Table 7: Nanoparticles based fabrication of OP biosensors with AChE as biorecognition layer.

Mode of detectionTransducerEnzyme immobilization methodMinimum detection limitLinearity Substrate/enzyme inhibitorTime of incubation
(min)
Storage stability
(days)
Reference

AmperometricAuNPs/PB/GCESurface Adsorption3.5 × 10−9μM4.48 × 10−3–4.48 × 10−2μMMonocrotophos1030[93]

AmperometricMWCNTs-AuNC/GCEHydrophilic adhesion1.81 × 10−3μM3.0 × 10−3–3.027 μMMalathion830[94]

AmperometricZrO2/CHIT/GCESurface Adsorption1.3, 5.0 × 10−3, and 1.7 μM6.6–440, 0.01–0.59, and 8.6–520 μMPhoxin, malathion, and imethoate1530[95]

AmperometricAu-PtNPs/GCECrosslinking50 × 10−4, 40 × 10−3, and 40 μM50–200 × 10−3, 1.40–50 × 10−3, and 40–60 μMParaoxon ethyl, sarin, and aldicarb25NR[96]

AmperometricAuNPs/GCESurface Adsorption7.0 × 10−3μM28 × 10−3–170 × 10−3μMMethamidophos107[97]

AuNPs-MWCNTs/GCESurface Adsorption1.0 × 10−3μM0.1 × 10−3–7.0 × 10−3μMNR30NR[98]

AmperometricPB/CHIT/GCECrosslinking0.113 × 10−4, 0.703 × 10−4, 0.194 × 10−4, and 0.33 × 10−4μM0.45 × 10−4–0.045, 0.234 × 10−3–0.046, 0.116 × 10−3–0.0194, and 0.167 × 10−3–0.0335 μMParaoxon and chlorpyrifos-ethyl oxon10NR[99]

AmperometricTiO2-decorated graphene/GCESurface Adsorption1.4 × 10−3μM4.9–74.5 and 74.5–9.9 × 103μMCarbyl320[100]

VoltammetricGraphite/CHIT/GCECovalent Bonding1.58 × 10−4μM1 × 10−4–1.0 μMChloropyrifos1010[101]

VoltammetricMWCNTs/AuNPs-CHIT/GCESurface Adsorption0.01 μM0.1–10 μMMonocrotophosNR50[102]

AmperometricCdS-decorated garphene nanocompositeSurface Adsorption3.4 × 10−3μM9.9 × 10−3–9.93 μMCarbaryl220[103]

AmperometricCHIT-GNPs/Au electrodeChemical Adsorption0.1 × 10−3μM0.3 × 10−3–60.5 × 10−3μMMalathion15NR[92]

AmperometricMWCNTs-CHIT/GCECovalent BondingNRNRCarbaryl, malathion, dimethoate, and monocrotophos830[104]

AmperometricAuNPs/Au electrodeSurface Adsorption33 × 10−3μM10 × 10−3–135 × 10−3μMCarbofuran207[105]

AmperometricPbO2/TiO2/TiSurface Adsorption0.1 × 10−3μM0.01–20 μMTrichlorfon105[106]

AmperometricPB-CHIT/GCECovalent Bonding3.0 × 10−3μM0.01–0.4 and 1.0–5.0 μMCarbaryl1030[107]

AmperometricEr-GRO/NafionSurface Adsorption2.0 ng mL−15.0–100 ng mL−1 and 1.0–20 ng mL−1Dicholrvos1028[108]

PotentiometricSWCNT modified FGECrosslinking25–35 nM and 15–20 nM for darin and DFP, respectively20–60 nM and 20–80 nM for sarin and DFP, respectivelySarin and DFP530[109]

AmperometricAu-PtNPs/3-APTES/GC electrodeCrosslinking150–200 nM, 40–50 nM, and 40–60 μM for paraoxon ethyl, sarin, and aldicarbNRParaoxon ethyl, sarin, and aldicarb10NR[110]

AmperometricCNT-web modified glassy carbon electrodeSurface Adsorption1 nM20–1000 nMMethyl parathion20NR[111]

AmperometricPAN-AuNPsCovalent Bonding 7.39 × 10−11 g L−110−10–10−7 g L−1Paraoxon NR20[112]

VoltammetricCdTe-GNPs filmCovalent Bonding0.3 ngmL−11–1000 ngmL−1 and 2–15 ngmL−1Monocrotophos 830 [113]

AmperometricSiSG-AuNPsSurface adsorption0.6 ng/mL0.001–1 μg/mL and 2–15 μg/mLMonocrotophos 1030[114]

Note: NR: not reported.