Behavioural Neurology The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Mortality and One-Year Functional Outcome in Elderly and Very Old Patients with Severe Traumatic Brain Injuries: Observed and Predicted Tue, 24 Nov 2015 06:44:53 +0000 The aim of the present study was to evaluate mortality and functional outcome in old and very old patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and compare to the predicted outcome according to the internet based CRASH (Corticosteroid Randomization After Significant Head injury) model based prediction, from the Medical Research Council (MRC). Methods. Prospective, national multicenter study including patients with severe TBI ≥65 years. Predicted mortality and outcome were calculated based on clinical information (CRASH basic) (age, GCS score, and pupil reactivity to light), as well as with additional CT findings (CRASH CT). Observed 14-day mortality and favorable/unfavorable outcome according to the Glasgow Outcome Scale at one year was compared to the predicted outcome according to the CRASH models. Results. 97 patients, mean age 75 (SD 7) years, 64% men, were included. Two patients were lost to follow-up; 48 died within 14 days. The predicted versus the observed odds ratio (OR) for mortality was 2.65. Unfavorable outcome (GOSE < 5) was observed at one year follow-up in 72% of patients. The CRASH models predicted unfavorable outcome in all patients. Conclusion. The CRASH model overestimated mortality and unfavorable outcome in old and very old Norwegian patients with severe TBI. Cecilie Røe, Toril Skandsen, Unn Manskow, Tiina Ader, and Audny Anke Copyright © 2015 Cecilie Røe et al. All rights reserved. Biomarkers of Eating Disorders Using Support Vector Machine Analysis of Structural Neuroimaging Data: Preliminary Results Mon, 16 Nov 2015 09:52:12 +0000 Presently, there are no valid biomarkers to identify individuals with eating disorders (ED). The aim of this work was to assess the feasibility of a machine learning method for extracting reliable neuroimaging features allowing individual categorization of patients with ED. Support Vector Machine (SVM) technique, combined with a pattern recognition method, was employed utilizing structural magnetic resonance images. Seventeen females with ED (six with diagnosis of anorexia nervosa and 11 with bulimia nervosa) were compared against 17 body mass index-matched healthy controls (HC). Machine learning allowed individual diagnosis of ED versus HC with an Accuracy ≥ 0.80. Voxel-based pattern recognition analysis demonstrated that voxels influencing the classification Accuracy involved the occipital cortex, the posterior cerebellar lobule, precuneus, sensorimotor/premotor cortices, and the medial prefrontal cortex, all critical regions known to be strongly involved in the pathophysiological mechanisms of ED. Although these findings should be considered preliminary given the small size investigated, SVM analysis highlights the role of well-known brain regions as possible biomarkers to distinguish ED from HC at an individual level, thus encouraging the translational implementation of this new multivariate approach in the clinical practice. Antonio Cerasa, Isabella Castiglioni, Christian Salvatore, Angela Funaro, Iolanda Martino, Stefania Alfano, Giulia Donzuso, Paolo Perrotta, Maria Cecilia Gioia, Maria Carla Gilardi, and Aldo Quattrone Copyright © 2015 Antonio Cerasa et al. All rights reserved. Gender Differences in the Behavioral Symptom Severity of Prader-Willi Syndrome Sun, 08 Nov 2015 09:59:01 +0000 Objectives. This study measured gender differences in Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) in regard to the severity of behavioral symptoms. Methods. The Food Related Problem Questionnaire (FRPQ), the Aberrant Behavior Checklist Japanese Version, the Childhood Routines Inventory, the Pervasive Developmental Disorders Autism Society Japan Rating Scale, and Japanese ADHD-RS were administered to PWS patients (45 males aged 6 to 58 and 37 females aged 6 to 45). To examine the effects that gender and genotype have on the severity of each symptom, two-way ANOVAs were conducted. Results. Significant interactions were found only in regard to FRPQ scores, such as FRPQ total score ( = 8.43, ). The FRPQ of male deletion (DEL) individuals was higher than that of female DEL and male mUPD. The FRPQ of male maternal uniparental disomy (mUPD) was lower than that of female mUPD. Conclusions. In terms of problem behaviors, routines, autistic behaviors, and hyperactivity, no significant differences were found. Food-related behaviors in DEL were more severe in males, although those in mUPD were less severe in males. Masao Gito, Hiroshi Ihara, Hiroyuki Ogata, Masayuki Sayama, Nobuyuki Murakami, Toshiro Nagai, Tadayuki Ayabe, Yuji Oto, and Kazutaka Shimoda Copyright © 2015 Masao Gito et al. All rights reserved. Autism-Like Behavior and Epigenetic Changes Associated with Autism as Consequences of In Utero Exposure to Environmental Pollutants in a Mouse Model Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:19:22 +0000 We tested the hypothesis that in utero exposure to heavy metals increases autism-like behavioral phenotypes in adult animals and induces epigenetic changes in genes that have roles in the etiology of autism. Mouse dams were treated with cadmium, lead, arsenate, manganese, and mercury via drinking water from gestational days (E) 1–10. Valproic acid (VPA) injected intraperitoneally once on (E) 8.5 served as a positive control. Young male offspring were tested for behavioral deficits using four standardized behavioral assays. In this study, in utero exposure to heavy metals resulted in multiple behavioral abnormalities that persisted into adulthood. VPA and manganese induced changes in perseverative/impulsive behavior and social dominance behavior, arsenic caused changes only in perseverative/impulsive behavior, and lead induced abnormalities in social interaction in comparison to the control animals. Brain samples from Mn, Pb, and VPA treated and control animals were evaluated for changes in CpG island methylation in promoter regions and associated changes in gene expression. The Chd7 gene, essential for neural crest cell migration and patterning, was found to be hypomethylated in each experimental animal tested compared to water-treated controls. Furthermore, distinct patterns of CpG island methylation yielded novel candidate genes for further investigation. Denise S. Hill, Robert Cabrera, Deeann Wallis Schultz, Huiping Zhu, Wei Lu, Richard H. Finnell, and Bogdan J. Wlodarczyk Copyright © 2015 Denise S. Hill et al. All rights reserved. Functional Performance and Associations between Performance Tests and Neurological Assessment Differ in Men and Women with Parkinson’s Disease Mon, 26 Oct 2015 08:10:21 +0000 Background. Neurological assessment of a patient with Parkinson’s disease (PD) is expected to reflect upon functional performance. As women are known to report more limitations even for same observed functional performance level, present study was designed to examine whether associations between neurological assessments and functional performance differ across genders. Methods. 14 men and 14 women with PD participated. Functional performance was assessed by measuring walking speeds on 10-meter walk test (10MWT) and by performing timed-up-and-go-test (TUG). Neurological assessment included Hoehn and Yahr Scale (HY), Movement Disorders Society Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS), Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living Scale (S-E), and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). Results. In women with PD, Kendall’s tau-b correlation analyses revealed significant correlations between functional performance tests and neurological assessment measures, with the exception in MMSE. No corresponding associations were found for men, although they demonstrated better functional performance, as expected. Conclusion. Men in similar clinical stage of the PD perform better on functional tests than women. Disease severity reflects upon functional performance differently in men and women with PD. Results indicate that when interpreting the assessment results of both functional performance and neurological assessment tests, the gender of the patient should be taken into consideration. Kadri Medijainen, Mati Pääsuke, Aet Lukmann, and Pille Taba Copyright © 2015 Kadri Medijainen et al. All rights reserved. The Effects of Gender Differences in Patients with Depression on Their Emotional Working Memory and Emotional Experience Thu, 22 Oct 2015 08:59:01 +0000 A large amount of research has been conducted on the effects of sex hormones on gender differences in patients with depression, yet research on cognitive differences between male and female patients with depression is insufficient. This study uses emotion pictures to investigate the differences of the emotional working memory ability and emotional experience in male and female patients with depression. Despite identifying that the working memory of patients with depression is impaired, our study found no significant gender differences in emotional working memory. Moreover, the research results revealed that memory effects of mood congruence are produced in both men and women, which may explain why the depression state can be maintained. Furthermore, female patients have more emotional experiences than male patients, which is particularly significant in terms of negative emotional experiences. This result provides cognitive evidence to explain why women suffer from longer terms of depression, are more susceptible to relapse, and can more easily suffer from major depressive disorder in the future. Mi Li, Shengfu Lu, Gang Wang, and Ning Zhong Copyright © 2015 Mi Li et al. All rights reserved. Whakawhiti Kōrero, a Method for the Development of a Cultural Assessment Tool, Te Waka Kuaka, in Māori Traumatic Brain Injury Wed, 21 Oct 2015 12:04:18 +0000 The importance of tools for the measurement of outcomes and needs in traumatic brain injury is well recognised. The development of tools for these injuries in indigenous communities has been limited despite the well-documented disparity of brain injury. The wairua theory of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in Māori proposes that a culturally defined injury occurs in tandem with the physical injury. A cultural response is therefore indicated. This research investigates a Māori method used in the development of cultural needs assessment tool designed to further examine needs associated with the culturally determined injury and in preparation for formal validation. Whakawhiti kōrero is a method used to develop better statements in the development of the assessment tool. Four wānanga (traditional fora) were held including one with whānau (extended family) with experience of traumatic brain injury. The approach was well received. A final version, Te Waka Kuaka, is now ready for validation. Whakawhiti kōrero is an indigenous method used in the development of cultural needs assessment tool in Māori traumatic brain injury. This method is likely to have wider applicability, such as Mental Health and Addictions Services, to ensure robust process of outcome measure and needs assessment development. Hinemoa Elder and Paula Kersten Copyright © 2015 Hinemoa Elder and Paula Kersten. All rights reserved. Depression and Anxiety among Patients with Epilepsy and Multiple Sclerosis: UAE Comparative Study Wed, 21 Oct 2015 07:38:32 +0000 Depression and anxiety are highly prevalent in patients with epilepsy (PWE), with prevalence rates ranging from 20% to 55%. The cause of this increased rate is multifactorial. Depression and epilepsy are thought to share the same pathogenic mechanism. Anxiety, on the other hand, seems to have a prevalence rate among PWE comparable to, or even higher than, those reported for depression, and it is closely linked to epilepsy. To test this hypothesis, we screened for depression and anxiety 186 and 160 patients attending the epilepsy and MS clinics, respectively, using standardized screening tools to determine the rates of both depression and anxiety, comparing these rates to 186 age, sex matched controls. Among the three groups, only patients with epilepsy were at increased risk of having depression (OR = 1.9), whereas anxiety was not. This finding could point to the shared pathogenic mechanisms hypothesis between depression and epilepsy. Taoufik Alsaadi, Khadija El Hammasi, Tarek M. Shahrour, Mustafa Shakra, Lamya Turkawi, Wassim Nasreddine, and Mufeed Raoof Copyright © 2015 Taoufik Alsaadi et al. All rights reserved. Gender Differences in Childhood Lyme Neuroborreliosis Tue, 20 Oct 2015 11:37:07 +0000 Background. Many neurological diseases show differences between genders. We studied gender differences in childhood Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) in an endemic area of Lyme borreliosis in Norway. Methods. In a population based study, all children (<14 years of age) with symptoms suspicious of LNB, including all children with acute facial nerve palsy, were evaluated for LNB by medical history, clinical examination, blood tests, and lumbar puncture. LNB was diagnosed according to international criteria. Results. 142 children were diagnosed with LNB during 2001–2009. Facial nerve palsy was more common in girls (86%) than in boys (62%) , but headache and/or neck stiffness as the only symptom was more common in boys (30%) than in girls (10%) . The girls were younger than boys and had a shorter duration of symptoms, but boys had a higher level of pleocytosis than girls. In a multivariate analysis, both gender and having headache and neck stiffness were associated with a higher level of pleocytosis. Conclusion. Girls and boys have different clinical presentations of LNB, and boys have a higher level of inflammation than girls independent of the clinical presentation. Dag Tveitnes and Knut Øymar Copyright © 2015 Dag Tveitnes and Knut Øymar. All rights reserved. Psychological Outcome in Young Survivors of Severe TBI: A Cross-Informant Comparison Thu, 15 Oct 2015 08:46:59 +0000 Objective. To investigate the psychological outcome and the agreement between self-ratings and proxy-ratings in young individuals after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods. Twenty pairs of former patients who sustained a severe TBI in their adolescence or early adulthood and their significant others (SOs) were contacted around 66 months after injury to complete a measure of psychological and behavioral problems. The Adult Self-Report 18–59 and the Adult Behavior Checklist 18–59 were used. Results. Results showed significant differences compared to the normative sample in the domains withdrawal, attention, and intrusive and internalizing problems. Good or excellent levels of agreement were found between the self-rating and the proxy-rating in overt areas such as somatic complaints and aggressive and intrusive behavior. Fair or poor levels of agreement were found in nonovert areas such as anxiety and depression, withdrawal, thought and attention problems, and personal strength. Conclusion. The findings show that young patients experience psychological dysfunction. Our study suggests that the use of either a self-rating or a proxy-rating would be appropriate for evaluating overt domains, regarding the good to excellent levels of agreement. However, in nonovert domains, such as withdrawal and attention, an additional proxy-rating from a SO could provide supplementary information and build a more complete objective assessment. Karoline Doser, Ingrid Poulsen, and Anne Norup Copyright © 2015 Karoline Doser et al. All rights reserved. Life after Adolescent and Adult Moderate and Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: Self-Reported Executive, Emotional, and Behavioural Function 2–5 Years after Injury Tue, 13 Oct 2015 16:46:01 +0000 Survivors of moderate-severe Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) are at risk for long-term cognitive, emotional, and behavioural problems. This prospective cohort study investigated self-reported executive, emotional, and behavioural problems in the late chronic phase of moderate and severe TBI, if demographic characteristics (i.e., age, years of education), injury characteristics (Glasgow Coma Scale score, MRI findings such as traumatic axonal injury (TAI), or duration of posttraumatic amnesia), symptoms of depression, or neuropsychological variables in the first year after injury predicted long-term self-reported function. Self-reported executive, emotional, and behavioural functioning were assessed among individuals with moderate and severe TBI (, age range 15–65 years at time of injury) 2–5 years after TBI, compared to a healthy matched control group . Results revealed significantly more attentional, emotional regulation, and psychological difficulties in the TBI group than controls. Demographic and early clinical variables were associated with poorer cognitive and emotional outcome. Fewer years of education and depressive symptoms predicted greater executive dysfunction. Younger age at injury predicted more aggressive and rule-breaking behaviour. TAI and depressive symptoms predicted Internalizing problems and greater executive dysfunction. In conclusion, age, education, TAI, and depression appear to elevate risk for poor long-term outcome, emphasising the need for long-term follow-up of patients presenting with risk factors. Torun Gangaune Finnanger, Alexander Olsen, Toril Skandsen, Stian Lydersen, Anne Vik, Kari Anne I. Evensen, Cathy Catroppa, Asta K. Håberg, Stein Andersson, and Marit S. Indredavik Copyright © 2015 Torun Gangaune Finnanger et al. All rights reserved. Music in the Brain: From Listening to Playing Mon, 12 Oct 2015 13:16:01 +0000 Masayuki Satoh, Stefan Evers, Shinichi Furuya, and Kentaro Ono Copyright © 2015 Masayuki Satoh et al. All rights reserved. Music Engineering as a Novel Strategy for Enhancing Music Enjoyment in the Cochlear Implant Recipient Mon, 12 Oct 2015 09:49:37 +0000 Objective. Enjoyment of music remains an elusive goal following cochlear implantation. We test the hypothesis that reengineering music to reduce its complexity can enhance the listening experience for the cochlear implant (CI) listener. Methods. Normal hearing (NH) adults () and CI listeners () evaluated a piece of country music on three enjoyment modalities: pleasantness, musicality, and naturalness. Participants listened to the original version along with 20 modified, less complex, versions created by including subsets of the musical instruments from the original song. NH participants listened to the segments both with and without CI simulation processing. Results. Compared to the original song, modified versions containing only 1–3 instruments were less enjoyable to the NH listeners but more enjoyable to the CI listeners and the NH listeners with CI simulation. Excluding vocals and including rhythmic instruments improved enjoyment for NH listeners with CI simulation but made no difference for CI listeners. Conclusions. Reengineering a piece of music to reduce its complexity has the potential to enhance music enjoyment for the cochlear implantee. Thus, in addition to improvements in software and hardware, engineering music specifically for the CI listener may be an alternative means to enhance their listening experience. Gavriel D. Kohlberg, Dean M. Mancuso, Divya A. Chari, and Anil K. Lalwani Copyright © 2015 Gavriel D. Kohlberg et al. All rights reserved. Differences according to Sex in Sociosexuality and Infidelity after Traumatic Brain Injury Mon, 12 Oct 2015 08:58:27 +0000 Objective. To explore differences according to sex in sociosexuality and infidelity in individuals with TBI and in healthy controls. Participants. Forty-two individuals with mild, moderate, and severe TBI having completed a postacute TBI rehabilitation program, at least six months after injury, and 47 healthy controls. Main Measures. Sociosexual Orientation Inventory-Revised (SOI-R) and Attitudes toward Infidelity Scale. Results. Overall, men score significantly higher than women in sociosexuality. However, there was a nonsignificant trend towards a reduction of sociosexuality levels in men with TBI. Infidelity levels were comparable in healthy controls and individuals with TBI. In individuals with TBI, less acceptance of infidelity was significantly associated with an unrestricted sociosexual orientation, but not in healthy controls. Conclusions. As documented in previous cross-cultural studies, men have higher levels of sociosexuality than women. However, men with TBI showed a tendency towards the reduction of sociosexuality. The possibility of a latent explanatory variable is suggested (e.g., post-TBI neuroendocrinological changes). TBI does not seem to have an impact on infidelity, but individuals with TBI who express less acceptance of infidelity also report a more promiscuous mating strategy regarding their behavior, attitudes, and desire. Theoretical implications are discussed in terms of evolutionary theories of human sexuality and neuropsychology. Jhon Alexander Moreno and Michelle McKerral Copyright © 2015 Jhon Alexander Moreno and Michelle McKerral. All rights reserved. Sex Differences in Neuropsychiatric Symptoms of Alzheimer’s Disease: The Modifying Effect of Apolipoprotein E ε4 Status Sun, 11 Oct 2015 13:36:44 +0000 Sex differences in neuropsychiatric symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) have been demonstrated in previous studies, and apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ε4 status influences psychiatric manifestations of AD. However, whether ApoE ε4 status modifies the sex differences in neuropsychiatric symptoms of AD is still unclear. In this study, sex differences in neuropsychiatric abnormalities were stratified and analyzed by ApoE ε4 status in mild AD and moderate to severe AD separately. The Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) were used to assess dementia severity and neuropsychiatric symptoms. No sex differences were found in mild AD. In moderate to severe AD, among ε4 positive individuals, disinhibition was significantly more prevalent (8.0% in men versus 43.2% in women, ) and severer in female patients. The frequency (16.0% in men versus 51.4% in women, ) and score of irritability were of borderline significance after strict Bonferroni correction. In conclusion, this study supported the modifying effect of ApoE ε4 status on sex differences in neuropsychiatric symptoms of AD, and this modifying effect was pronounced in moderate to severe stage of AD. The interaction between gender and ApoE ε4 status should be considered in studies on neuropsychiatric symptoms of AD. Yi Xing, Yi Tang, and Jianping Jia Copyright © 2015 Yi Xing et al. All rights reserved. Relationship between Postmenopausal Estrogen Deficiency and Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Sun, 11 Oct 2015 08:13:59 +0000 Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is one of the most severe forms of stroke, which results from the rupture of a cerebral aneurysm. SAH is the only type of stroke with a female predominance, suggesting that reproductive factors may play a significant role in the etiology. Estrogen has important effects on vascular physiology and pathophysiology of cerebral aneurysm and SAH and, thus, potential therapeutic implications. There have been growing bodies of epidemiological and experimental studies which support the hypothesis of a significant relationship between estrogen deficiency and cerebral aneurysm formation with subsequent SAH. This hypothesis is the focus of this review as well as possible pathology-based therapeutics with regard to aspects of molecular pathophysiology, especially related to women’s health. Sadaharu Tabuchi Copyright © 2015 Sadaharu Tabuchi. All rights reserved. A Disproportionate Burden of Care: Gender Differences in Mental Health, Health-Related Quality of Life, and Social Support in Mexican Multiple Sclerosis Caregivers Sun, 11 Oct 2015 07:52:02 +0000 Background. Multiple sclerosis (MS) rates in Latin America are increasing, and caregivers there experience reduced mental and physical health. Based on rigid gender roles in Latin America, women more often assume caregiving duties, yet the differential impact on women of these duties is unknown. Methods. This study examined gender differences in mental health (Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Satisfaction with Life Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Zarit Burden Inventory), health-related quality of life (HRQOL; Short Form-36), and social support (Interpersonal Support Evaluation List-12) in 81 (66.7% women) Mexican MS caregivers. Results. As compared to men caregivers, women had lower mental health (), HRQOL (), and social support (). This was partially explained by women caregivers providing care for nearly twice as many hours/week as men (79.28 versus 48.48, ) and for nearly three times as many months (66.31 versus 24.30, ). Conclusions. Because gender roles in Latin America influence women to assume more substantial caregiving duties, MS caregiver interventions in Latin America—particularly for women caregivers—should address the influence of gender-role conformity on care and psychosocial functioning. Paul B. Perrin, Ivan Panyavin, Alejandra Morlett Paredes, Adriana Aguayo, Miguel Angel Macias, Brenda Rabago, Sandra J. Fulton Picot, and Juan Carlos Arango-Lasprilla Copyright © 2015 Paul B. Perrin et al. All rights reserved. Traumatic Brain Injury Rehabilitation in Hong Kong: A Review of Practice and Research Thu, 08 Oct 2015 17:25:27 +0000 Background. The rising public health concern regarding traumatic brain injury (TBI) implies a growing need for rehabilitation services for patients surviving TBI. Methods. To this end, this paper reviews the practices and research on TBI rehabilitation in Hong Kong so as to inform future developments in this area. This paper begins by introducing the general situation of TBI patients in Hong Kong and the need for rehabilitation. Next, the trauma system in Hong Kong is introduced. Following that is a detailed description of the rehabilitation services for TBI patients in Hong Kong, as exemplified by a rehabilitation hospital in Hong Kong. This paper will also review intervention studies on rehabilitating brain-injured populations in Hong Kong with respect to various rehabilitation goals. Lastly, the implications of culture-related issues will be discussed in relation to TBI. Results/Conclusions. The intervention studies conducted in Hong Kong are generally successful in achieving various rehabilitative outcomes. Additionally, certain cultural-related issues, such as the stigma associated with TBI, may impede the rehabilitative process and lead to various psychosocial problems. Junhong Yu, Helena M. K. Tam, and Tatia M. C. Lee Copyright © 2015 Junhong Yu et al. All rights reserved. Musical Sequence Learning and EEG Correlates of Audiomotor Processing Wed, 07 Oct 2015 13:06:18 +0000 Our motor and auditory systems are functionally connected during musical performance, and functional imaging suggests that the association is strong enough that passive music listening can engage the motor system. As predictive coding constrains movement sequence selections, could the motor system contribute to sequential processing of musical passages? If this is the case, then we hypothesized that the motor system should respond preferentially to passages of music that contain similar sequential information, even if other aspects of music, such as the absolute pitch, have been altered. We trained piano naive subjects with a learn-to play-by-ear paradigm, to play a simple melodic sequence over five days. After training, we recorded EEG of subjects listening to the song they learned to play, a transposed version of that song, and a control song with different notes and sequence from the learned song. Beta band power over sensorimotor scalp showed increased suppression for the learned song, a moderate level of suppression for the transposed song, and no suppression for the control song. As beta power is associated with attention and motor processing, we interpret this as support of the motor system’s activity during covert perception of music one can play and similar musical sequences. Matt D. Schalles and Jaime A. Pineda Copyright © 2015 Matt D. Schalles and Jaime A. Pineda. All rights reserved. Sound Richness of Music Might Be Mediated by Color Perception: A PET Study Wed, 07 Oct 2015 07:47:45 +0000 Objects. We investigated the role of the fusiform cortex in music processing with the use of PET, focusing on the perception of sound richness. Method. Musically naïve subjects listened to familiar melodies with three kinds of accompaniments: (i) an accompaniment composed of only three basic chords (chord condition), (ii) a simple accompaniment typically used in traditional music text books in elementary school (simple condition), and (iii) an accompaniment with rich and flowery sounds composed by a professional composer (complex condition). Using a PET subtraction technique, we studied changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in simple minus chord, complex minus simple, and complex minus chord conditions. Results. The simple minus chord, complex minus simple, and complex minus chord conditions regularly showed increases in rCBF at the posterior portion of the inferior temporal gyrus, including the LOC and fusiform gyrus. Conclusions. We may conclude that certain association cortices such as the LOC and the fusiform cortex may represent centers of multisensory integration, with foreground and background segregation occurring at the LOC level and the recognition of richness and floweriness of stimuli occurring in the fusiform cortex, both in terms of vision and audition. Masayuki Satoh, Ken Nagata, and Hidekazu Tomimoto Copyright © 2015 Masayuki Satoh et al. All rights reserved. Assessment of Hair Aluminum, Lead, and Mercury in a Sample of Autistic Egyptian Children: Environmental Risk Factors of Heavy Metals in Autism Mon, 05 Oct 2015 11:24:19 +0000 Background and Aims. The etiological factors involved in the etiology of autism remain elusive and controversial, but both genetic and environmental factors have been implicated. The aim of this study was to assess the levels and possible environmental risk factors and sources of exposure to mercury, lead, and aluminum in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as compared to their matched controls. Methods. One hundred ASD children were studied in comparison to 100 controls. All participants were subjected to clinical evaluation and measurement of mercury, lead, and aluminum through hair analysis which reflects past exposure. Results. The mean Levels of mercury, lead, and aluminum in hair of the autistic patients were significantly higher than controls. Mercury, lead, and aluminum levels were positively correlated with maternal fish consumptions, living nearby gasoline stations, and the usage of aluminum pans, respectively. Conclusion. Levels of mercury, lead, and aluminum in the hair of autistic children are higher than controls. Environmental exposure to these toxic heavy metals, at key times in development, may play a causal role in autism. Farida El Baz Mohamed, Eman Ahmed Zaky, Adel Bassuoni El-Sayed, Reham Mohammed Elhossieny, Sally Soliman Zahra, Waleed Salah Eldin, Walaa Yousef Youssef, Rania Abdelmgeed Khaled, and Azza Mohamed Youssef Copyright © 2015 Farida El Baz Mohamed et al. All rights reserved. Music Perception Influences Language Acquisition: Melodic and Rhythmic-Melodic Perception in Children with Specific Language Impairment Mon, 05 Oct 2015 07:58:34 +0000 Language and music share many properties, with a particularly strong overlap for prosody. Prosodic cues are generally regarded as crucial for language acquisition. Previous research has indicated that children with SLI fail to make use of these cues. As processing of prosodic information involves similar skills to those required in music perception, we compared music perception skills (melodic and rhythmic-melodic perception and melody recognition) in a group of children with SLI (, five-year-olds) to two groups of controls, either of comparable age (, five-year-olds) or of age closer to the children with SLI in their language skills and about one year younger (, four-year-olds). Children with SLI performed in most tasks below their age level, closer matching the performance level of younger controls with similar language skills. These data strengthen the view of a strong relation between language acquisition and music processing. This might open a perspective for the possible use of musical material in early diagnosis of SLI and of music in SLI therapy. Stephan Sallat and Sebastian Jentschke Copyright © 2015 Stephan Sallat and Sebastian Jentschke. All rights reserved. The Influence of Music on Prefrontal Cortex during Episodic Encoding and Retrieval of Verbal Information: A Multichannel fNIRS Study Mon, 05 Oct 2015 06:35:53 +0000 Music can be thought of as a complex stimulus able to enrich the encoding of an event thus boosting its subsequent retrieval. However, several findings suggest that music can also interfere with memory performance. A better understanding of the behavioral and neural processes involved can substantially improve knowledge and shed new light on the most efficient music-based interventions. Based on fNIRS studies on music, episodic encoding, and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), this work aims to extend previous findings by monitoring the entire lateral PFC during both encoding and retrieval of verbal material. Nineteen participants were asked to encode lists of words presented with either background music or silence and subsequently tested during a free recall task. Meanwhile, their PFC was monitored using a 48-channel fNIRS system. Behavioral results showed greater chunking of words under the music condition, suggesting the employment of associative strategies for items encoded with music. fNIRS results showed that music provided a less demanding way of modulating both episodic encoding and retrieval, with a general prefrontal decreased activity under the music versus silence condition. This suggests that music-related memory processes rely on specific neural mechanisms and that music can positively influence both episodic encoding and retrieval of verbal information. Laura Ferreri, Emmanuel Bigand, Patrick Bard, and Aurélia Bugaiska Copyright © 2015 Laura Ferreri et al. All rights reserved. Neurophysiological Indicators of Residual Cognitive Capacity in the Minimally Conscious State Sun, 04 Oct 2015 15:15:36 +0000 Background. The diagnostic usefulness of electrophysiological methods in assessing disorders of consciousness (DoC) remains to be established on an individual patient level, and there is need to determine what constitutes robust experimental paradigm to elicit electrophysiological indices of covert cognitive capacity. Objectives. Two tasks encompassing active and passive conditions were explored in an event-related potentials (ERP) study. The task robustness was studied in healthy controls, and their utility to detect covert signs of command-following on an individual patient level was investigated in patients in a minimally conscious state (MCS). Methods. Twenty healthy controls and 20 MCS patients participated. The active tasks included (1) listening for a change of pitch in the subject’s own name (SON) and (2) counting SON, both contrasted to passive conditions. Midline ERPs are reported. Results. A larger P3 response was detected in the counting task compared to active listening to pitch change in the healthy controls. On an individual level, the counting task revealed a higher rate of responders among both healthy subjects and MCS patients. Conclusion. ERP paradigms involving actively counting SON represent a robust paradigm in probing for volitional cognition in minimally conscious patients and add important diagnostic information in some patients. Solveig L. Hauger, Caroline Schnakers, Stein Andersson, Frank Becker, Torgeir Moberget, Joseph T. Giacino, Anne-Kristine Schanke, and Marianne Løvstad Copyright © 2015 Solveig L. Hauger et al. All rights reserved. Interaction of Musicianship and Aging: A Comparison of Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials Sun, 04 Oct 2015 11:43:58 +0000 Objective. The goal of this study was to begin to explore whether the beneficial auditory neural effects of early music training persist throughout life and influence age-related changes in neurophysiological processing of sound. Design. Cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs) elicited by harmonic tone complexes were examined, including P1-N1-P2, mismatch negativity (MMN), and P3a. Study Sample. Data from older adult musicians () and nonmusicians () (ages 55–70 years) were compared to previous data from young adult musicians () and nonmusicians () (ages 18–33 years). Results. P1-N1-P2 amplitudes and latencies did not differ between older adult musicians and nonmusicians; however, MMN and P3a latencies for harmonic tone deviances were earlier for older musicians than older nonmusicians. Comparisons of P1-N1-P2, MMN, and P3a components between older and young adult musicians and nonmusicians suggest that P1 and P2 latencies are significantly affected by age, but not musicianship, while MMN and P3a appear to be more sensitive to effects of musicianship than aging. Conclusions. Findings support beneficial influences of musicianship on central auditory function and suggest a positive interaction between aging and musicianship on the auditory neural system. Jennifer L. O’Brien, Dee A. Nikjeh, and Jennifer J. Lister Copyright © 2015 Jennifer L. O’Brien et al. All rights reserved. Inferior Frontal Gyrus Activation Underlies the Perception of Emotions, While Precuneus Activation Underlies the Feeling of Emotions during Music Listening Sun, 04 Oct 2015 08:54:24 +0000 While music triggers many physiological and psychological reactions, the underlying neural basis of perceived and experienced emotions during music listening remains poorly understood. Therefore, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), I conducted a comparative study of the different brain areas involved in perceiving and feeling emotions during music listening. I measured fMRI signals while participants assessed the emotional expression of music (perceived emotion) and their emotional responses to music (felt emotion). I found that cortical areas including the prefrontal, auditory, cingulate, and posterior parietal cortices were consistently activated by the perceived and felt emotional tasks. Moreover, activity in the inferior frontal gyrus increased more during the perceived emotion task than during a passive listening task. In addition, the precuneus showed greater activity during the felt emotion task than during a passive listening task. The findings reveal that the bilateral inferior frontal gyri and the precuneus are important areas for the perception of the emotional content of music as well as for the emotional response evoked in the listener. Furthermore, I propose that the precuneus, a brain region associated with self-representation, might be involved in assessing emotional responses. Ken-ichi Tabei Copyright © 2015 Ken-ichi Tabei. All rights reserved. The Mismatch Negativity: An Indicator of Perception of Regularities in Music Sun, 04 Oct 2015 08:51:39 +0000 This paper reviews music research using Mismatch Negativity (MMN). MMN is a deviation-specific component of auditory event-related potential (EPR), which detects a deviation between a sound and an internal representation (e.g., memory trace). Recent studies have expanded the notion and the paradigms of MMN to higher-order music processing such as those involving short melodies, harmony chord, and music syntax. In this vein, we firstly reviewed the evolution of MMN from sound to music and then mainly compared the differences of MMN features between musicians and nonmusicians, followed by the discussion of the potential roles of the training effect and the natural exposure in MMN. Since MMN can serve as an index of neural plasticity, it thus can be widely used in clinical and other applied areas, such as detecting music preference in newborns or assessing wholeness of central auditory system of hearing illness. Finally, we pointed out some open questions and further directions. Current music perception research using MMN has mainly focused on relatively low hierarchical structure of music perception. To fully understand the neural substrates underlying processing of regularities in music, it is important and beneficial to combine MMN with other experimental paradigms such as early right-anterior negativity (ERAN). Xide Yu, Tao Liu, and Dingguo Gao Copyright © 2015 Xide Yu et al. All rights reserved. A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study of the Brain of University Students Majoring in Music and Nonmusic Disciplines Thu, 01 Oct 2015 08:57:51 +0000 The brain changes flexibly due to various experiences during the developmental stages of life. Previous voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies have shown volumetric differences between musicians and nonmusicians in several brain regions including the superior temporal gyrus, sensorimotor areas, and superior parietal cortex. However, the reported brain regions depend on the study and are not necessarily consistent. By VBM, we investigated the effect of musical training on the brain structure by comparing university students majoring in music with those majoring in nonmusic disciplines. All participants were right-handed healthy Japanese females. We divided the nonmusic students into two groups and therefore examined three groups: music expert (ME), music hobby (MH), and nonmusic (NM) group. VBM showed that the ME group had the largest gray matter volumes in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG; BA 44), left middle occipital gyrus (BA 18), and bilateral lingual gyrus. These differences are considered to be caused by neuroplasticity during long and continuous musical training periods because the MH group showed intermediate volumes in these regions. Kanako Sato, Eiji Kirino, and Shoji Tanaka Copyright © 2015 Kanako Sato et al. All rights reserved. Melodic Contour Training and Its Effect on Speech in Noise, Consonant Discrimination, and Prosody Perception for Cochlear Implant Recipients Thu, 01 Oct 2015 08:25:08 +0000 Cochlear implant (CI) recipients generally have good perception of speech in quiet environments but difficulty perceiving speech in noisy conditions, reduced sensitivity to speech prosody, and difficulty appreciating music. Auditory training has been proposed as a method of improving speech perception for CI recipients, and recent efforts have focussed on the potential benefits of music-based training. This study evaluated two melodic contour training programs and their relative efficacy as measured on a number of speech perception tasks. These melodic contours were simple 5-note sequences formed into 9 contour patterns, such as “rising” or “rising-falling.” One training program controlled difficulty by manipulating interval sizes, the other by note durations. Sixteen adult CI recipients (aged 26–86 years) and twelve normal hearing (NH) adult listeners (aged 21–42 years) were tested on a speech perception battery at baseline and then after 6 weeks of melodic contour training. Results indicated that there were some benefits for speech perception tasks for CI recipients after melodic contour training. Specifically, consonant perception in quiet and question/statement prosody was improved. In comparison, NH listeners performed at ceiling for these tasks. There was no significant difference between the posttraining results for either training program, suggesting that both conferred benefits for training CI recipients to better perceive speech. Chi Yhun Lo, Catherine M. McMahon, Valerie Looi, and William F. Thompson Copyright © 2015 Chi Yhun Lo et al. All rights reserved. Sexual Functioning, Desire, and Satisfaction in Women with TBI and Healthy Controls Thu, 01 Oct 2015 07:17:51 +0000 Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can substantially alter many areas of a person’s life and there has been little research published regarding sexual functioning in women with TBI. Methods. A total of 58 women (29 with TBI and 29 healthy controls) from Neiva, Colombia, participated. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in sociodemographic characteristics. All 58 women completed the Sexual Quality of Life Questionnaire (SQoL), Female Sexual Functioning Index (FSFI), Sexual Desire Inventory (SDI), and the Sexual Satisfaction Index (ISS). Results. Women with TBI scored statistically significantly lower on the SQoL (), FSFI subscales of desire (), arousal (), lubrication (), orgasm (), and satisfaction (), and the ISS () than healthy controls. Multiple linear regressions revealed that age was negatively associated with some sexuality measures, while months since the TBI incident were positively associated with these variables. Conclusion. These results disclose that women with TBI do not fare as well as controls in these measures of sexual functioning and were less sexually satisfied. Future research is required to further understand the impact of TBI on sexual function and satisfaction to inform for rehabilitation programs. Jenna Strizzi, Laiene Olabarrieta Landa, Monique Pappadis, Silvia Leonor Olivera, Edgar Ricardo Valdivia Tangarife, Inmaculada Fernandez Agis, Paul B. Perrin, and Juan Carlos Arango-Lasprilla Copyright © 2015 Jenna Strizzi et al. All rights reserved.