Table 1: Examples of buffer additives which may be used to facilitate protein refolding (see text references).

AdditiveConcentrationEffect

CHAPS30 mMDetergent
EDTA20 mMChelate
Glycerol10–50%Stabilizer
Guanidine HCl0.1–1 MChaotroph
L-arginine0.4–0.5 MStabilizer
LaroylsarcosinUp to 4 MDetergent
MgCl2/CaCl22–10 mMCation
NaCl/Ammonium sulfate0.2–0.5 MSalt
Non-detergent sulfo betainUp to 1 MSolublizer
PEG 3350Up to 0.5% W/VOsmolyte
SDS0.1%Detergent
Sodium citrate/sulfate0.2–0.5 MSalt
Sucrose/glucoseUp to 0.75 MStabilizer
TMAO1–3 MOsmolyte
Tris0.4–1 MBuffer
Triton X-1000.1–1%Detergent
Tween-800.01%Detergent
GlycineUp to 1 MOsmolyte
ProlineUp to 1 MOsmolyte
Urea0.1–2 MChaotroph