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Biochemistry Research International
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 242764, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/242764
Review Article

Ubiquitin-Mediated Regulation of Endocytosis by Proteins of the Arrestin Family

1Institut Jacques Monod, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UMR 7592, Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 75205 Paris, France
2Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, CSIC-UAM, Arturo Duperier, 4, 28029 Madrid, Spain

Received 1 June 2012; Accepted 28 July 2012

Academic Editor: Dmitry Karpov

Copyright © 2012 Michel Becuwe et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

In metazoans, proteins of the arrestin family are key players of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRS) signaling and trafficking. Following stimulation, activated receptors are phosphorylated, thus allowing the binding of arrestins and hence an “arrest” of receptor signaling. Arrestins act by uncoupling receptors from G proteins and contribute to the recruitment of endocytic proteins, such as clathrin, to direct receptor trafficking into the endocytic pathway. Arrestins also serve as adaptor proteins by promoting the recruitment of ubiquitin ligases and participate in the agonist-induced ubiquitylation of receptors, known to have impact on their subcellular localization and stability. Recently, the arrestin family has expanded following the discovery of arrestin-related proteins in other eukaryotes such as yeasts or fungi. Surprisingly, most of these proteins are also involved in the ubiquitylation and endocytosis of plasma membrane proteins, thus suggesting that the role of arrestins as ubiquitin ligase adaptors is at the core of these proteins' functions. Importantly, arrestins are themselves ubiquitylated, and this modification is crucial for their function. In this paper, we discuss recent data on the intricate connections between arrestins and the ubiquitin pathway in the control of endocytosis.