About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Biochemistry Research International
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 678582, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/678582
Research Article

Effect of Vitamins A, C, and E Supplementation in the Treatment of Metabolic Syndrome in Albino Rats

1Biochemistry Department, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, PMB 2346, Sokoto, Nigeria
2Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, PMB 2346, Sokoto, Nigeria

Received 6 March 2012; Revised 1 June 2012; Accepted 14 June 2012

Academic Editor: Andrei Surguchov

Copyright © 2012 L. S. Bilbis et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. H. M. Lakka, D. E. Laaksonen, T. A. Lakka et al., “The metabolic syndrome and total and cardiovascular disease mortality in middle-aged men,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 288, no. 21, pp. 2709–2716, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. S. Haffner and H. Taegtmeyer, “Epidemic obesity and the metabolic syndrome,” Circulation, vol. 108, no. 13, pp. 1541–1545, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. S. M. Grundy, J. I. Cleeman, S. R. Daniels et al., “Diagnosis and management of the metabolic syndrome: an American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute scientific statement,” Circulation, vol. 112, no. 17, pp. 2735–2752, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. G. C. Doelle, “The clinical picture of metabolic syndrome: an update on this complex of conditions and risk factors,” Postgraduate Medicine, vol. 116, no. 1, pp. 30–38, 2004. View at Scopus
  5. G. Schillaci, M. Pirro, G. Vaudo et al., “Prognostic value of the metabolic syndrome in essential hypertension,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 43, no. 10, pp. 1817–1822, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. S. Aparil, “Metabolic syndrome: the disease of the new millennium,” Baylor College of Medicine, vol. 4, article 4, 2006.
  7. Y. W. Park, S. Zhu, L. Palaniappan, S. Heshka, M. R. Carnethon, and S. B. Heymsfield, “The metabolic syndrome: prevalence and associated risk factor findings in the US population from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 163, no. 4, pp. 427–436, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. R. Gerald, “The metabolic syndrome or the insulin resistance syndrome? Different names, different concepts, and different goals,” Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 283–303, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. D. Darwin and E. Albert, “Metabolic syndrome: time for action,” American Family Physician, vol. 69, no. 12, pp. 2875–2887, 2004. View at Scopus
  10. S. E. Kjeldsen, L. Naditch-Brule, S. Perlini, W. Zidek, and C. Farsang, “Increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome in uncontrolled hypertension across Europe: the Global Cardiometabolic Risk Profile in Patients with hypertension disease survey,” Journal of Hypertension, vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 2064–2070, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. A. Misra and L. Khurana, “Obesity and the metabolic syndrome in developing countries,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 93, no. 11, pp. s9–s30, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. A. A. Motala, T. Esterhuizen, E. Gouws, F. J. Pirie, and A. K. Mahomed, “Diabetes and other disorders of glycemia in a rural South African community: prevalence and associated risk factors,” Diabetes Care, vol. 31, no. 9, pp. 1783–1788, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. K. Shirai, “Obesity as the core of the metabolic syndrome and the management of coronary heart disease,” Current Medical Research and Opinion, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 295–304, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. S. S. Franklin, “Hypertension in the metabolic syndrome,” Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 287–298, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. K. Miyajima, S. Minatoguchi, Y. Ito et al., “Reduction of QTc dispersion by the angiotensin II receptor blocker valsartan may be related to its anti-oxidative stress effect in patients with essential hypertension,” Hypertension Research, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 307–313, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. S. John and R. Schmieder, “Potential mechanisms of impaired endothelial function in arterial hypertension and hypercholesterolemia,” Current Hypertension Reports, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 199–207, 2003. View at Scopus
  17. K. M. Hoagland, K. G. Maier, and R. J. Roman, “Contributions of 20-HETE to the antihypertensive effects of tempol in Dahl salt-sensitive rats,” Hypertension, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 697–702, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. S. J. Duffy, N. Gokce, M. Holbrook et al., “Effect of ascorbic acid treatment on conduit vessel endothelial dysfunction in patients with hypertension,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 280, no. 2, pp. H528–H534, 2001. View at Scopus
  19. M. Boshtam, M. Rafiei, K. Sadeghi, and N. Sarraf-Zadegan, “Vitamin E can reduce blood pressure in mild hypertensives,” International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research, vol. 72, no. 5, pp. 309–314, 2002. View at Scopus
  20. P. Trinder, “Determination of blood glucose using 4-amino phenazone as oxygen acceptor.,” Journal of Clinical Pathology, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 24–25, 1969. View at Scopus
  21. C. C. Allain, L. S. Poon, and C. S. G. Chan, “Enzymatic determination of total serum cholesterol,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 470–475, 1974. View at Scopus
  22. N. W. Tietz, “Serum triglyceride determination,” in Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests, pp. 554–556, W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 2nd edition, 1990.
  23. M. Burstein, H. R. Scholnick, and R. Morfin, “Rapid method for the isolation of lipoproteins from human serum by precipitation with polyanions,” Journal of Lipid Research, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 583–595, 1970. View at Scopus
  24. W. T. Friedewald, R. I. Levy, and D. S. Fredrickson, “Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 499–502, 1972. View at Scopus
  25. R. D. Abbott, P. W. F. Wilson, W. B. Kannel, and W. P. Castelli, “High density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol screening, and myocardial infarction. The Framingham Study,” Arteriosclerosis, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 207–211, 1988. View at Scopus
  26. S. A. Hashim and G. R. Schuttringer, “Rapid determination of tocopherol in marco- and microquantities of plasma. Results obtained in various nutrition and metabolic studies,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 137–145, 1966. View at Scopus
  27. S. Natelson, “Determination of Ascorbic acid using 2, 4- Dinitrophenyl hydrazine,” in Technique of Clinical Chemistry, pp. 165–166, Charles C. Thomas, Spring Field, New York, NY, USA, 3rd edition, 1971.
  28. D. Koracevic, G. Koracevic, V. Djordjevic, S. Andrejevic, and V. Cosic, “Method for the measurement of antioxidant activity in human fluids,” Journal of Clinical Pathology, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 356–361, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. W. G. Niehaus and B. Samuelsson, “Formation of malonaldehyde from phospholipid arachidonate during microsomal lipid peroxidation.,” European Journal of Biochemistry, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 126–130, 1968. View at Scopus
  30. D. R. Matthews, J. P. Hosker, and A. S. Rudenski, “Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and β-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man,” Diabetologia, vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 412–419, 1985. View at Scopus
  31. X. Chen, R. M. Touyz, J. B. Park, and E. L. Schiffrin, “Antioxidant effects of vitamins C and E are associated with altered activation of vascular NADPH oxidase and superoxide dismutase in stroke-prone SHR,” Hypertension, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 606–611, 2001. View at Scopus
  32. B. R. Maharjan, J. C. Jha, D. Adhikari et al., “A study of oxidative stress, antioxidant status and lipid profile in diabetic patient in the western region of Nepal,” Kathmandu University Medical Journal, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 63–68, 2008. View at Scopus
  33. M. S. Saha, N. K. Sana, and K. S. Ranajit, “Serum lipid profile of hypertensive patients in the Northern region of Bangladesh,” Journal of Bioscience, vol. 14, pp. 93–98, 2006.
  34. U. K. Biswas and A. Kumar, “A study on lipid profile, oxidation stress and carbonic anhydrase activity in patients with essential hypertension,” Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 3414–3420, 2010. View at Scopus
  35. A. Brehm, G. Pfeiler, G. Pacini, H. Vierhapper, and M. Roden, “Relationship between serum lipoprotein ratios and insulin resistance in obesity,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 50, no. 12, pp. 2316–2322, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. E. A. Brinton, “Controversies in dyslipidemias: atheroprevention in diabetes and insulin resistance,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1055, pp. 159–178, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. J. P. Després, B. Lamarche, P. Mauriège et al., “Hyperinsulinemia as an independent risk factor for ischemic heart disease,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 334, no. 15, pp. 952–957, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. S. Lehto, T. Rönnemaa, K. Pyörälä, and M. Laakso, “Cardiovascular risk factors clustering with endogenous hyperinsulinaemia predict death from coronary heart disease in patients with Type II diabetes,” Diabetologia, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 148–155, 2000. View at Scopus
  39. M. J. Somers, K. Mavromatis, Z. S. Galis, and D. G. Harrison, “Vascular superoxide production and vasomotor function in hypertension induced by deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt,” Circulation, vol. 101, no. 14, pp. 1722–1728, 2000. View at Scopus
  40. M. Larrousse, E. Bragulat, M. Segarra, C. Sierra, A. Coca, and A. de La Sierra, “Increased levels of atherosclerosis markers in salt-sensitive hypertension,” American Journal of Hypertension, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 87–93, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. N. K. Gopaul, M. D. Manraj, A. Hébé et al., “Oxidative stress could precede endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance in Indian Mauritians with impaired glucose metabolism,” Diabetologia, vol. 44, no. 6, pp. 706–712, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. R. J. Esper, R. A. Nordaby, J. O. Vilariño, A. Paragano, J. L. Cacharrón, and R. A. Machado, “Endothelial dysfunction: a comprehensive appraisal,” Cardiovascular Diabetology, vol. 5, article 4, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. G. E. Sonnenberg, G. R. Krakower, and A. H. Kissebah, “A novel pathway to the manifestations of metabolic syndrome,” Obesity Research, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 180–186, 2004. View at Scopus
  44. A. D. Baron and M. G. Clark, “Role of blood flow in the regulation of muscle glucose uptake,” Annual Review of Nutrition, vol. 17, pp. 487–499, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. T. Ogihara, T. Asano, K. Ando et al., “High-salt diet enhances insulin signaling and induces insulin resistance in Dahl salt-sensitive rats,” Hypertension, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 83–89, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. F. Toshiro, “Insulin resistance and salt-sensitive hypertension in metabolic syndrome,” Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, vol. 22, no. 11, pp. 3102–3107, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. T. A. Baker, S. Milstien, and Z. S. Katusic, “Effect of vitamin C on the availability of tetrahydrobiopterin in human endothelial cells,” Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 333–338, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. R. Heller, G. Werner-Felmayer, and E. R. Werner, “Antioxidants and endothelial nitric oxide synthesis,” European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 62, no. 13, pp. 21–28, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus