Table 2: OP biosensors based on nonconducting polymer immobilized AChE.

Mode of detectionTransducerEnzyme immobilization methodMinimum detection limitLinearity Substrate/enzyme inhibitorTime of incubation
(min)
Storage stability
(days)
Reference

AmperometricMWCNTs/PAN/Pt electrodeAffinity Bonding5.0 × 10−9μM3.6 × 10−8–3.6 × 10−5μMParaoxon20120[26]

AmperometricPAN/AuNPs/Pt electrodeCovalent Bonding0.026 × 10−5μM3.6 × 10−7–3.6 × 10−4μMParaoxon2030[27]

AmperometricMSF/PVA/GCEEntrapment0.2 × 10−3μM0.2 × 10−3–44.8 × 10−3μMMonocrotophos1030[35]

AmperometricPVA/SbQ/SPEEntrapment1.91 × 10−2μM
1.24 × 10−3μM
NRParaoxon and chlorpyrifos-ethyl oxon10Nr[36]

AmperometricPVA/SbQ/Pt ElectrodeEntrapment7.2 × 10−5, 0.18, and 0.049 μMNRParaoxon, maneb, and thifensulfuron methyl3030[30]

AmperometricPAMAM-Au/CNTs/GCEElectrostatic interaction4.0 × 10−3μM4.8 × 10−3–9.0 × 10−2μMCarbofuran921[37]

AmperometricMSF/PVA/GCEEntrapment0.05 ppb (0.2 nM)0.05–10 ppbMonocrotophos1030[38]

AmperometricNylon NetCovalent bonding1.3–3.9 ppbNRParaoxon 3015–20 [39]

AmperometricPBA/SbQ/Pt ElectrodeCrosslinking25 ppb–1.5 ppmNRChlorpyrifos15 NR[40]

Note: NR: not reported.