BioMed Research International The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Advances in Molecular Pathway-Directed Cancer Systems Imaging and Therapy Sun, 21 Dec 2014 13:16:45 +0000 David J. Yang, Lan Pham, Mei-Hsiu Liao, Fan-Lin Kong, Hiroji Uemura, and Yen-Yu Ian Shih Copyright © 2014 David J. Yang et al. All rights reserved. Radiopharmaceuticals in Nuclear Medicine: Recent Developments for SPECT and PET Studies Sun, 21 Dec 2014 12:12:17 +0000 Bianca Gutfilen and Gianluca Valentini Copyright © 2014 Bianca Gutfilen and Gianluca Valentini. All rights reserved. Performance Analysis of Extracted Rule-Base Multivariable Type-2 Self-Organizing Fuzzy Logic Controller Applied to Anesthesia Sun, 21 Dec 2014 11:42:17 +0000 We compare type-1 and type-2 self-organizing fuzzy logic controller (SOFLC) using expert initialized and pretrained extracted rule-bases applied to automatic control of anaesthesia during surgery. We perform experimental simulations using a nonfixed patient model and signal noise to account for environmental and patient drug interaction uncertainties. The simulations evaluate the performance of the SOFLCs in their ability to control anesthetic delivery rates for maintaining desired physiological set points for muscle relaxation and blood pressure during a multistage surgical procedure. The performances of the SOFLCs are evaluated by measuring the steady state errors and control stabilities which indicate the accuracy and precision of control task. Two sets of comparisons based on using expert derived and extracted rule-bases are implemented as Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Results indicate that type-2 SOFLCs outperform type-1 SOFLC while handling the various sources of uncertainties. SOFLCs using the extracted rules are also shown to outperform those using expert derived rules in terms of improved control stability. Yan-Xin Liu, Faiyaz Doctor, Shou-Zen Fan, and Jiann-Shing Shieh Copyright © 2014 Yan-Xin Liu et al. All rights reserved. Ovarian Cancer Sun, 21 Dec 2014 08:03:30 +0000 Yong Sang Song, Hee Seung Kim, Daisuke Aoki, Danny N. Dhanasekaran, and Benjamin K. Tsang Copyright © 2014 Yong Sang Song et al. All rights reserved. Proteoglycans/Glycosaminoglycans: From Basic Research to Clinical Practice Sun, 21 Dec 2014 06:35:59 +0000 George Tzanakakis, Ilona Kovalszky, Paraskevi Heldin, and Dragana Nikitovic Copyright © 2014 George Tzanakakis et al. All rights reserved. Cysteine Cathepsin Activity Regulation by Glycosaminoglycans Sun, 21 Dec 2014 06:12:34 +0000 Cysteine cathepsins are a group of enzymes normally found in the endolysosomes where they are primarily involved in intracellular protein turnover but also have a critical role in MHC II-mediated antigen processing and presentation. However, in a number of pathologies cysteine cathepsins were found to be heavily upregulated and secreted into extracellular milieu, where they were found to degrade a number of extracellular proteins. A major role in modulating cathepsin activities play glycosaminoglycans, which were found not only to facilitate their autocatalytic activation including at neutral pH, but also to critically modulate their activities such as in the case of the collagenolytic activity of cathepsin K. The interaction between cathepsins and glycosaminoglycans will be discussed in more detail. Marko Novinec, Brigita Lenarčič, and Boris Turk Copyright © 2014 Marko Novinec et al. All rights reserved. Parasites: From Source to Vector and Human Sun, 21 Dec 2014 06:11:27 +0000 Veeranoot Nissapatorn, Nongyao Sawangjaroen, Rogan Lee, and Subhash Chandra Parija Copyright © 2014 Veeranoot Nissapatorn et al. All rights reserved. Imaging Neurodegenerative Diseases: Mechanisms and Interventions Sun, 21 Dec 2014 06:10:57 +0000 Lijun Bai, Lin Ai, Mingzhou Ding, Yong He, Lixing Lao, and Fanrong Liang Copyright © 2014 Lijun Bai et al. All rights reserved. ECR-MAPK Regulation in Liver Early Development Thu, 18 Dec 2014 00:11:25 +0000 Early growth is connected to a key link between embryonic development and aging. In this paper, liver gene expression profiles were assayed at postnatal day 22 and week 16 of age. Meanwhile another independent animal experiment and cell culture were carried out for validation. Significance analysis of microarrays, qPCR verification, drug induction/inhibition assays, and metabonomics indicated that alpha-2u globulin (extracellular region)-socs2 (-SH2-containing signals/receptor tyrosine kinases)-ppp2r2a/pik3c3 (MAPK signaling)-hsd3b5/cav2 (metabolism/organization) plays a vital role in early development. Taken together, early development of male rats is ECR and MAPK-mediated coordination of cancer-like growth and negative regulations. Our data represent the first comprehensive description of early individual development, which could be a valuable basis for understanding the functioning of the gene interaction network of infant development. Xiu-Ju Zhao and Hexian Zhuo Copyright © 2014 Xiu-Ju Zhao and Hexian Zhuo. All rights reserved. Iron as the Key Modulator of Hepcidin Expression in Erythroid Antibody-Mediated Hypoplasia Thu, 18 Dec 2014 00:11:23 +0000 Erythroid hypoplasia (EH) is a rare complication associated with recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) therapies, due to development of anti-rHuEPO antibodies; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly clarified. Our aim was to manage a rat model of antibody-mediated EH induced by rHuEPO and study the impact on iron metabolism and erythropoiesis. Wistar rats treated during 9 weeks with a high rHuEPO dose (200 IU) developed EH, as shown by anemia, reduced erythroblasts, reticulocytopenia, and plasmatic anti-rHuEPO antibodies. Serum iron was increased and associated with mRNA overexpression of hepatic hepcidin and other iron regulatory mediators and downregulation of matriptase-2; overexpression of divalent metal transporter 1 and ferroportin was observed in duodenum and liver. Decreased EPO expression was observed in kidney and liver, while EPO receptor was overexpressed in liver. Endogenous EPO levels were normal, suggesting that anti-rHuEPO antibodies blunted EPO function. Our results suggest that anti-rHuEPO antibodies inhibit erythropoiesis causing anemia. This leads to a serum iron increase, which seems to stimulate hepcidin expression despite no evidence of inflammation, thus suggesting iron as the key modulator of hepcidin synthesis. These findings might contribute to improving new therapeutic strategies against rHuEPO resistance and/or development of antibody-mediated EH in patients under rHuEPO therapy. J. C. Fernandes, P. Garrido, S. Ribeiro, P. Rocha-Pereira, E. Bronze-da-Rocha, L. Belo, E. Costa, F. Reis, and A. Santos-Silva Copyright © 2014 J. C. Fernandes et al. All rights reserved. Sequential Coordination between Lingual and Pharyngeal Pressures Produced during Dry Swallowing Thu, 18 Dec 2014 00:11:21 +0000 The aim of this study was to investigate oropharyngeal pressure flow dynamics during dry swallowing in ten healthy subjects. Tongue pressure (TP) was measured using a sensor sheet system with five measuring points on the hard palate, and pharyngeal pressure (PP) was measured using a manometric catheter with four measuring points. The order and correlations of sequential events, such as onset, peak, and offset times of pressure production, at each pressure measuring point were analyzed on the synchronized waveforms. Onset of TP was earlier than that of PP. The peak of TP did not show significant differences with the onset of PP, and it was earlier than that of PP. There was no significant difference between the offset of TP and PP. The onset of PP was temporally time-locked to the peak of TP, and there was an especially strong correlation between the onset of PP and TP at the posterior-median part on the hard palate. The offset of PP was temporally time-locked to that of TP. These results could be interpreted as providing an explanation for the generation of oropharyngeal pressure flow to ensure efficient bolus transport and safe swallowing. Jitsuro Yano, Yoichiro Aoyagi, Takahiro Ono, Kazuhiro Hori, Wakami Yamaguchi, Shigehiro Fujiwara, Isami Kumakura, Shogo Minagi, and Akio Tsubahara Copyright © 2014 Jitsuro Yano et al. All rights reserved. Risk Factors for Hospital and Long-Term Mortality of Critically Ill Elderly Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit Tue, 16 Dec 2014 06:51:02 +0000 Background. Data on long-term outcomes of elderly (≥65 years) patients in ICU are sparse. Materials and Methods. Adult patients (, 45.4% elderly) admitted over 28 months were analyzed by competing risks regression model to determine independent factors related to in-hospital and long-term mortality. Results. 414 (26.5%) and 337 (21.6%) patients died in-hospital and during the 52 months following discharge, respectively; the elderly group had higher mortality during both periods. After discharge, elderly patients had 2.3 times higher mortality compared to the general population of the same age-group. In-hospital mortality was independently associated with mechanical ventilation (subdistribution hazard ratio (SHR) 2.74), vasopressors (SHR 2.56), neurological disease (SHR 1.77), and Mortality Prediction Model II score (SHR 1.01) regardless of age and with malignancy (SHR, hematological 3.65, nonhematological 3.4) and prior renal replacement therapy (RRT, SHR 2.21) only in the elderly. Long-term mortality was associated with low hemoglobin concentration (SHR 0.94), airway disease (SHR 2.23), and malignancy (SHR hematological 1.11, nonhematological 2.31) regardless of age and with comorbidities especially among the nonelderly. Conclusions. Following discharge, elderly ICU patients have higher mortality compared to the nonelderly and general population. In the elderly group, prior RRT and malignancy contribute additionally to in-hospital mortality risk. In the long-term, comorbidities (age-related), anemia, airway disease, and malignancy were significantly associated with mortality. A. Mukhopadhyay, B. C. Tai, K. C. See, W. Y. Ng, T. K. Lim, S. Onsiong, S. Ee, M. J. Chua, P. R. Lee, M. L. Loh, and J Phua Copyright © 2014 A. Mukhopadhyay et al. All rights reserved. Understanding Host-Adherent-Invasive Escherichia coli Interaction in Crohn’s Disease: Opening Up New Therapeutic Strategies Mon, 15 Dec 2014 14:43:49 +0000 A trillion of microorganisms colonize the mammalian intestine. Most of them have coevolved with the host in a symbiotic relationship and some of them have developed strategies to promote their replication in the presence of competing microbiota. Recent evidence suggests that perturbation of the microbial community favors the emergence of opportunistic pathogens, in particular adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) that can increase incidence and severity of gut inflammation in the context of Crohn’s disease (CD). This review will report the importance of AIEC as triggers of intestinal inflammation, focusing on their impact on epithelial barrier function and stimulation of mucosal inflammation. Beyond manipulation of immune response, restoration of gut microbiota as a new treatment option for CD patients will be discussed. Allison Agus, Sébastien Massier, Arlette Darfeuille-Michaud, Elisabeth Billard, and Nicolas Barnich Copyright © 2014 Allison Agus et al. All rights reserved. Specific Genomic Fingerprints of Phosphate Solubilizing Pseudomonas Strains Generated by Box Elements Mon, 15 Dec 2014 12:08:11 +0000 Primers corresponding to conserved bacterial repetitive of BOX elements were used to show that BOX-DNA sequences are widely distributed in phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas strains. Phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas was isolated from oil palm fields (tropical soil) in Malaysia. BOX elements were used to generate genomic fingerprints of a variety of Pseudomonas isolates to identify strains that were not distinguishable by other classification methods. BOX-PCR, that derived genomic fingerprints, was generated from whole purified genomic DNA by liquid culture of phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas. BOX-PCR generated the phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas specific fingerprints to identify the relationship between these strains. This suggests that distribution of BOX elements’ sequences in phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas strains is the mirror image of their genomic structure. Therefore, this method appears to be a rapid, simple, and reproducible method to identify and classify phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas strains and it may be useful tool for fast identification of potential biofertilizer strains. Mohammad Bagher Javadi Nobandegani, Halimi Mohd Saud, and Wong Mui Yun Copyright © 2014 Mohammad Bagher Javadi Nobandegani et al. All rights reserved. Impact of Medical and Surgical Treatment of Endometriosis on the Cure of Endometriosis and Pain Mon, 15 Dec 2014 09:03:29 +0000 This endometriosis study evaluates three different treatment strategies (hormonal medication, surgical, or combined treatment) and discusses the influence of endometriosis on the cure of this disease and pain relief. Four hundred and fifty patients with genital endometriosis, aged 18–44 years, were randomly distributed to three treatment groups at the first laparoscopy. They were reevaluated at a second-look laparoscopy (D 426/10), one to two months after the three-month hormonal therapy for groups 1 and 3 and five to six months later for group 2 (surgical treatment alone). Outcome data focussed on the recurrence of symptoms and pain. The three treatment options independent of the initial endoscopic endometriosis classification (EEC) stage including deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) achieved an overall cure rate of 50% or higher. The highest cure rate of 60% was achieved by the combined treatment, 55% by the exclusively hormonal therapy, and 50% by the exclusively surgical treatment. An overall pregnancy rate between 55% and 65% was achieved with no significant difference in relation to the therapeutical option. Liselotte Mettler, R. Ruprai, and Ibrahim Alkatout Copyright © 2014 Liselotte Mettler et al. All rights reserved. Phenomics Research on Coronary Heart Disease Based on Human Phenotype Ontology Mon, 15 Dec 2014 06:53:45 +0000 The characteristics of holistic, dynamics, complexity, and spatial and temporal features enable “Omics” and theories of TCM to interlink with each other. HPO, namely, “characterization,” can be understood as a sorting and generalization of the manifestations shown by people with diseases on the basis of the phenomics. Syndrome is the overall “manifestation” of human body pathological and physiological changes expressed by four diagnostic methods’ information. The four diagnostic methods’ data could be the most objective and direct manifestations of human body under morbid conditions. In this aspect, it is consistent with the connation of “characterization.” Meanwhile, the four diagnostic methods’ data also equip us with features of characterization in HPO. In our study, we compared 107 pieces of four diagnostic methods’ information with the “characterization database” to further analyze data of four diagnostic methods’ characterization in accordance with the common characteristics of four diagnostic methods’ information and characterization and integrated 107 pieces of four diagnostic methods’ data to relevant items in HPO and finished the expansion of characterization information in HPO. Qi Shi, Kuo Gao, Huihui Zhao, Juan Wang, Xing Zhai, Peng Lu, Jianxin Chen, and Wei Wang Copyright © 2014 Qi Shi et al. All rights reserved. Preparation and Characterization of Gelatin-Based Mucoadhesive Nanocomposites as Intravesical Gene Delivery Scaffolds Mon, 15 Dec 2014 00:11:02 +0000 This study aimed to develop optimal gelatin-based mucoadhesive nanocomposites as scaffolds for intravesical gene delivery to the urothelium. Hydrogels were prepared by chemically crosslinking gelatin A or B with glutaraldehyde. Physicochemical and delivery properties including hydration ratio, viscosity, size, yield, thermosensitivity, and enzymatic degradation were studied, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was carried out. The optimal hydrogels (H), composed of 15% gelatin A175, displayed an 81.5% yield rate, 87.1% hydration ratio, 42.9 Pa·s viscosity, and 125.8 nm particle size. The crosslinking density of the hydrogels was determined by performing pronase degradation and ninhydrin assays. In vitro lentivirus (LV) release studies involving p24 capsid protein analysis in 293T cells revealed that hydrogels containing lentivirus (H-LV) had a higher cumulative release than that observed for LV alone (3.7-, 2.3-, and 2.3-fold at days 1, 3, and 5, resp.). Lentivirus from lentivector constructed green fluorescent protein (GFP) was then entrapped in hydrogels (H-LV-GFP). H-LV-GFP showed enhanced gene delivery in AY-27 cells in vitro and to rat urothelium by intravesical instillation in vivo. Cystometrogram showed mucoadhesive H-LV reduced peak micturition and threshold pressure and increased bladder compliance. In this study, we successfully developed first optimal gelatin-based mucoadhesive nanocomposites as intravesical gene delivery scaffolds. Ching-Wen Liu, Li-Ching Chang, Kai-Jen Lin, Tsan-Jung Yu, Ching-Chung Tsai, Hao-Kuang Wang, and Tong-Rong Tsai Copyright © 2014 Ching-Wen Liu et al. All rights reserved. Association Analysis between g.18873C>T and g.27522G>A Genetic Polymorphisms of OPG and Bone Mineral Density in Chinese Postmenopausal Women Mon, 15 Dec 2014 00:10:59 +0000 Several studies report that the OPG is an important candidate gene in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. This study aimed to detect the potential association of OPG gene polymorphisms with osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. We recruited 928 subjects containing 463 with primary postmenopausal osteoporosis and 465 healthy volunteers as controls. The BMD of neck hip, lumbar spine (), and total hip were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Through the created restriction site-polymerase chain reaction (CRS-PCR), PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), and DNA sequencing methods, the g.18873C>T and g.27522G>A have been investigated. As for g.18873C>T, our data indicated that subjects with CC genotype have significantly higher BMD value than those of CT and TT genotypes (all values < 0.05). As for g.27522G>A, the BMD values of subjects with GG genotype were significantly higher than those of GA and AA genotypes (all values < 0.05). Our findings suggest that the OPG g.18873C>T and g.27522G>A genetic polymorphisms are associated with the decreased risk for osteoporosis in Chinese postmenopausal women. Fei Wang, Yi Cao, Fang Li, Jianlin Shan, and Tianlin Wen Copyright © 2014 Fei Wang et al. All rights reserved. Emodin Augments Cisplatin Cytotoxicity in Platinum-Resistant Ovarian Cancer Cells via ROS-Dependent MRP1 Downregulation Sun, 14 Dec 2014 13:15:10 +0000 The intracellular level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is closely associated with chemosensitivity of cancer cells. Overexpression of ATP binding cassette transporter MRP1 is correlated with resistance to platinum drugs. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that emodin, a potent ROS generator, may increase sensitivity of cisplatin-(cDDP-) resistant ovarian carcinoma cells to cDDP cytotoxicity via ROS-mediated suppression of MRP1 expression. Using the isogenic pair of the human ovarian carcinoma cell line COC1 and its cDDP resistant variant COC1/DDP, we found that ROS level in the cDDP-sensitive ovarian cancer cells was significantly higher than that in the cDDP-resistant cells. Emodin enhanced ROS production in COC1/DDP cells and consequently sensitized them to cDDP-induced apoptosis. These effects were reversed by addition of the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). Cotreatment with emodin and cDDP inhibited the tumor growth in vivo by increasing tumor cell apoptosis. The emodin-enhanced cDDP cytotoxicity was attributable to downregulation of multidrug resistance-related protein 1 (MRP1) expression. Together, these results suggest that emodin could act as an adjunct to enhance the anticancer effect of cDDP likely through ROS-related downregulation of MRP1 expression, and may be of therapeutic potential in cDDP-refractory ovarian carcinomas. Jun Ma, Jie Yang, Chao Wang, Nan Zhang, Ying Dong, Chengjie Wang, Yu Wang, and Xinjian Lin Copyright © 2014 Jun Ma et al. All rights reserved. Common Polymorphism in the LRP5 Gene May Increase the Risk of Bone Fracture and Osteoporosis Sun, 14 Dec 2014 12:34:06 +0000 The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 gene (LRP5) was identified to be linked to the variation in bone mineral density and types of bone diseases. The present study was aimed at examining the association of LRP5 rs3736228 C>T gene with bone fracture and osteoporosis by meta-analysis. A systematic electronic search of literature was conducted to identify all published studies in English or Chinese on the association of the LRP5 gene with bone fracture and osteoporosis risks. All analyses were calculated using the Version 12.0 STATA software. Odds ratios (ORs) and their corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated. An updated meta-analysis was currently performed, including seven independent case-control studies. Results identified that carriers of rs3736228 C>T variant in the LRP5 gene were associated with an increased risk of developing osteoporosis and fractures under 4 genetic models but not under the dominant model (OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 0.97~1.46, and ). Ethnicity-subgroup analysis implied that LRP5 rs3736228 C>T mutation was more likely to develop osteoporosis and fractures among Asians and Caucasians in majority of subgroups. These results suggest that there is a modest effect of the LRP5 rs3736228 C>T on the increased susceptibility of bone fracture and osteoporosis. Guang-Yue Xu, Yong Qiu, and Hai-Jun Mao Copyright © 2014 Guang-Yue Xu et al. All rights reserved. A Single Imaging Modality in the Diagnosis, Severity, and Prognosis of Pulmonary Embolism Sun, 14 Dec 2014 12:19:42 +0000 Introduction. This study aimed to investigate the currency of computerized tomography pulmonary angiography-based parameters as pulmonary artery obstruction index (PAOI), as well as right ventricular diameters for pulmonary embolism (PE) risk evaluation and prediction of mortality and intensive care unit (ICU) requirement. Materials and Methods. The study retrospectively enrolled 203 patients hospitalized with acute PE. PAOI was calculated according to Qanadli score. Results. Forty-three patients (23.9%) were hospitalized in the ICU. Nineteen patients (10.6%) died during the 30-day follow-up period. The optimal cutoff value of PAOI for PE 30th day mortality and ICU requirement were found as 36.5% in ROC curve analysis. The pulmonary artery systolic pressure had a significant positive correlation with right/left ventricular diameter ratio (, ), PAOI (, ), and pulmonary artery diameter (, ). The patients with PAOI values higher than 36.5% have a 5.7-times increased risk of death. Conclusion. PAOI is a fast and promising parameter for risk assessment in patients with acute PE. With greater education of clinicians in this radiological scoring, a rapid assessment for diagnosis, clinical risk evaluation, and prognosis may be possible in emergency services without the need for echocardiography. Hadice Selimoglu Sen, Özlem Abakay, Mehmet Güli Cetincakmak, Cengizhan Sezgi, Süreyya Yilmaz, Melike Demir, Mahsuk Taylan, and Hatice Gümüs Copyright © 2014 Hadice Selimoglu Sen et al. All rights reserved. Identification of a Marine Bacillus Strain C5 and Parathion-Methyl Degradation Characteristics of the Extracellular Esterase B1 Thu, 11 Dec 2014 07:01:29 +0000 A bacterial strain C5 that can produce new type of marine esterase was isolated and screened from marine sludge. According to 16S rRNA sequence analysis and physiological and biochemical experiments, the strain was identified as Bacillus subtilis. A single isozyme with a molecular weight of 86 kDa was observed by SDS-PAGE and native-PAGE. On this basis, the mechanism of esterase B1 secreted by strain C5 degrading parathion-methyl was explored, and the effects of temperature and pH on the degradation rate were investigated. From the results, p-nitrophenol was one of the degradation products of B1 degrading parathion-methyl, and the best degradation effect could be achieved at the temperature of 40°C and the neutral pH value. Jianhua Hao, Junzhong Liu, and Mi Sun Copyright © 2014 Jianhua Hao et al. All rights reserved. DBC1/CCAR2 and CCAR1 Are Largely Disordered Proteins that Have Evolved from One Common Ancestor Thu, 11 Dec 2014 00:10:50 +0000 Deleted in breast cancer 1 (DBC1, CCAR2, KIAA1967) is a large, predominantly nuclear, multidomain protein that modulates gene expression by inhibiting several epigenetic modifiers, including the deacetylases SIRT1 and HDAC3, and the methyltransferase SUV39H1. DBC1 shares many highly conserved protein domains with its paralog cell cycle and apoptosis regulator 1 (CCAR1, CARP-1). In this study, we examined the full-length sequential and structural properties of DBC1 and CCAR1 from multiple species and correlated these properties with evolution. Our data shows that the conserved domains shared between DBC1 and CCAR1 have similar domain structures, as well as similar patterns of predicted disorder in less-conserved intrinsically disordered regions. Our analysis indicates similarities between DBC1, CCAR1, and the nematode protein lateral signaling target 3 (LST-3), suggesting that DBC1 and CCAR1 may have evolved from LST-3. Our data also suggests that DBC1 emerged later in evolution than CCAR1. DBC1 contains regions that show less conservation across species as compared to the same regions in CCAR1, suggesting a continuously evolving scenario for DBC1. Overall, this study provides insight into the structure and evolution of DBC1 and CCAR1, which may impact future studies on the biological functions of these proteins. Jessica Brunquell, Jia Yuan, Aqeela Erwin, Sandy D. Westerheide, and Bin Xue Copyright © 2014 Jessica Brunquell et al. All rights reserved. Treatment for Intramuscular Lipoma Frequently Confused with Sarcoma: A 6-Year Restrospective Study and Literature Review Wed, 10 Dec 2014 00:11:22 +0000 Introduction. Intramuscular lipoma is a very rare form of lipoma, known to be categorized as an infiltrating lipoma due to its tendencies to infiltrate the muscle or the synovium. Contrary to other subcutaneous lipomas, even after surgical removal, the rate of local recurrence ranges at a high rate from 50∼80% and differential diagnosis with liposarcoma is very difficult. Patients and Methods. A retrospective chart review was conducted for a total of 27 patients. Before performing a surgery based on the types of mass, a radiologic imaging study was performed. An intraoperative frozen biopsy was performed on every patient and the results were compared. The progress was monitored every 3 to 6 months for recurrence or struggles with rehabilitation. Results. There were 13 male and 14 female patients with an average age of 54.6. The average tumor size was 8.2 cm (1.1 cm∼31.6 cm). Excision was performed using a wide excision. All 27 individuals were initially diagnosed as intramuscular lipoma; however, 1 of the patients was rediagnosed as liposarcoma in the final checkup. The patients had an average of 3 years and 1 month of follow-up and did not suffer recurrences. Conclusion. Thus, it is essential that a frozen biopsy is performed during the surgery in order to identify its malignancy. And a wide excision like malignant tumor operation is a principle of treatment. Hyun Ho Han, Jong Yun Choi, Bommie F. Seo, Suk-Ho Moon, Deuk Young Oh, Sang Tae Ahn, and Jong Won Rhie Copyright © 2014 Hyun Ho Han et al. All rights reserved. Hypoglossal-Facial Nerve Reconstruction Using a Y-Tube-Conduit Reduces Aberrant Synkinetic Movements of the Orbicularis Oculi and Vibrissal Muscles in Rats Tue, 09 Dec 2014 09:30:15 +0000 The facial nerve is the most frequently damaged nerve in head and neck trauma. Patients undergoing facial nerve reconstruction often complain about disturbing abnormal synkinetic movements of the facial muscles (mass movements, synkinesis) which are thought to result from misguided collateral branching of regenerating motor axons and reinnervation of inappropriate muscles. Here, we examined whether use of an aorta Y-tube conduit during reconstructive surgery after facial nerve injury reduces synkinesis of orbicularis oris (blink reflex) and vibrissal (whisking) musculature. The abdominal aorta plus its bifurcation was harvested () for Y-tube conduits. Animal groups comprised intact animals (Group 1), those receiving hypoglossal-facial nerve end-to-end coaptation alone (HFA; Group 2), and those receiving hypoglossal-facial nerve reconstruction using a Y-tube (HFA-Y-tube, Group 3). Videotape motion analysis at 4 months showed that HFA-Y-tube group showed a reduced synkinesis of eyelid and whisker movements compared to HFA alone. Yasemin Kaya, Umut Ozsoy, Murat Turhan, Doychin N. Angelov, and Levent Sarikcioglu Copyright © 2014 Yasemin Kaya et al. All rights reserved. Scotopic Microperimetry in the Early Diagnosis of Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Preliminary Study Tue, 09 Dec 2014 00:10:30 +0000 Background. Recent clinical studies have shown that, in some degenerative retinal diseases, like age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the sensitivity of the rods decreases more rapidly than the sensitivity of the cones. The aim of this study was to evaluate if there is a correlation between the presence of hard drusen at the macular level and the rod damage responsible for the reduction in scotopic retinal sensitivity in subjects at risk for AMD. Methods. The authors selected 24 subjects (14 men and 10 women) with an average age of 67.25 ± 5.7 years. Macular hard drusen were present in 50% of the subjects at the fundus oculi exam. The researchers evaluated the retinal sensitivity to light in mesopic and scotopic conditions of each subject with an MP-1 scotopic microperimeter (MP-1S). Results. In subjects with hard drusen in the fundus oculi examination, there was a statistically significant reduction in scotopic retinal sensitivity, while the mesopic retinal sensitivity was not compromised. Conclusion. This study revealed how the presence of hard drusen at the macular level is associated with a reduction in scotopic retinal sensitivity compared to a control group of healthy subjects. Retinal functionality in a scotopic setting examined with MP-1S could be useful in early diagnosis of AMD. Marcella Nebbioso, Andrea Barbato, and Nicola Pescosolido Copyright © 2014 Marcella Nebbioso et al. All rights reserved. Molecular and Cellular Basis of Autosomal Recessive Primary Microcephaly Mon, 08 Dec 2014 00:10:43 +0000 Autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH) is a rare hereditary neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a marked reduction in brain size and intellectual disability. MCPH is genetically heterogeneous and can exhibit additional clinical features that overlap with related disorders including Seckel syndrome, Meier-Gorlin syndrome, and microcephalic osteodysplastic dwarfism. In this review, we discuss the key proteins mutated in MCPH. To date, MCPH-causing mutations have been identified in twelve different genes, many of which encode proteins that are involved in cell cycle regulation or are present at the centrosome, an organelle crucial for mitotic spindle assembly and cell division. We highlight recent findings on MCPH proteins with regard to their role in cell cycle progression, centrosome function, and early brain development. Marine Barbelanne and William Y. Tsang Copyright © 2014 Marine Barbelanne and William Y. Tsang. All rights reserved. Barcoding Melting Curve Analysis for Rapid, Sensitive, and Discriminating Authentication of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) from Its Adulterants Sun, 07 Dec 2014 14:22:31 +0000 Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is one of the most important and expensive medicinal spice products in the world. Because of its high market value and premium price, saffron is often adulterated through the incorporation of other materials, such as Carthamus tinctorius L. and Calendula officinalis L. flowers, Hemerocallis L. petals, Daucus carota L. fleshy root, Curcuma longa L. rhizomes, Zea may L., and Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. stigmas. To develop a straightforward, nonsequencing method for rapid, sensitive, and discriminating detection of these adulterants in traded saffron, we report here the application of a barcoding melting curve analysis method (Bar-MCA) that uses the universal chloroplast plant DNA barcoding region trnH-psbA to identify adulterants. When amplified at DNA concentrations and annealing temperatures optimized for the curve analysis, peaks were formed at specific locations for saffron (81.92°C) and the adulterants: D. carota (81.60°C), C. tinctorius (80.10°C), C. officinalis (79.92°C), Dendranthema morifolium (Ramat.) Tzvel. (79.62°C), N. nucifera (80.58°C), Hemerocallis fulva (L.) L. (84.78°C), and Z. mays (84.33°C). The constructed melting curves for saffron and its adulterants have significantly different peak locations or shapes. In conclusion, Bar-MCA could be a faster and more cost-effective method to authenticate saffron and detect its adulterants. Chao Jiang, Liang Cao, Yuan Yuan, Min Chen, Yan Jin, and Luqi Huang Copyright © 2014 Chao Jiang et al. All rights reserved. Vinpocetine and Pyritinol: A New Model for Blood Rheological Modulation in Cerebrovascular Disorders—A Randomized Controlled Clinical Study Sun, 07 Dec 2014 14:15:04 +0000 Blood and plasma viscosity are the major factors affecting blood flow and normal circulation. Whole blood viscosity is mainly affected by plasma viscosity, red blood cell deformability/aggregation and hematocrit, and other physiological factors. Thirty patients (twenty males + ten females) with age range 50–65 years, normotensive with history of cerebrovascular disorders, were selected according to the American Heart Stroke Association. Blood viscosity and other rheological parameters were measured after two-day abstinence from any medications. Dual effects of vinpocetine and pyritinol exhibit significant effects on all hemorheological parameters (), especially on low shear whole blood viscosity (), but they produced insignificant effects on total serum protein and high shear whole blood viscosity (). Therefore, joint effects of vinpocetine and pyritinol improve blood and plasma viscosity in patients with cerebrovascular disorders. Hayder M. Alkuraishy, Ali I. Al-Gareeb, and Ali K. Albuhadilly Copyright © 2014 Hayder M. Alkuraishy et al. All rights reserved. Increased Serum Levels of Inflammatory Mediators and Low Frequency of Regulatory T Cells in the Peripheral Blood of Preeclamptic Mexican Women Sun, 07 Dec 2014 12:01:26 +0000 Regulatory T cells (; CD4+CD2Foxp3+) are critical in maintaining immune tolerance during pregnancy and uterine vascularization. In this study, we show that, in Mexican women with different preeclamptic severity levels, the number of and the subset of CD4+CD2Foxp3+ are decreased compared with those of normotensive pregnant women (NP). Moreover, a systemic inflammatory state is a pivotal feature in the pathogenesis of this disorder and could be related to hypertension and endothelial dysfunction. Likewise, we observed elevated levels of IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-8 in the serum of severe preeclamptic patients (SPE); no differences were found in the IL-1β and IL-10 levels compared with those of NP patients. An analysis of chemokines in the preeclamptic serum samples showed high levels of CXCL10, CCL2, and CXCL9. Our findings suggest that the preeclamptic state is linked with systemic inflammation and reduced numbers of . Mario Adan Moreno-Eutimio, José María Tovar-Rodríguez, Karina Vargas-Avila, Nayeli Goreti Nieto-Velázquez, María Guadalupe Frías-De-León, Mónica Sierra-Martinez, and Gustavo Acosta-Altamirano Copyright © 2014 Mario Adan Moreno-Eutimio et al. All rights reserved.