Figure 1: Rates of ATP synthesis in isolated mitochondria. The ATP synthesis rate was determined in isolated mitochondria of differentiated myotubes established from lean (open bars) and type 2 diabetic subjects (black bars). Isolated mitochondria were incubated with various substrates as indicated, supplemented with/without hexokinase as described in Section 2. (a) shows ATP synthesis in isolated mitochondria without hexokinase treatment. * versus control. (b) shows ATP synthesis in isolated mitochondria with hexokinase treatment. * versus control. (c) shows normalised ATP synthesis rates without hexokinase treatment. (d) shows normalised ATP synthesis rates with hexokinase treatment. Data are means ± SE, in each group. acetate (A), citrate (C), isocitrate (I), glutamate (G), malate (M), pyruvate (P), rotenone (R), and succinate (S).