choice of therapy, MP results and recommendations, and patient outcomes were collected. Seven patients had received prior standard first-line therapy (PST), 16 had rare tumors, and 31 had been heavily pretreated (HPT; ≥2 prior lines). Most treatments suggested by MP (541/594; 91.1%) were common chemotherapy drugs available in generic formulations. MP-guided therapy recommendations differed from physician’s recommendations in 48 patients (88.9%). MP-guided therapy produced clinical benefit (improved QOL and/or performance status, symptoms, bodyweight, or RECIST) in 19/31 (61.3%), 11/16 (68.8%), and 3/7 (42.9%) patients with HPTs, rare tumors, and PSTs, respectively, and had a PFS ratio ≥1.3 in 22/37 evaluable patients (59.5%; 95% confidence interval 44–76%). The null hypothesis that ≤15% of these patients would have a PFS ratio ≥1.3 was rejected (one-sided ). In conclusion, using MP to guide therapy selection is feasible in clinical practice and may improve patient outcomes. Andrew Dean, Aisling Byrne, Mira Marinova, and Ingrid Hayden Copyright © 2016 Andrew Dean et al. All rights reserved. Influenza Virus Induces Inflammatory Response in Mouse Primary Cortical Neurons with Limited Viral Replication Thu, 21 Jul 2016 08:19:24 +0000 Unlike stereotypical neurotropic viruses, influenza A viruses have been detected in the brain tissues of human and animal models. To investigate the interaction between neurons and influenza A viruses, mouse cortical neurons were isolated, infected with human H1N1 influenza virus, and then examined for the production of various inflammatory molecules involved in immune response. We found that replication of the influenza virus in neurons was limited, although early viral transcription was not affected. Virus-induced neuron viability decreased at 6 h postinfection (p.i.) but increased at 24 h p.i. depending upon the viral strain. Virus-induced apoptosis and cytopathy in primary cortical neurons were not apparent at 24 h p.i. The mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and type I interferons were upregulated at 6 h and 24 h p.i. These results indicate that the influenza virus induces inflammatory response in mouse primary cortical neurons with limited viral replication. The cytokines released in viral infection-induced neuroinflammation might play critical roles in influenza encephalopathy, rather than in viral replication-induced cytopathy. Gefei Wang, Rui Li, Zhiwu Jiang, Liming Gu, Yanxia Chen, Jianping Dai, and Kangsheng Li Copyright © 2016 Gefei Wang et al. All rights reserved. Pains and Gains from China’s Experiences with Emerging Epidemics: From SARS to H7N9 Wed, 20 Jul 2016 16:46:30 +0000 Over the recent decades, China experienced several emerging virus outbreaks including those caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome- (SARS-) coronavirus (Cov), H5N1 virus, and H7N9 virus. The SARS tragedy revealed faults in China’s infectious disease prevention system, propelling the Chinese government to enact reforms that enabled better combating of the subsequent H1N1 and H7N9 avian flu epidemics. The system is buttressed by three fundamental, mutually reinforcing components: (1) enduring government administration reforms, including legislation establishing a unified public health emergency management system; (2) prioritized funding for biotechnology and biomedicine industrialization, especially in the areas of pathogen identification, drug production, and the development of vaccines and diagnostics; and (3) increasing investment for public health and establishment of a rapid-response infectious diseases prevention and control system. China is now using its hard-gained experience to support the fight against Ebola in Africa and the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome in its own country. Pengfei Wei, Zelang Cai, Jinwen Hua, Weijia Yu, Jiajie Chen, Kang Kang, Congling Qiu, Lanlan Ye, Jiayun Hu, and Kunmei Ji Copyright © 2016 Pengfei Wei et al. All rights reserved. Skin Treatment with Pulsed Monochromatic UVA1 355 Device and Computerized Morphometric Analysis of Histochemically Identified Langerhans Cells Wed, 20 Jul 2016 16:46:22 +0000 Fluorescent or metal halide lamps are widely used in therapeutic applications in dermatological diseases, with broadband or narrow band emission UVA/UVA1 (320–400 nm) obtained with suitable passive filters. Recently, it has been possible for us to use a new machine provided with solid state source emitting pulsed monochromatic UVA1 355 nm. In order to evaluate the effects of this emission on immunocells of the skin, human skin samples were irradiated with monochromatic 355 nm UVA1 with different energetic fluences and after irradiation Langerhans cells were labeled with CD1a antibodies. The immunohistochemical identification of these cells permitted evaluating their modifications in terms of density into the skin. Obtained results are promising for therapeutical applications, also considering that a monochromatic radiation minimizes thermic load and DNA damage in the skin tissues. Nicola Zerbinati, Federica Riva, Marco Paulli, Pier Camillo Parodi, and Alberto Calligaro Copyright © 2016 Nicola Zerbinati et al. All rights reserved. Postural Control and Gait Performance in the Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy: A Systematic Review Wed, 20 Jul 2016 16:41:24 +0000 Purpose. The aim of this paper is to review the published studies on the characteristics of impairments in the postural control and gait performance in diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Methods. A review was performed by obtaining publication of all papers reporting on the postural control and gait performance in DPN from Google Scholar, Ovid, SAGE, Springerlink, Science Direct (SD), EBSCO Discovery Service, and Web of Science databases. The keywords used for searching were “postural control,” “balance,” “gait performance,” “diabetes mellitus,” and “diabetic peripheral neuropathy.” Results. Total of 4,337 studies were hit in the search. 1,524 studies were screened on their titles and citations. Then, 79 studies were screened on their abstract. Only 38 studies were eligible to be selected: 17 studies on postural control and 21 studies on the gait performance. Most previous researches were found to have strong evidence of postural control impairments and noticeable gait deficits in DPN. Deterioration of somatosensory, visual, and vestibular systems with the pathologic condition of diabetes on cognitive impairment causes further instability of postural and gait performance in DPN. Conclusions. Postural instability and gait imbalance in DPN may contribute to high risk of fall incidence, especially in the geriatric population. Thus, further works are crucial to highlight this fact in the hospital based and community adults. Amirah Mustapa, Maria Justine, Nadia Mohd Mustafah, Nursuriati Jamil, and Haidzir Manaf Copyright © 2016 Amirah Mustapa et al. All rights reserved. Molecular Characterization of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus in Women in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso Wed, 20 Jul 2016 11:42:27 +0000 High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is found in over 99% of cervical cancers. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HPV in a population of women in Bobo-Dioulasso and to identify the high-risk types present in these women. From May to June, 2015, 181 women who came for consultation at the Souro Sanou University Hospital of Bobo-Dioulasso have been included in this study. Uterine endocervical swabs have been taken in these women. DNA obtained by extraction from the samples thus collected was used to determine the prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus genotypes through real-time PCR. The age of the women ranged from 20 to 56 years with a mean of years. The prevalence of infection by high-risk HPV types was 25.4% (46/181). The most common high-risk HPV genotypes were HPV 39 (18.5%), HPV 52 (16.7%), HPV 18 (14.8%), and HPV 35 (13.0%). HPV 16 which is included in the HPV vaccines was not found in the population studied. This type of study which is the first one in Bobo-Dioulasso has showed a high prevalence of genotypes HPV 39, HPV 52, and HPV 35 which are not yet covered by a vaccine. Ina Marie Angèle Traore, Théodora Mahoukèdè Zohoncon, Adama Dembele, Florencia W. Djigma, Dorcas Obiri-Yeboah, Germain Traore, Moussa Bambara, Charlemagne Ouedraogo, Yves Traore, and Jacques Simpore Copyright © 2016 Ina Marie Angèle Traore et al. All rights reserved. Utilization of Waste Materials for Microbial Carrier in Wastewater Treatment Wed, 20 Jul 2016 11:38:49 +0000 This research focused on the ammonium-nitrogen (NH4-N) removal from the domestic wastewater using the attached growth reactors. Two types of waste material of corncob (biodegradable material) and concrete (nonbiodegradable material) were used as the carrier for microorganisms’ attachment. During operation, both reactors achieved absolutely high performance of ammonium removal (up to 99%) and total nitrogen removal (up to 95%). The significant advantage of corncob carrier was that the corncob was able to be a source of carbon for biological denitrification, leading to no external carbon requirement for operating the system. However, the corncob caused an increasing turbidity of the effluent. On the other hand, the concrete carrier required the minimal external carbon of 3.5 C/N ratio to reach the good performance. Moreover, a longer period for microorganisms’ adaptation was found in the concrete carrier rather than the corncob carrier. Further, the same physiological and biochemical characteristics of active bacteria were found at the two carriers, which were negative gram, cocci shape, and smooth and white-turbid colony. Due to the effluent quality, the concrete was more appropriate carrier than the corncob for wastewater treatment. H. T. Le, N. Jantarat, W. Khanitchaidecha, K. Ratananikom, and A. Nakaruk Copyright © 2016 H. T. Le et al. All rights reserved. Association of Aortic Compliance and Brachial Endothelial Function with Cerebral Small Vessel Disease in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients: Assessment with High-Resolution MRI Wed, 20 Jul 2016 09:30:31 +0000 Objective. To assess the possible association of aortic compliance and brachial endothelial function with cerebral small vessel disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) patients by using 3.0 T high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. Methods. Sixty-two clinically confirmed DM2 patients (25 women and 37 men; mean age: years) were prospectively enrolled for noninvasive MR examinations of the aorta, brachial artery, and brain. Aortic arch pulse wave velocity (PWV), flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of brachial artery, lacunar brain infarcts, and periventricular and deep white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) were assessed. Pearson and Spearman correlation analysis were performed to analyze the association between PWV and FMD with clinical data and biochemical test results. Univariable logistic regression analyses were used to analyze the association between PWV and FMD with cerebral small vessel disease. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to find out the independent predictive factors of cerebral small vessel disease. Results. Mean PWV was  m/s and FMD was %. After adjustment for compounding factors, PWV was found significantly associated with lacunar brain infarcts (OR = 2.00; 95% CI: 1.14–3.2; ) and FMD was significantly associated with periventricular WMHs (OR = 0.82; 95% CI: 0.71–0.95; ). Conclusions. Quantitative evaluation of aortic compliance and endothelial function by using high-resolution MRI may be potentially useful to stratify DM2 patients with risk of cerebral small vessel disease. Yan Shan, Jiang Lin, Pengju Xu, Mengsu Zeng, Huandong Lin, and Hongmei Yan Copyright © 2016 Yan Shan et al. All rights reserved. Signal Transduction and Regulation: Insights into Evolution Wed, 20 Jul 2016 08:11:57 +0000 Song Yi, Sidi Chen, Luoying Zhang, and Nidhi Sahni Copyright © 2016 Song Yi et al. All rights reserved. Physicochemical Characteristics of Transferon™ Batches Wed, 20 Jul 2016 08:02:49 +0000 Transferon, a biotherapeutic agent that has been used for the past 2 decades for diseases with an inflammatory component, has been approved by regulatory authorities in Mexico (COFEPRIS) for the treatment of patients with herpes infection. The active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) of Transferon is based on polydispersion of peptides that have been extracted from lysed human leukocytes by a dialysis process and a subsequent ultrafiltration step to select molecules below 10 kDa. To physicochemically characterize the drug product, we developed chromatographic methods and an SDS-PAGE approach to analyze the composition and the overall variability of Transferon. Reversed-phase chromatographic profiles of peptide populations demonstrated batch-to-batch consistency from 10 representative batches that harbored 4 primary peaks with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of less than 7%. Aminogram profiles exhibited 17 proteinogenic amino acids and showed that glycine was the most abundant amino acid, with a relative content of approximately 18%. Further, based on their electrophoretic migration, the peptide populations exhibited a molecular mass of about 10 kDa. Finally, we determined the Transferon fingerprint using a mass spectrometry tool. Because each batch was produced from independent pooled buffy coat samples from healthy donors, supplied by a local blood bank, our results support the consistency of the production of Transferon and reveal its peptide identity with regard to its physicochemical attributes. Emilio Medina-Rivero, Luis Vallejo-Castillo, Said Vázquez-Leyva, Gilberto Pérez-Sánchez, Liliana Favari, Marco Velasco-Velázquez, Sergio Estrada-Parra, Lenin Pavón, and Sonia Mayra Pérez-Tapia Copyright © 2016 Emilio Medina-Rivero et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Associated Autoimmune Diseases on Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Incidence and Metabolic Control in Children and Adolescents Wed, 20 Jul 2016 07:42:55 +0000 Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is one of the most common chronic diseases developing in childhood. The incidence of the disease in children increases for unknown reasons at a rate from 3 to 5% every year worldwide. The background of T1DM is associated with the autoimmune process of pancreatic beta cell destruction, which leads to absolute insulin deficiency and organ damage. Complex interactions between environmental and genetic factors contribute to the development of T1DM in genetically predisposed patients. The T1DM-inducing autoimmune process can also affect other organs, resulting in development of additional autoimmune diseases in the patient, thereby impeding diabetes control. The most common T1DM comorbidities include autoimmune thyroid diseases, celiac disease, and autoimmune gastritis; additionally, diabetes can be a component of PAS (Polyglandular Autoimmune Syndrome). The aim of this review is to assess the prevalence of T1DM-associated autoimmune diseases in children and adolescents and their impact on the course of T1DM. We also present suggestions concerning screening tests. Aleksandra Krzewska and Iwona Ben-Skowronek Copyright © 2016 Aleksandra Krzewska and Iwona Ben-Skowronek. All rights reserved. Advances in Molecular Genetics and the Molecular Biology of Deafness Wed, 20 Jul 2016 06:16:44 +0000 Shin-ya Nishio, Isabelle Schrauwen, Hideaki Moteki, and Hela Azaiez Copyright © 2016 Shin-ya Nishio et al. All rights reserved. Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Eremomastax speciosa (Acanthaceae) on Sexual Behavior in Normal Male Rats Wed, 20 Jul 2016 05:58:19 +0000 Objective. We studied prosexual effects of Eremomastax speciosa aqueous extract in male adult rats. Materials and Methods. 100 and 500 mg/kg of extract were administered orally (days 0, 1, 4, 7, 14, and 28 (posttreatment)). The sexual behavior of rats receiving a single dose (500 mg/kg) was also evaluated after pretreatment with Lω-NAME (10 mg/kg), haloperidol (1 mg/kg), or atropine (5 mg/kg). Controls received distilled water or testosterone enanthate (20 mg/kg/day/3 days (s.c.) before the test). Results. The extract (days 1–14) had no significant effect on mount, intromission, and ejaculation frequencies but on day 28 (14 days after treatment), it increased frequency of mounts and intromissions at 500 mg/kg. Mount, intromission, and ejaculation latencies reduced and postejaculatory intervals decreased but the effect did not persist 2 weeks after treatment. Extract prosex effects were greatly reduced by atropine and completely abolished by haloperidol, while Lω-NAME increased mount latency and potentiated extract effect on intromission and ejaculation latencies. Conclusion. In summary, E. speciosa extract can have positive effects on male sexual motivation and performance when administered for two weeks at the dose of 500 mg/kg. The effects (dopaminergic and/or cholinergic dependent) tend to appear during the posttreatment period. B. Nchegang, C. Mezui, F. Longo, Z. E. Nkwengoua, A. P. Amang, and P. V. Tan Copyright © 2016 B. Nchegang et al. All rights reserved. Long-Term Fatigue and Its Probability of Failure Applied to Dental Implants Tue, 19 Jul 2016 14:23:03 +0000 It is well known that dental implants have a high success rate but even so, there are a lot of factors that can cause dental implants failure. Fatigue is very sensitive to many variables involved in this phenomenon. This paper takes a close look at fatigue analysis and explains a new method to study fatigue from a probabilistic point of view, based on a cumulative damage model and probabilistic finite elements, with the goal of obtaining the expected life and the probability of failure. Two different dental implants were analysed. The model simulated a load of 178 N applied with an angle of 0°, 15°, and 20° and a force of 489 N with the same angles. Von Mises stress distribution was evaluated and once the methodology proposed here was used, the statistic of the fatigue life and the probability cumulative function were obtained. This function allows us to relate each cycle life with its probability of failure. Cylindrical implant has a worst behaviour under the same loading force compared to the conical implant analysed here. Methodology employed in the present study provides very accuracy results because all possible uncertainties have been taken in mind from the beginning. María Prados-Privado, Juan Carlos Prados-Frutos, Sérgio Alexandre Gehrke, Mariano Sánchez Siles, José Luis Calvo Guirado, and José Antonio Bea Copyright © 2016 María Prados-Privado et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Arm Weight Support Training to Promote Recovery of Upper Limb Function for Subacute Patients after Stroke with Different Levels of Arm Impairments Tue, 19 Jul 2016 13:43:29 +0000 Purpose. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of arm weight support training using the ArmeoSpring for subacute patients after stroke with different levels of hemiplegic arm impairments. Methods. 48 inpatients with subacute stroke, stratified into 3 groups from mild to severe upper extremity impairment, were engaged in ArmeoSpring training for 45 minutes daily, 5 days per week for 3 weeks, in addition to conventional rehabilitation. Evaluations were conducted at three measurement occasions: immediately before training (T1); immediately after training (T2); and at a 3-week follow-up (T3) by a blind rater. Results. Shoulder flexion active range of motion, Upper Extremity Scores in the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA), and Vertical Catch had the greatest differences in gain scores for patients between severe and moderate impairments, whereas FMA Hand Scores had significant differences in gain scores between moderate and mild impairments. There was no significant change in muscle tone or hand-path ratios between T1, T2, and T3 within the groups. Conclusion. Arm weight support training is beneficial for subacute stroke patients with moderate to severe arm impairments, especially to improve vertical control such as shoulder flexion, and there were no adverse effects in muscle tone. Irene H. L. Chan, Kenneth N. K. Fong, Dora Y. L. Chan, Apple Q. L. Wang, Eddy K. N. Cheng, Pinky H. Y. Chau, Kathy K. Y. Chow, and Hobby K. Y. Cheung Copyright © 2016 Irene H. L. Chan et al. All rights reserved. Three-Dimensional Assessment of Volumetric Changes in Sinuses Augmented with Two Different Bone Substitutes Tue, 19 Jul 2016 13:28:33 +0000 Introduction. The bone volume of the posterior maxilla may not be appropriate for implant placement, due to factors such as pneumatized maxillary sinus. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the percentage of graft volume reduction following sinus floor elevation (SFE), with either slow resorbable bone substitute only or a composite of slow and fast resorbable bone substitutes, using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Methods. In this retrospective study, CBCT scans of SFE procedures were evaluated to determine the volume of grafted sinus with either deproteinized bovine bone (DBB) or a 2 : 1 mixture of biphasic calcium sulfate (CS) and DBB, as a composite. The volumetric changes of sinus augmentations were measured 2 weeks (V-I) and 6 months (V-II) after operation. Results. Thirty-three patients were included in this study. The average percentage volume reduction was % and % for DBB and composite grafts, respectively. A significant graft volume reduction was observed between V-I and V-II for both groups (). The DBB group exhibited significantly less volume reduction than the composite group (). Conclusions. Augmented sinus volume may change before implant placement. DBB offers greater volume stability during healing than composite grafts. B. Alper Gultekin, Oguz Borahan, Ali Sirali, Z. Cuneyt Karabuda, and Eitan Mijiritsky Copyright © 2016 B. Alper Gultekin et al. All rights reserved. The Role of Resorbable Plate and Artificial Bone Substitute in Reconstruction of Large Orbital Floor Defect Tue, 19 Jul 2016 13:04:22 +0000 It is essential to reduce and reconstruct bony defects adequately in large orbital floor fracture and defect. Among many reconstructive methods, alloplastic materials have attracted attention because of their safety and ease of use. We have used resorbable plates combined with artificial bone substitutes in large orbital floor defect reconstructions and have evaluated their long-term reliability compared with porous polyethylene plate. A total of 147 patients with traumatic orbital floor fracture were included in the study. Surgical results were evaluated by clinical evaluations, exophthalmometry, and computed tomography at least 12 months postoperatively. Both orbital floor height discrepancy and orbital volume change were calculated and compared with preoperative CT findings. The average volume discrepancy and vertical height discrepancies were not different between two groups. Also, exophthalmometric measurements were not significantly different between the two groups. No significant postoperative complication including permanent diplopia, proptosis, and enophthalmos was noted. Use of a resorbable plate with an artificial bone substitute to repair orbital floor defects larger than 2.5 cm2 in size yielded long-lasting, effective reconstruction without significant complications. We therefore propose our approach as an effective alternative method for large orbital floor reconstructions. Ho Kwon, Ho Jun Kim, Bommie F. Seo, Yeon Jin Jeong, Sung-No Jung, and Hyung-Sup Shim Copyright © 2016 Ho Kwon et al. All rights reserved. Soft Tissue Augmentation Techniques in Implants Placed and Provisionalized Immediately: A Systematic Review Tue, 19 Jul 2016 12:18:05 +0000 The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of techniques for soft tissue augmentation in the placement of immediate implants with and without provisionalization and to assess the quality of the reports in the literature. Randomized clinical trials, prospective clinical trials, and case series were included in this review. Clinical questions were formulated and organised according to the PICOS strategy. An electronic search was performed in PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Scopus, and ISI Web up until June 2016. Interexaminer agreement on eligibility (; ) and quality (; ) was high. Methodological approaches were assessed using criteria based on design related forms designed by the Dutch Cochrane Collaboration. Finally, 14 papers were identified. In two studies, the implant survival was 90%; for the rest of the studies it was 100%. All studies reported favourable aesthetic, biological, and radiographic outcomes. Surgical and biomechanical complications of this technique were not relevant. This technique effectively compensates for the expected loss of volume of the oral soft tissues and maintains high success rates with good aesthetic results over time. Rosa Rojo, Juan Carlos Prados-Frutos, Ángel Manchón, Jesús Rodríguez-Molinero, Gilberto Sammartino, José Luis Calvo Guirado, and Rafael Gómez-de Diego Copyright © 2016 Rosa Rojo et al. All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “α-Actinin TvACTN3 of Trichomonas vaginalis Is an RNA-Binding Protein That Could Participate in Its Posttranscriptional Iron Regulatory Mechanism” Tue, 19 Jul 2016 11:49:52 +0000 Jaeson Santos Calla-Choque, Elisa Elvira Figueroa-Angulo, Leticia Ávila-González, and Rossana Arroyo Copyright © 2016 Jaeson Santos Calla-Choque et al. All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “Circadian Control of Global Transcription” Tue, 19 Jul 2016 11:43:25 +0000 Shujing Li and Luoying Zhang Copyright © 2016 Shujing Li and Luoying Zhang. All rights reserved. Non-Mulberry and Mulberry Silk Protein Sericins as Potential Media Supplement for Animal Cell Culture Tue, 19 Jul 2016 11:34:49 +0000 Silk protein sericins, in the recent years, find application in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals and as biomaterials. We investigate the potential of sericin, extracted from both mulberry Bombyx mori and different non-mulberry sources, namely, tropical tasar, Antheraea mylitta; muga, Antheraea assama; and eri, Samia ricini, as growth supplement in serum-free culture medium. Sericin supplemented media containing different concentrations of sericins from the different species are examined for attachment, growth, proliferation, and morphology of fibrosarcoma cells. The optimum sericin supplementation seems to vary with the source of sericins. The results indicate that all the sericins promote the growth of L929 cells in serum-free culture media; however, S. ricini sericin seems to promote better growth of cells amongst other non-mulberry sericins. Neety Sahu, Shilpa Pal, Sunaina Sapru, Joydip Kundu, Sarmistha Talukdar, N. Ibotambi Singh, Juming Yao, and Subhas C. Kundu Copyright © 2016 Neety Sahu et al. All rights reserved. Comment on “South Vietnamese Rural Mothers’ Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice in Child Health Care” Tue, 19 Jul 2016 11:30:06 +0000 Madhavi Bhargava Copyright © 2016 Madhavi Bhargava. All rights reserved. Human Ribosomal RNA-Derived Resident MicroRNAs as the Transmitter of Information upon the Cytoplasmic Cancer Stress Tue, 19 Jul 2016 11:23:55 +0000 Dysfunction of ribosome biogenesis induces divergent ribosome-related diseases including ribosomopathy and occasionally results in carcinogenesis. Although many defects in ribosome-related genes have been investigated, little is known about contribution of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) in ribosome-related disorders. Meanwhile, microRNA (miRNA), an important regulator of gene expression, is derived from both coding and noncoding region of the genome and is implicated in various diseases. Therefore, we performed in silico analyses using M-fold, TargetScan, GeneCoDia3, and so forth to investigate RNA relationships between rRNA and miRNA against cellular stresses. We have previously shown that miRNA synergism is significantly correlated with disease and the miRNA package is implicated in memory for diseases; therefore, quantum Dynamic Nexus Score (DNS) was also calculated using MESer program. As a result, seventeen RNA sequences identical with known miRNAs were detected in the human rRNA and termed as rRNA-hosted miRNA analogs (rmiRNAs). Eleven of them were predicted to form stem-loop structures as pre-miRNAs, and especially one stem-loop was completely identical with hsa-pre-miR-3678 located in the non-rDNA region. Thus, these rmiRNAs showed significantly high DNS values, participation in regulation of cancer-related pathways, and interaction with nucleolar RNAs, suggesting that rmiRNAs may be stress-responsible resident miRNAs which transmit stress-tuning information in multiple levels. Masaru Yoshikawa and Yoichi Robertus Fujii Copyright © 2016 Masaru Yoshikawa and Yoichi Robertus Fujii. All rights reserved. Association of Living Arrangement Conditions and Socioeconomic Differentials with Anemia Status among Women in Rural Bangladesh Tue, 19 Jul 2016 09:10:31 +0000 In Bangladesh, iron deficiency is the most common cause of anemia and remains a significant public health concern. Being a high anemia prevalent country, numerous efforts have been made to confront the issue especially among women and children by both local and international actors. Though the situation has substantially improved in recent years, a staggering number of adult women are currently living with anemia. The etiology of anemia is a multifactorial problem and has been proposed to be associated with various household, societal, economic, cultural factors apart from dietary habits. However, evidence regarding the household arrangements and socioeconomic determinants of anemia is scarce, especially in the context of Bangladesh. To this end, we utilized the 2011 demographic and health survey data to explore the association between anemia status and selected demographic, socioeconomic, and household characteristics. Our result showed significant correlation of anemia with both sociodemographic and household characteristics. Among the sociodemographic variables the following were found to be significantly associated with anemia status: age (; OR = 1.195; 95% CI = 1.036–1.378) and microcredit membership (; OR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.037–1.386). Regarding the household arrangements, women utilizing biomass fuel for cooking (; OR = 1.82; 95% CI = 0.981–2.460) were more likely to be anemic. Ghose Bishwajit, Sanni Yaya, Shangfeng Tang, Akmal Hossain, Yang Fan, Mahmuda Akter, and Zhanchun Feng Copyright © 2016 Ghose Bishwajit et al. All rights reserved. Esophageal Stent for Refractory Variceal Bleeding: A Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis Tue, 19 Jul 2016 08:37:02 +0000 Background. Preliminary studies suggest that covered self-expandable metal stents may be helpful in controlling esophageal variceal bleeding. Aims. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of esophageal stent in refractory variceal bleeding in a systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods. A comprehensive literature search was conducted on PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library covering the period from January 1970 to December 2015. Data were selected and abstracted from eligible studies and were pooled using a random-effects model. Heterogeneity was assessed using test. Results. Five studies involving 80 patients were included in the analysis. The age of patients ranged from 18 to 91 years. The mean duration of follow-up was 46.8 d (range, 30–60 d). The success rate of stent deployment was 96.7% (95% CI: 91.6%–99.5%) and complete response to esophageal stenting was in 93.9% (95% CI: 82.2%–99.6%). The incidence of rebleeding was 13.2% (95% CI: 1.8%–32.8%) and the overall mortality was 34.5% (95% CI: 24.8%–44.8%). Most of patients (87.4%) died from hepatic or multiple organ failure, and only 12.6% of patients died from uncontrolled bleeding. There was no stent-related complication reported and the incidence of stent migration was 21.6% (95% CI: 4.7%–46.1%). Conclusion. Esophageal stent may be considered in patients with variceal bleeding refractory to conventional therapy. Xiao-Dong Shao, Xing-Shun Qi, and Xiao-Zhong Guo Copyright © 2016 Xiao-Dong Shao et al. All rights reserved. Delivery after Operation for Deeply Infiltrating Endometriosis Tue, 19 Jul 2016 08:22:41 +0000 Background. It has been suggested that, during pregnancy, endometriosis can cause a variety of disease-related complications. Objectives. The purpose of the study was to find out if women with histologically confirmed endometriosis do have a higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcome and if they suffer from a higher rate of complications during labor. Study Design. 51 women who underwent surgery because of deeply infiltrating endometriosis in the General Hospital Linz and the Women’s General Hospital Linz and who gave birth in the Women’s General Hospital Linz after the surgery were included in our survey. Results. 31 women (60.8%) had a spontaneous delivery and in 20 women (39.2%) a caesarean section was performed. There were no cases of third- and fourth-degree perineal lacerations. Collectively there were 4 cases (7.8%) of preterm delivery and one case (2.0%) of premature rupture of membranes. In two women (6.5%) a retained placenta was diagnosed. Conclusions. Our study is the first description on delivery modes after surgery for deeply infiltrating endometriosis. We did not find an elevated risk for perineal or vaginal laceration in women with a history of surgery for deeply infiltrating endometriosis, even when a resection of the rectum or of the posterior vaginal wall had been performed. Christina Allerstorfer, Peter Oppelt, Simon H. Enzelsberger, Andreas Shamiyeh, Wolfgang Schimetta, Omar Josef Shebl, and Richard Bernhard Mayer Copyright © 2016 Christina Allerstorfer et al. All rights reserved. Systematic Analysis of the Cytokine and Anhedonia Response to Peripheral Lipopolysaccharide Administration in Rats Mon, 18 Jul 2016 17:29:54 +0000 Inflammatory processes may cause depression in subsets of vulnerable individuals. Inflammation-associated behavioral changes are commonly modelled in rodents by administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). However, the time frame in which immune activation and depressive-like behavior occur is not very clear. In this study, we showed that systemic administration of LPS robustly increased circulating levels of corticosterone, leptin, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and chemokines. Serum concentrations of most analytes peaked within the first 6 h after LPS injection and returned to baseline values by 24 h. Chemokine levels, however, remained elevated for up to 96 h. Using an optimized sucrose preference test (SPT) we showed that sickness behavior was present from 2 to 24 h. LPS-induced anhedonia, as measured by decreased sucrose preference, lasted up to 96 h. To mimic the human situation, where depression develops after chronic inflammation, rats were preexposed to repeated LPS administration or subchronic restraint stress and subsequently challenged with LPS. While these procedures did not increase the duration of anhedonia, our results do indicate that inflammation may cause depressive symptoms such as anhedonia. Using our SPT protocol, more elaborate rodent models can be developed to study the mechanisms underlying inflammation-associated depression in humans. Steven Biesmans, Liam J. R. Matthews, Jan A. Bouwknecht, Patrick De Haes, Niels Hellings, Theo F. Meert, Rony Nuydens, and Luc Ver Donck Copyright © 2016 Steven Biesmans et al. All rights reserved. “Slalom”: Microsurgical Cross-Over Decompression for Multilevel Degenerative Lumbar Stenosis Mon, 18 Jul 2016 17:29:04 +0000 Objective. Selective, bilateral multisegmental microsurgical decompression of lumbar spinal canal stenosis through separate, alternating cross-over approaches. Indications. Two-segmental and multisegmental degenerative central and lateral lumbar spinal stenosis. Contraindications. None. Surgical Technique. Minimally invasive, muscle, and facet joint-sparing bilateral decompression of the lumbar spinal canal through 2 or more alternating microsurgical cross-over approaches from one side. Results. From December 2010 until December 2015 we operated on 202 patients with 2 or multisegmental stenosis (115 f; 87 m; average age 69.3 yrs, range 51–91 yrs). All patients were suffering from symptoms typical of a degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis. All patients complained about back pain; however the leg symptoms were dominant in all cases. Per decompressed segment, the average OR time was 36 min and the blood loss 45.7 cc. Patients were mobilized 6 hrs postop and hospitalization averaged 5.9 days. A total of 116/202 patients did not need submuscular drainage. 27/202 patients suffered from a complication (13.4%). Dural tears occurred in 3.5%, an epidural hematoma in 5.5%, a deep wound infection in 1.98%, and a temporary radiculopathy postop in 1.5%. Postop follow-up ranged from 12 to 24 months. There was a significant improvement of EQ 5 D, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), VAS for Back and Leg Pain, and preoperative standing times and walking distances. H. Michael Mayer and Franziska Heider Copyright © 2016 H. Michael Mayer and Franziska Heider. All rights reserved. Fuzzy Clustering Applied to ROI Detection in Helical Thoracic CT Scans with a New Proposal and Variants Mon, 18 Jul 2016 17:10:35 +0000 The detection of pulmonary nodules is one of the most studied problems in the field of medical image analysis due to the great difficulty in the early detection of such nodules and their social impact. The traditional approach involves the development of a multistage CAD system capable of informing the radiologist of the presence or absence of nodules. One stage in such systems is the detection of ROI (regions of interest) that may be nodules in order to reduce the space of the problem. This paper evaluates fuzzy clustering algorithms that employ different classification strategies to achieve this goal. After characterising these algorithms, the authors propose a new algorithm and different variations to improve the results obtained initially. Finally it is shown as the most recent developments in fuzzy clustering are able to detect regions that may be nodules in CT studies. The algorithms were evaluated using helical thoracic CT scans obtained from the database of the LIDC (Lung Image Database Consortium). Alfonso Castro, Alberto Rey, Carmen Boveda, Bernardino Arcay, and Pedro Sanjurjo Copyright © 2016 Alfonso Castro et al. All rights reserved.