- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Recently Accepted Articles ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
Critical Care Research and Practice
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 207247, 8 pages
Pulmonary Complications in Patients with Severe Brain Injury
1Mischer Neuroscience Institute, Memorial Hermann-Texas Medical Center, 6431 Fannin Street Medical School Building 7152, Houston, TX 77030, USA
2The Vivian L. Smith Department of Neurosurgery, 6431 Fannin Street, Room 7.152, Houston, TX 77030, USA
3Divisions of Critical Care and Neurotrauma, Departments of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
Received 3 February 2012; Revised 15 September 2012; Accepted 23 September 2012
Academic Editor: Ali A. El Solh
Copyright © 2012 Kiwon Lee and Fred Rincon. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- P. Pelosi, N. D. Ferguson, F. Frutos-Vivar et al., “Management and outcome of mechanically ventilated neurologic patients,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 1482–1492, 2011.
- K. E. Wartenberg, J. M. Schmidt, J. Claassen et al., “Impact of medical complications on outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 617–623, 2006.
- J. M. Kahn, E. C. Caldwell, S. Deem, D. W. Newell, S. R. Heckbert, and G. D. Rubenfeld, “Acute lung injury in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage: incidence, risk factors, and outcome,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 196–202, 2006.
- B. V. Maramattom, S. Weigand, M. Reinalda, E. F. M. Wijdicks, and E. M. Manno, “Pulmonary complications after intracerebral hemorrhage,” Neurocritical Care, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 115–119, 2006.
- J. N. Goldstein, L. E. Fazen, L. Wendell et al., “Risk of thromboembolism following acute intracerebral hemorrhage,” Neurocritical Care, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 28–34, 2009.
- F. Rincon, M. Maltenfort, M. Vibbert, W. McBride, M. Moussouttas, J. Jallo, et al., “Temporal trends in the epidemiology of adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) after acute ischemic stroke in the United States,” Cerebrovascular Disease, vol. 31, supplement 2, p. 208, 2011.
- F. Rincon, S. Ghosh, S. Dey, M. Maltenfort, M. Vibbert, J. Urtecho, et al., “Impact of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome after traumatic brain injury in the United States,” Neurosurgery, vol. 71, no. 4, pp. 795–803, 2012.
- J. B. Kortbeek, S. A. Al Turki, J. Ali, J. A. Antoine, B. Bouillon, K. Brasel, et al., “Advanced trauma life support, 8th edition, the evidence for change,” The Journal of Trauma, vol. 64, no. 6, pp. 1638–1650, 2008.
- F. O. Moore, P. W. Goslar, R. Coimbra et al., “Blunt traumatic occult pneumothorax: is observation safe?—results of a prospective, AAST multicenter study,” Journal of Trauma, vol. 70, no. 5, pp. 1019–1025, 2011.
- A. Esteban, A. Anzueto, F. Frutos et al., “Characteristics and outcomes in adult patients receiving mechanical ventilation: a 28-day international study,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 287, no. 3, pp. 345–355, 2002.
- W. M. Coplin, D. J. Pierson, K. D. Cooley, D. W. Newell, and G. D. Rubenfeld, “Implications of extubation delay in brain-injured patients meeting standard weaning criteria,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 161, no. 5, pp. 1530–1536, 2000.
- N. Karanjia, D. Nordquist, R. Stevens, and P. Nyquist, “A clinical description of extubation failure in patients with primary brain injury,” Neurocritical Care, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 4–12, 2011.
- S. P. Woratyla, A. S. Morgan, L. Mackay, B. Bernstein, and C. Barba, “Factors associated with early onset pneumonia in the severely brain-injured patient,” Connecticut Medicine, vol. 59, no. 11, pp. 643–647, 1995.
- P. Dodek, S. Keenan, D. Cook et al., “Evidence-based clinical practice guideline for the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 141, no. 4, pp. 305–313, 2004.
- M. H. Kollef, L. E. Morrow, M. S. Niederman et al., “Clinical characteristics and treatment patterns among patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia,” Chest, vol. 129, no. 5, pp. 1210–1218, 2006.
- M. D. Rincón-Ferrari, J. M. Flores-Cordero, S. R. Leal-Noval et al., “Impact of ventilator-associated pneumonia in patients with severe head injury,” Journal of Trauma, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 1234–1240, 2004.
- R. Hilker, C. Poetter, N. Findeisen et al., “Nosocomial pneumonia after acute stroke: implications for neurological intensive care medicine,” Stroke, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 975–981, 2003.
- L. B. Fields, “Oral care intervention to reduce incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia in the neurologic intensive care unit,” Journal of Neuroscience Nursing, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 291–298, 2008.
- O. 'Grady NP, P. R. Murray, and N. Ames, “Preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia: does the evidence support the practice?” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 307, no. 23, pp. 2534–2539, 2012.
- D. B. Seder, K. Lee, C. Rahman et al., “Safety and feasibility of percutaneous tracheostomy performed by neurointensivists,” Neurocritical Care, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 264–268, 2009.
- P. P. Terragni, M. Antonelli, R. Fumagalli et al., “Early vs late tracheotomy for prevention of pneumonia in mechanically ventilated adult ICU patients: a randomized controlled trial,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 303, no. 15, pp. 1483–1489, 2010.
- G. R. Bernard, A. Artigas, K. L. Brigham et al., “The American-European Consensus Conference on ARDS: definitions, mechanisms, relevant outcomes, and clinical trial coordination,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 149, no. 3 part 1, pp. 818–824, 1994.
- M. C. Holland, R. C. Mackersie, D. Morabito et al., “The development of acute lung injury is associated with worse neurologic outcome in patients with severe traumatic brain injury,” Journal of Trauma, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 106–111, 2003.
- S. Ghosh, S. K. Dey, M. Maltenfort, M. Vibbert, J. Urtecho, J. Jallo, et al., Epidemiological Trends of Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) After Traumatic Brain Injury in the United States, American Academy of Neurology, New Orleans, La, USA, 2012.
- C. F. Contant, A. B. Valadka, S. P. Gopinath, H. J. Hannay, and C. S. Robertson, “Adult respiratory distress syndrome: a complication of induced hypertension after severe head injury,” Journal of Neurosurgery, vol. 95, no. 4, pp. 560–568, 2001.
- F. B. Rogers, S. R. Shackford, G. T. Trevisani et al., “Neurogenic pulmonary edema in fatal and nonfatal head injuries,” Journal of Trauma, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 860–868, 1995.
- H. Touho, J. Karasawa, H. Shishido, K. Yamada, and Y. Yamazaki, “Neurogenic pulmonary edema in the acute stage of hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease,” Neurosurgery, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 762–768, 1989.
- J. Theodore and E. D. Robin, “Speculations on neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE),” American Review of Respiratory Disease, vol. 113, no. 4 I, pp. 405–411, 1976.
- L. Ott, C. J. McClain, M. Gillespie, and B. Young, “Cytokines and metabolic dysfunction after severe head injury,” Journal of Neurotrauma, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 447–472, 1994.
- E. G. Mckeating, P. J. D. Andrews, D. F. Signorini, and L. Mascia, “Transcranial cytokine gradients in patients requiring intensive care after acute brain injury,” British Journal of Anaesthesia, vol. 78, no. 5, pp. 520–523, 1997.
- L. Mascia, “Acute lung injury in patients with severe brain injury: a double hit model,” Neurocritical Care, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 417–426, 2009.
- J. O. Neumann, I. R. Chambers, G. Citerio et al., “The use of hyperventilation therapy after traumatic brain injury in Europe: an analysis of the BrainIT database,” Intensive Care Medicine, vol. 34, no. 9, pp. 1676–1682, 2008.
- R. G. Brower, M. A. Matthay, A. Morris, D. Schoenfeld, B. T. Thompson, and A. Wheeler, “Ventilation with lower tidal volumes as compared with traditional tidal volumes for acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 342, no. 18, pp. 1301–1308, 2000.
- N. Young, J. K. J. Rhodes, L. Mascia, and P. J. D. Andrews, “Ventilatory strategies for patients with acute brain injury,” Current Opinion in Critical Care, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 45–52, 2010.
- G. U. Meduri, E. Golden, A. X. Freire et al., “Methylprednisolone infusion in early severe ards: results of a randomized controlled trial,” Chest, vol. 131, no. 4, pp. 954–963, 2007.
- L. Mascia, S. Grasso, T. Fiore, F. Bruno, M. Berardino, and A. Ducati, “Cerebro-pulmonary interactions during the application of low levels of positive end-expiratory pressure,” Intensive care medicine, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 373–379, 2005.
- L. A. Steiner, M. Czosnyka, S. K. Piechnik et al., “Continuous monitoring of cerebrovascular pressure reactivity allows determination of optimal cerebral perfusion pressure in patients with traumatic brain injury,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 733–738, 2002.
- K. P. Steinberg, L. D. Hudson, R. B. Goodman et al., “Efficacy and safety of corticosteroids for persistent acute respiratory distress syndrome,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 354, no. 16, pp. 1671–1684, 2006.
- X. Y. Zhang, Z. J. Yang, Q. X. Wang, and H. R. Fan, “Impact of positive end-expiratory pressure on cerebral injury patients with hypoxemia,” The American Journal of Emergency Medicine, vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 699–703, 2011.
- N. H. Young and P. J. D. Andrews, “High-frequency oscillation as a rescue strategy for brain-injured adult patients with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome,” Neurocritical Care, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 623–633, 2011.
- S. B. Hong, Y. Koh, I. C. Lee et al., “Induced hypothermia as a new approach to lung rest for the acutely injured lung,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 33, no. 9, pp. 2049–2055, 2005.
- M. M. Kimball, G. J. Velat, and B. L. Hoh, “Critical care guidelines on the endovascular management of cerebral vasospasm,” Neurocritical Care, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 336–341, 2011.
- M. M. Treggiari, “Hemodynamic management of subarachnoid hemorrhage,” Neurocritical Care, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 329–335, 2011.
- R. Meyer, S. Deem, N. David Yanez, M. Souter, A. Lam, and M. M. Treggiari, “Current practices of triple-H prophylaxis and therapy in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage,” Neurocritical Care, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 24–36, 2011.
- A. Egge, K. Waterloo, H. Sjøholm, T. Solberg, T. Ingebrigtsen, and B. Romner, “Prophylactic hyperdynamic postoperative fluid therapy after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a clinical, prospective, randomized, controlled study,” Neurosurgery, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 593–606, 2001.
- L. Lennihan, S. A. Mayer, M. E. Fink et al., “Effect of hypervolemic therapy on cerebral blood flow after subarachnoid hemorrhage: a randomized controlled trial,” Stroke, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 383–391, 2000.
- P. Kurtz, J. M. Schmidt, J. Claassen et al., “Anemia is associated with metabolic distress and brain tissue hypoxia after subarachnoid hemorrhage,” Neurocritical Care, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 10–16, 2010.
- M. Oddo, A. Milby, I. Chen et al., “Hemoglobin concentration and cerebral metabolism in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage,” Stroke, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 1275–1281, 2009.
- J. W. Dankbaar, A. J. C. Slooter, G. J. E. Rinkel, and I. C. V. D. Schaaf, “Effect of different components of triple-H therapy on cerebral perfusion in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage: a systematic review,” Critical Care, vol. 14, no. 1, article no. R23, 2010.
- E. Muench, P. Horn, C. Bauhuf et al., “Effects of hypervolemia and hypertension on regional cerebral blood flow, intracranial pressure, and brain tissue oxygenation after subarachnoid hemorrhage,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 35, no. 8, pp. 1844–1851, 2007.
- P. E. Marik, M. Baram, and B. Vahid, “Does central venous pressure predict fluid responsiveness?” Chest, vol. 134, no. 1, pp. 172–178, 2008.
- M. N. Diringer, T. P. Bleck, J. Claude Hemphill 3rd, D. Menon, L. Shutter, P. Vespa, et al., “Critical care management of patients following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: recommendations from the Neurocritical Care Society's Multidisciplinary Consensus Conference,” Neurocrit Care, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 211–240, 2011.
- A. M. Brambrink and W. F. Dick, “Neurogenic pulmonary edema. Pathogenesis, clinical picture and therapy,” Anaesthesist, vol. 46, no. 11, pp. 953–963, 1997.
- R. H. White, “The epidemiology of venous thromboembolism,” Circulation, vol. 107, no. 23, supplement 1, pp. I4–I8, 2003.
- S. N. Joffe, “Incidence of postoperative deep vein thrombosis in neurosurgical patients,” Journal of Neurosurgery, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 201–203, 1975.
- J. B. Valladares and J. Hankinson, “Incidence of lower extremity deep vein thrombosis in neurosurgical patients,” Neurosurgery, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 138–141, 1980.
- W. H. Geerts, R. M. Jay, K. I. Code et al., “A comparison of low-dose heparin with low-molecular-weight heparin as prophylaxis against venous thromboembolism after major trauma,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 335, no. 10, pp. 701–707, 1996.
- F. M. Hammond and M. J. Meighen, “Venous thromboembolism in the patient with acute traumatic brain injury: screening, diagnosis, prophylaxis, and treatment issues,” Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 36–50, 1998.
- G. H. Guyatt, E. A. Akl, M. Crowther, D. D. Gutterman, and H. J. Schuunemann, “Executive summary: antithrombotic therapy and prevention of thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines,” Chest, vol. 141, supplement 2, pp. 7S–47S, 2012.
- A. Boeer, E. Voth, T. Henze, and H. W. Prange, “Early heparin therapy in patients with spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage,” Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 466–467, 1991.
- D. Cook, M. Meade, G. Guyatt et al., “Dalteparin versus unfractionated heparin in critically ill patients,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 364, no. 14, pp. 1305–1314, 2011.