About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Critical Care Research and Practice
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 503254, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/503254
Review Article

Bedside Ultrasound in Resuscitation and the Rapid Ultrasound in Shock Protocol

1Department of Emergency Medicine, Los Angeles County+USC Medical Center, General Hospital, 1200 State Street, Room 1011, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA
2Division of Emergency Medicine, Stanford University Medical Center, 300 Pasteur Drive, Alway Building, M121, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
3Division of Emergency Medicine, New York-Presbyterian Hospital, Columbia University Medical Center, 622 West 168th Street, New York, NY 10032, USA

Received 9 July 2012; Accepted 22 August 2012

Academic Editor: Luciano Cesar Pontes Azevedo

Copyright © 2012 Dina Seif et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. E. Rivers, B. Nguyen, S. Havstad et al., “Early goal-directed therapy in the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 345, no. 19, pp. 1368–1377, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. F. Sebat, A. A. Musthafa, D. Johnson et al., “Effect of a rapid response system for patients in shock on time to treatment and mortality during 5 years,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 35, no. 11, pp. 2568–2575, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. A. E. Jones, V. S. Tayal, D. M. Sullivan, and J. A. Kline, “Randomized, controlled trial of immediate versus delayed goal-directed ultrasound to identify the cause of nontraumatic hypotension in emergency department patients,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 32, no. 8, pp. 1703–1708, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. P. R. T. Atkinson, D. J. McAuley, R. J. Kendall et al., “Abdominal and Cardiac Evaluation with Sonography in Shock (ACES): an approach by emergency physicians for the use of ultrasound in patients with undifferentiated hypotension,” Emergency Medicine Journal, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 87–91, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. M. Gunst, V. Ghaemmaghami, J. Sperry et al., “Accuracy of cardiac function and volume status estimates using the bedside echocardiographic assessment in trauma/critical care,” The Journal of Trauma, vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 509–516, 2008. View at Scopus
  6. J. Pershad, S. Myers, C. Plouman et al., “Bedside limited echocardiography by the emergency physician is accurate during evaluation of the critically ill patient,” Pediatrics, vol. 114, no. 6, pp. e667–e671, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. J. H. Boyd and K. R. Walley, “The role of echocardiography in hemodynamic monitoring,” Current Opinion in Critical Care, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 239–243, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. Y. F. Lanctot, M. Valois, and Y. Bealieu, “EGLS: echo guided life support. An algorithmic approach to undifferentiated shock,” Critical Ultrasound Journal, vol. 3, pp. 123–129, 2011.
  9. J. Elmer and V. A. Noble, “An Evidence based approach for integrating bedside ultrasound into routine practice in the assessment of undifferentiated shock,” ICU Director, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 163–174, 2010.
  10. D. A. Lichtenstein and D. Karakitsos, “Integrating ultrasound in the hemodynamic evaluation of acute circulatory failure (FALLS-the fluid administration limited by lung sonography protocol),” Journal of Critical Care, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 53.e11–533.e19, 2012.
  11. G. Rozycki, M. G. Oschner, J. A. Schmidt, et al., “A prospective use of surgeon's performed ultrasound as the primary adjunct modality for injured patient assessment,” The Journal of Trauma, vol. 39, pp. 879–885, 1995.
  12. A. W. Kirkpatrick, M. Sirois, K. B. Laupland et al., “Hand-held thoracic sonography for detecting post-traumatic pneumothoraces: the extended focused assessment with sonography for trauma (EFAST),” Journal of Trauma, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 288–295, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. B. Jensen, E. Sloth, K. M. Larsen, and M. B. Schmidt, “Transthoracic echocardiography for cardiopulmonary monitoring in intensive care,” European Journal of Anaesthesiology, vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 700–707, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. R. Breitkreutz, S. Price, H. V. Steiger et al., “Focused echocardiographic evaluation in life support and peri-resuscitation of emergency patients: a prospective trial,” Resuscitation, vol. 81, no. 11, pp. 1527–1533, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. R. Breitkreutz, F. Walcher, and F. H. Seeger, “Focused echocardiographic evaluation in resuscitation management: concept of an advanced life support-conformed algorithm,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 35, no. 5, supplement, pp. S150–S161, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. P. Ferrada, S. Murthi, R. J. Anand, G. V. Bochicchio, and T. Scalea, “Transthoracic focused rapid echocardiographic examination: real-time evaluation of fluid status in critically ill trauma patients,” The Journal of Trauma, vol. 70, no. 1, pp. 56–64, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. A. Liteplo, V. Noble, and P. Atkinson, “My patient has no blood pressure: point of care ultrasound in the hypotensive patient-FAST and RELIABLE,” Ultrasound, vol. 20, pp. 64–68, 2012.
  18. S. D. Weingart, D. Duque, and B. Nelson, Rapid Ultrasound for Shock and Hypotension (RUSH-HIMAPP), 2009, http://emedhome.com/.
  19. P. Perera, T. Mailhot, D. Riley, and D. Mandavia, “The RUSH exam: rapid ultrasound in SHock in the evaluation of the critically lll,” Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 29–56, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. P. Perera, T. Mailhot, D. Riley, and D. Mandavia, “The RUSH exam: rapid Ultrasound in SHock in the evaluation of the critically ill patient,” Ultrasound Clinics, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 255–278, 2012. View at Scopus
  21. D. P. Bahner, “Trinity: a hypotensive ultrasound protocol,” Journal of Diagnostic Medical Sonography, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 193–198, 2002. View at Scopus
  22. J. S. Rose, A. E. Bair, D. Mandavia, and D. J. Kinser, “The UHP ultrasound protocol: a novel ultrasound approach to the empiric evaluation of the undifferentiated hypotensive patient,” American Journal of Emergency Medicine, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 299–302, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. D. A. Lichtenstein and G. A. Mezière, “Relevance of lung ultrasound in the diagnosis of acute respiratory failure the BLUE protocol,” Chest, vol. 134, no. 1, pp. 117–125, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. W. Manson and N. M. Hafez, “The rapid assessment of dyspnea with ultrasound: RADiUS,” Ultrasound Clinics, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 261–276, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. C. Hernandez, K. Shuler, H. Hannan, C. Sonyika, A. Likourezos, and J. Marshall, “C.A.U.S.E.: cardiac arrest ultra-sound exam-A better approach to managing patients in primary non-arrhythmogenic cardiac arrest,” Resuscitation, vol. 76, no. 2, pp. 198–206, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. M. Haas, J. Allendörfer, F. Walcher et al., “Focused examination of cerebral blood flow in peri-resuscitation: a new advanced life support compliant concept-an extension of the focused echocardiography evaluation in life support examination,” Critical Ultrasound Journal, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 1–12, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. M. Blaivas, “Incidence of pericardial effusion in patients presenting to the emergency department with unexplained dyspnea,” Academic Emergency Medicine, vol. 8, no. 12, pp. 1143–1146, 2001. View at Scopus
  28. R. Shabetai, “Pericardial effusion: haemodynamic spectrum,” Heart, vol. 90, no. 3, pp. 255–256, 2004. View at Scopus
  29. D. H. Spodick, “Acute cardiac tamponade,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 349, no. 7, pp. 684–690, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. S. A. Nabavizadeh and A. Meshksar, “Ultrasonographic diagnosis of cardiac tamponade in trauma patients using collapsibility index of inferior vena cava,” Academic Radiology, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 505–506, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. A. E. Jones, P. A. Craddock, V. S. Tayal, and J. A. Kline, “Diagnostic accuracy of left ventricular function for identifying sepsis among emergency department patients with nontraumatic symptomatic undifferentiated hypotension,” Shock, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 513–517, 2005. View at Scopus
  32. R. M. Lang, M. Bierig, R. B. Devereux et al., “Recommendations for chamber quantification,” European Journal of Echocardiography, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 79–108, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. A. J. Weekes, H. M. Tassone, A. Babcock, et al., “Comparison of serial qualitative and quantitative assessments of caval index and left ventricular systolic function during early fluid resuscitation of hypotensive emergency department patients,” Academic Emergency Medicine, vol. 18, pp. 912–921, 2011.
  34. H. Ahmadpour, A. A. Shah, and J. W. Allen, “Mitral E point septal separation: a reliable index of left ventricular performance in coronary artery disease,” American Heart Journal, vol. 106, no. 1, pp. 21–28, 1983. View at Scopus
  35. J. R. Silverstein, N. H. Laffely, and R. D. Rifkin, “Quantitative estimation of left ventricular ejection fraction from mitral valve E-point to septal separation and comparison to magnetic resonance imaging,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 97, no. 1, pp. 137–140, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. M. A. Secko, J. M. Lazar, L. Salciccioli, and M. B. Stone, “Can junior emergency physicians use E-point septal separation to accurately estimate left ventricular function in acutely dyspneic patients?” Academic Emergency Medicine, vol. 18, pp. 1223–1226, 2011.
  37. A. Vieillard-Baron, B. Page, R. Augarde et al., “Acute cor pulmonale in massive pulmonary embolism: incidence, echocardiographic pattern, clinical implications and recovery rate,” Intensive Care Medicine, vol. 27, no. 9, pp. 1481–1486, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. F. Mookadam, P. Jiamsripong, R. Goel, T. A. Warsame, U. R. Emani, and B. K. Khandheria, “Critical appraisal on the utility of echocardiography in the management of acute pulmonary embolism,” Cardiology in Review, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 29–37, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. S. Grifoni, I. Olivotto, P. Cecchini et al., “Utility of an integrated clinical, echocardiographic, and venous ultrasonographic approach for triage of patients with suspected pulmonary embolism,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 82, no. 10, pp. 1230–1235, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. F. Jardin, O. Dubourg, P. Gueret, G. Delorme, and J. P. Bourdarias, “Quantitative two-dimensional echocardiography in massive pulmonary embolism: emphasis on ventricular interdependence and leftward septal displacement,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 1201–1206, 1987. View at Scopus
  41. M. R. Randazzo, E. R. Snoey, M. A. Levitt, and K. Binder, “Accuracy of emergency physician assessment of left ventricular ejection fraction and central venous pressure using echocardiography,” Academic Emergency Medicine, vol. 10, no. 9, pp. 973–977, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. F. Jardin and A. Vieillard-Baron, “Ultrasonographic examination of the venae cavae,” Intensive Care Medicine, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 203–206, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. P. A. Marik, “Techniques for assessment of intravascular volume in critically ill patients,” Journal of Intensive Care Medicine, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 329–337, 2009.
  44. D. J. Blehar, E. Dickman, and R. Gaspari, “Identification of congestive heart failure via respiratory variation of inferior vena cava diameter,” American Journal of Emergency Medicine, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 71–75, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. A. D. Nagdev, R. C. Merchant, A. Tirado-Gonzalez, C. A. Sisson, and M. C. Murphy, “Emergency department bedside ultrasonographic measurement of the caval index for noninvasive determination of low central venous pressure,” Annals of Emergency Medicine, vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 290–295, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. J. C. Schefold, C. Storm, S. Bercker et al., “Inferior vena cava diameter correlates with invasive hemodynamic measures in mechanically ventilated intensive care unit patients with sepsis,” Journal of Emergency Medicine, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 632–637, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. D. J. Wallace, M. Allison, and M. B. Stone, “Inferior vena cava percentage collapse during respiration is affected by the sampling location: an ultrasound study in healthy volunteers,” Academic Emergency Medicine, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 96–99, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. B. J. Kircher, R. B. Himelman, and N. B. Schiller, “Noninvasive estimation of right atrial pressure from the inspiratory collapse of the inferior vena cava,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 66, no. 4, pp. 493–496, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. J. S. Simonson and N. B. Schiller, “Sonospirometry: a new method for noninvasive estimation of mean right atrial pressure based on two-dimensional echographic measurements of the inferior vena cava during measured inspiration,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 557–564, 1988. View at Scopus
  50. L. G. Rudski, W. W. Lai, J. Afilalo et al., “Guidelines for the echocardiographic assessment of the right heart in adults: a report from the American society of echocardiography. Endorsed by the European association of echocardiography, a registered branch of the European society of cardiology, and the canadian society of echocardiography,” Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography, vol. 23, no. 7, pp. 685–713, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. C. Barbier, Y. Loubières, C. Schmit et al., “Respiratory changes in inferior vena cava diameter are helpful in predicting fluid responsiveness in ventilated septic patients,” Intensive Care Medicine, vol. 30, no. 9, pp. 1740–1746, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. M. A. Simon, D. E. Kliner, J. P. Girod, et al., “Jugular venous distention on ultrasound: sensitivity and specificity for heart failure in patients with dyspnea,” The American Journal of Emergency Medicine, vol. 159, pp. 421–427, 2011.
  53. T. Jang, C. Aubin, R. Naunheim, and D. Char, “Ultrasonography of the internal jugular vein in patients with dyspnea without jugular venous distention on physical examination,” Annals of Emergency Medicine, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 160–168, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. T. Jang, C. Aubin, R. Naunheim, et al., “Jugular venous distention on ultrasound: sensitivity and specificity for heart failure in patients with dyspnea,” Annals of Emergency Medicine, vol. 29, pp. 1198–1202, 2011.
  55. T. M. Scalea, A. Rodriguez, W. C. Chiu, et al., “FAST consensus conference committee. Focused assessment with sonography for Trauma (FAST): results from an International Consensus Conference,” The Journal of Trauma, vol. 46, pp. 466–472, 1999.
  56. E. Agricola, T. Bove, M. Oppizzi et al., “‘Ultrasound comet-tail images’: a marker of pulmonary edema—a comparative study with wedge pressure and extravascular lung water,” Chest, vol. 127, no. 5, pp. 1690–1695, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. G. Volpicelli, V. Caramello, L. Cardinale, A. Mussa, F. Bar, and M. F. Frascisco, “Bedside ultrasound of the lung for the monitoring of acute decompensated heart failure,” American Journal of Emergency Medicine, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 585–591, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. G. Soldati, R. Copetti, and S. Sher, “Sonographic interstitial syndrome the sound of lung water,” Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 163–174, 2009. View at Scopus
  59. A. S. Liteplo, K. A. Marill, T. Villen et al., “Emergency thoracic ultrasound in the differentiation of the etiology of shortness of breath (ETUDES): sonographic B-lines and N-terminal Pro-brain-type natriuretic peptide in diagnosing congestive heart failure,” Academic Emergency Medicine, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 201–210, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. G. Volpicelli, V. E. Noble, A. Liteplo, and L. Cardinale, “Decreased sensitivity of lung ultrasound limited to the anterior chest in emergency department diagnosis of cardiogenic pulmonary edema: a retrospective analysis,” Critical Ultrasound Journal, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 47–52, 2010.
  61. D. A. Lichtenstein and Y. Menu, “A bedside ultrasound sign ruling out pneumothorax in the critically ill: lung sliding,” Chest, vol. 108, no. 5, pp. 1345–1348, 1995. View at Scopus
  62. D. Lichtenstein, G. Mezière, P. Biderman, and A. Gepner, “The comet-tail artifact: an ultrasound sign ruling out pneumothorax,” Intensive Care Medicine, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 383–388, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. D. Lichtenstein, G. Mezière, P. Biderman, and A. Gepner, “The “lung point”: an ultrasound sign specific to pneumothorax,” Intensive Care Medicine, vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 1434–1440, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. R. G. Wilkerson and M. B. Stone, “Sensitivity of bedside ultrasound and supine anteroposterior chest radiographs for the identification of pneumothorax after blunt trauma,” Academic Emergency Medicine, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 11–17, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. V. S. Tayal, C. D. Graf, and M. A. Gibbs, “Prospective study of accuracy and outcome of emergency ultrasound for abdominal aortic aneurysm over two years,” Academic Emergency Medicine, vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 867–871, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. T. G. Costantino, E. C. Bruno, N. Handly, and A. J. Dean, “Accuracy of emergency medicine ultrasound in the evaluation of abdominal aortic aneurysm,” Journal of Emergency Medicine, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 455–460, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. C. L. Moore, R. S. Holliday, J. Q. Hwang, and M. R. Osborne, “Screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm in asymptomatic at-risk patients using emergency ultrasound,” American Journal of Emergency Medicine, vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 883–887, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. M. Blaivas and P. R. Sierzenski, “Dissection of the proximal thoracic aorta: a new ultrasonographic sign in the subxiphoid view,” American Journal of Emergency Medicine, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 344–348, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. J. P. Fojtik, T. G. Costantino, and A. J. Dean, “The diagnosis of aortic dissection by emergency medicine ultrasound,” Journal of Emergency Medicine, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 191–196, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. G. Budhram and R. Reardon, “Diagnosis of ascending aortic dissection using emergency department bedside echocardiogram,” Academic Emergency Medicine, vol. 15, no. 6, p. 584, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. R. A. Taylor, I. Oliva, R. Van Tonder, J. Elefteriades, J. Dziura, and C. L. Moore, “Point of care focused cardiac ultrasound for the assessment of thoracic aortic dimensions, dilation and aneurysmal disease,” Academic Emergency Medicine, vol. 19, pp. 244–247, 2012.
  72. E. M. Isselbacher, J. E. Cigarroa, and K. A. Eagle, “Cardiac tamponade complicating proximal aortic dissection: is pericardiocentesis harmful?” Circulation, vol. 90, no. 5, pp. 2375–2378, 1994. View at Scopus
  73. R. Poppiti, G. Papinocolau, and S. Perese, “Limited B-mode venous scanning versus complete color flow duplex venous scanning for detection of proximal deep venous thrombosis,” Journal of Vascular Surgery, vol. 22, pp. 553–557, 1995.
  74. E. Bernardi, G. Camporese, H. R. Büller et al., “Serial 2-point ultrasonography plus D-dimer vs whole-leg color-coded Doppler ultrasonography for diagnosing suspected symptomatic deep vein thrombosis: a randomized controlled trial,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 300, no. 14, pp. 1653–1659, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. T. Jang, M. Docherty, C. Aubin, and G. Polites, “Resident-performed compression ultrasonography for the detection of proximal deep vein thrombosis: fast and accurate,” Academic Emergency Medicine, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 319–322, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. M. Blaivas, “Ultrasound in the detection of venous thromboembolism,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 35, no. 5, supplement, pp. S224–S234, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. P. R. Burnside, M. D. Brown, and J. A. Kline, “Systematic review of emergency physician-performed ultrasonography for lower-extremity deep vein thrombosis,” Academic Emergency Medicine, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 493–498, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. S. Farahmand, M. Farnia, S. Shahriaran, and P. Khashayar, “The accuracy of limited B-mode compression technique in diagnosing deep venous thrombosis in lower extremities,” American Journal of Emergency Medicine, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 687–690, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP), “Policy statement of emergency ultrasound,” Annals of Emergency Medicine, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 550–570, 2009. View at Scopus
  80. P. H. Mayo, Y. Beaulieu, P. Doelken et al., “American college of chest physicians/ la societédé réanimation de langue française statement on competence in critical care ultrasonography,” Chest, vol. 135, no. 4, pp. 1050–1060, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. “International expert statement on training standards for critical care ultrasonography,” Intensive Care Medicine, vol. 37, no. 7, pp. 1077–1083, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. L. Neri, E. Storti, and D. Lichtenstein, “Toward an ultrasound curriculum for critical care medicine,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 35, no. 5, supplement, pp. S290–S304, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus