Table 3: OP biosensors based on conducting polymer immobilized AChE.

Mode of detectionTransducerEnzyme immobilization methodMinimum detection limitLinearity Substrate/enzyme inhibitorTime of incubation
(min)
Storage stability
(days)
Reference

AmperometricPolyacrylamide/pH electrodeCrosslinking3.62 × 103μMNRDichlorvos3050[31]

PotentiometricPEI/GCECovalent Bonding1.0 μMNRDichlorvos10NR[41]

AmperometricPEI/SPENon Covalent Bonding1.0 × 10−4μMNRDichlorvos2NR[42]

AmperometricMercaptobenzothiazole/
PANI/Au electrode
Adsorption0.48 × 10−3μM
0.61 × 10−3μM
NRDiazinoFenthion20NR[43]

ElectrochemicalPANI/CNT ssDNA/Au electrodeCovalent Bonding1.0 × 10−6μM1.0 × 10−5 and 1.0 μMMethyl parathion and chlorpyrifos155[44]

ElectrochemicalAuNPs-PPy nanowires GCEEntrapment7.5 × 10−3μM0.018–0.45 and 1.89–17.0 μMMethyl parathion1230[45]

AmperometricPPY-PANI/MWCNTs/GCEAdsorption3.02 × 10−3μM0.030–1.51 and 3.027–75.67 μMMalathion1530[46]

AmperometricSF/MWNTs/GCEAdsorption5.0 × 10−7 M, 6.0 × 10−8 M3.5 × 10−6 to 2.0 × 10−3 M, 1.0 × 10−7 to 3.0 × 10−5 MMethyl parathion, carbaryl104 weeks[47]

AmperometricCS/ALB/GCEEncapsulation 8 μg/L0.25–1.50 and 1.75–10.00OP pesticides1015[48]

AmperometricPB/GCECrosslinking2.5 ng L−1 for dichlorvos, 15 ng L−1 for omethoate, 5 ng L−1 for trichlorfon, and 10 ng L−1
forphoxim.
10 ng L−1–1 ng L−1 for dichlorvosDichlorvos, omethoate, tricholorfon, phoxim10[49]

VoltammetricGnPs/Chitosan/GCECovalent Bonding1.58 × 10−10 MNRCholropyrifos1010 [50]

PotentiometricPolymeric enzyme electrodeEntrapment0–10 ppbNROP pesticides2NR[51]

ElectrochemicalZrO2-SPEScreen printing0.02 nM0.05 nM to 10 nMOP compound40 NR[52]

AmperometricAu-PDDA-PB matrixCovalent Bonding0.8 pg/mL1.0–1000 pg/mL and 1.0–10 ng/mLMonocrotophos 1030[53]

Note: NR: not reported.