Table 5: OP biosensors based on screen-printed electrodes.

Mode of detectionTransducerEnzyme immobilization methodMinimum detection limitLinearity Substrate/enzyme inhibitorTime of incubation
(min)
Storage stability
(days)
Reference

AmperometricTMOS sol-gel/SPEEncapsulation1.0 × 10−3μM1.0 and 3.0 × 10−3μMDichlorvos15NR[68]

AmperometricAl2O3 sol-gel/SPEAdsorption0.01 μM0.1–80 μMDichlorvos155[71]

AmperometricSol-gel/TCNQ/SPEEntrapment1 × 10−2, 
8 × 10−4, and 2 × 10−2μM
NRCarbaryl, carbofuran, and pirimicard2045[72]

AmperometricSPE/TCNQ/Graphite ElectrodeAdsorption3.0 × 10−6μM5 × 10−2–0.2 μMChlorpyrifos-ethyl oxon1050[79]

AmperometricCoPC/SPECrosslinking4.9 × 10−4μM 10-5-1.0 μMCarbofuran15NR[80]

AmperometricPhenylenediamine/
CoPC SPE
Entrapment1 × 10−11, 
1 × 10−10, and 1 × 10−10μM
1.0 × 10−11
1.0 × 10−2μM
Dichlorvos, parathion, and azinphos1092[81]

AmperometricGraphite-epoxy/SPECrosslinking1.0 × 10−4 and 1.0 × 10−5μMNRParaoxon and carbofuran155[82]

AmperometricGlutaraldehyde vapour/SPECrosslinking0.18 μM0.18–54.00 μMParaoxon10NR[83]

AmperometricPVA-SbQ/SPEEntrapment1.91 × 10−2μM
1.24 × 10−3μM
NRParaoxon and chlorpyrifos-ethyl oxon10Nr[36]

AmperometricSWCNTs-CoPC/SPECovalent Bonding0.01 and 6.3 × 10−3μM0.018–0.181 and 6.36 × 10−3–0.159 μMParaoxon and malaoxon153[84]

AmperometricTCNQ modified-graphiteScreen printing1 ppb0–5 × 10−3 MMethamidophos10NR[85]

AmperometricGold electrodeCrosslinking0.1 mM1–10 mMParaoxon 28[86]

AmperometricCarbon electrodeCovalent Bonding10−10 MNRDichlorvos60NR[87]

AmperometricSPECopolymerisation4 to 7 μg/LNRDicholrvos, methyl-parathion4 NR[88]

Note: NR: not reported.