Critical Care Research and Practice The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Antimicrobial Doses in Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy: A Comparison of Dosing Strategies Tue, 28 Jun 2016 17:29:51 +0000 Purpose. Drug dose recommendations are not well defined in patients undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) due to limited published data. Several guidelines and pharmacokinetic equations have been proposed as tools for CRRT drug dosing. Dose recommendations derived from these methods have yet to be compared or prospectively evaluated. Methods. A literature search of PubMed, Micromedex, and Embase was conducted for 40 drugs commonly used in the ICU to gather pharmacokinetic data acquired from patients with acute and chronic kidney disease as well as healthy volunteers. These data and that obtained from drug package inserts were gathered for use in three published CRRT drug dosing equations. Doses calculated for a model patient using each method were compared to doses suggested in a commonly used dosing text. Results. Full pharmacokinetic data was available for 18, 31, and 40 agents using acute kidney injury, end stage renal disease, and normal patient data, respectively. On average, calculated doses differed by 30% or more from the doses recommended by the renal dosing text for >50% of the medications. Conclusion. Wide variability in dose recommendations for patients undergoing CRRT exists when these equations are used. Alternate, validated dosing methods need to be developed for this at-risk patient population. Anna P. Kempke, Abbie S. Leino, Farzad Daneshvar, John Andrew Lee, and Bruce A. Mueller Copyright © 2016 Anna P. Kempke et al. All rights reserved. Accuracy of Transcutaneous Carbon Dioxide Measurement in Premature Infants Wed, 08 Jun 2016 06:07:13 +0000 Background. In premature infants, maintaining blood partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) value within a narrow range is important to avoid cerebral lesions. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of a noninvasive transcutaneous method (TcpCO2), compared to blood partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2). Methods. Retrospective observational study in a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit. We analyzed the correlation between blood pCO2 and transcutaneous values and the accuracy between the trends of blood pCO2 and TcpCO2 in all consecutive premature infants born at <33 weeks’ gestational age. Results. 248 infants were included (median gestational age: 29 + 5 weeks and median birth weight: 1250 g), providing 1365 pairs of TcpCO2 and blood pCO2 values. Pearson’s correlation between these values was 0.58. The mean bias was −0.93 kPa with a 95% confidence limit of agreement of −4.05 to +2.16 kPa. Correlation between the trends of TcpCO2 and blood pCO2 values was good in only 39.6%. Conclusions. In premature infants, TcpCO2 was poorly correlated to blood pCO2, with a wide limit of agreement. Furthermore, concordance between trends was equally low. We warn about clinical decision-making on TcpCO2 alone when used as continuous monitoring. Marie Janaillac, Sonia Labarinas, Riccardo E. Pfister, and Oliver Karam Copyright © 2016 Marie Janaillac et al. All rights reserved. Immunocompromised Children with Severe Adenoviral Respiratory Infection Sun, 08 May 2016 12:48:29 +0000 Purpose. To investigate the impact of severe respiratory adenoviral infection on morbidity and case fatality in immunocompromised children. Methods. Combined retrospective-prospective cohort study of patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) in four children’s hospitals with severe adenoviral respiratory infection and an immunocompromised state between August 2009 and October 2013. We performed a secondary case control analysis, matching our cohort 1 : 1 by age and severity of illness score with immunocompetent patients also with severe respiratory adenoviral infection. Results. Nineteen immunocompromised patients were included in our analysis. Eleven patients (58%) did not survive to hospital discharge. Case fatality was associated with cause of immunocompromised state (), multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (), requirement of renal replacement therapy (), ICU admission severity of illness score (), and treatment with cidofovir (). Immunocompromised patients were more likely than matched controls to have multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (), require renal replacement therapy (), and not survive to hospital discharge (). One year after infection, 43% of immunocompromised survivors required chronic mechanical ventilator support. Conclusions. There is substantial case fatality as well as short- and long-term morbidity associated with severe adenoviral respiratory infection in immunocompromised children. Joanna C. Tylka, Michael C. McCrory, Shira J. Gertz, Jason W. Custer, and Michael C. Spaeder Copyright © 2016 Joanna C. Tylka et al. All rights reserved. Additional Analgesia for Central Venous Catheter Insertion: A Placebo Controlled Randomized Trial of Dexmedetomidine and Fentanyl Thu, 21 Apr 2016 07:47:42 +0000 We aimed to show that a single preprocedural dose of either dexmedetomidine or fentanyl reduces procedural pain and discomfort and provides clinically acceptable sedation. In this prospective, double-blind study, sixty patients scheduled for elective surgery and requiring planned central venous catheter insertion were randomized to receive dexmedetomidine (1 μg/kg), fentanyl (1 μg/kg), or 0.9% normal saline intravenously over ten minutes followed by local anesthetic field infiltration before attempting central venous catheterization. The primary outcome measures are assessment and analysis of pain, discomfort, and sedation level before, during, and after the central venous catheter insertion at five time points. The median (IQR) pain score is worst for normal saline group at local anaesthetic injection [6 (4–6.7)] which was significantly attenuated by addition of fentanyl [3 (2–4)] and dexmedetomidine [4 (3–5)] in the immediate postprocedural period (). However, the procedure related discomfort was significantly lower in dexmedetomidine group compared to fentanyl group in the first 10 min of procedure after local anaesthetic Injection (). Fentanyl is more analgesically efficient for central venous catheter insertion along with local anaesthetic injection. However, dexmedetomidine has the potential to be superior to fentanyl and placebo in terms of providing comfort to the patients during the procedure. Aloka Samantaray, Mangu Hanumantha Rao, and Chitta Ranjan Sahu Copyright © 2016 Aloka Samantaray et al. All rights reserved. Neutropenic Sepsis in the ICU: Outcome Predictors in a Two-Phase Model and Microbiology Findings Mon, 18 Apr 2016 13:37:19 +0000 Objective. Patients with neutropenic sepsis have a poor prognosis. We aimed to identify outcome predictors and generate hypotheses how the care for these patients may be improved. Methods. All 12.352 patients admitted between 2006 and 2011 to the medical ICUs of our tertiary university center were screened for neutropenia; out of 558 patients identified, 102 fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. Severity markers and outcome predictors were assessed. Results. The overall ICU mortality was 54.9%. The severity of sepsis and the number of organ failures predicted survival of the primary septic episode (APACHE II 22.8 and 29.0; SOFA 7.3 and 10.1, resp.). In the recovery phase, persistent organ damage and higher persistent C-reactive protein levels were associated with a poor outcome. Blood transfusions and CMV infection correlated with an unfavorable prognosis. Ineffective initial antibiotic therapy, fungal infections, and detection of multiresistant bacteria displayed a particularly poor outcome. Infections with coagulase-negative staphylococci and enterococci were associated with a significantly higher mortality and a high degree of systemic inflammation. Conclusion. Patients with persistent organ dysfunction show an increased mortality in the further course of their ICU stay. Early antimicrobial treatment of Gram-positive cocci may improve the outcome of these patients. Jan M. Kruse, Thomas Jenning, Sibylle Rademacher, Renate Arnold, Clemens A. Schmitt, Achim Jörres, Philipp Enghard, and Michael Oppert Copyright © 2016 Jan M. Kruse et al. All rights reserved. Applicability of Pulse Pressure Variation during Unstable Hemodynamic Events in the Intensive Care Unit: A Five-Day Prospective Multicenter Study Thu, 31 Mar 2016 13:10:30 +0000 Pulse pressure variation can predict fluid responsiveness in strict applicability conditions. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical applicability of pulse pressure variation during episodes of patient hemodynamic instability in the intensive care unit. We conducted a five-day, seven-center prospective study that included patients presenting with an unstable hemodynamic event. The six predefined inclusion criteria for pulse pressure variation applicability were as follows: mechanical ventilation, tidal volume >7 mL/kg, sinus rhythm, no spontaneous breath, heart rate/respiratory rate ratio >3.6, absence of right ventricular dysfunction, or severe valvulopathy. Seventy-three patients presented at least one unstable hemodynamic event, with a total of 163 unstable hemodynamic events. The six predefined criteria for the applicability of pulse pressure variation were completely present in only 7% of these. This data indicates that PPV should only be used alongside a strong understanding of the relevant physiology and applicability criteria. Although these exclusion criteria appear to be profound, they likely represent an absolute contraindication of use for only a minority of critical care patients. Bertrand Delannoy, Florent Wallet, Delphine Maucort-Boulch, Mathieu Page, Mahmoud Kaaki, Mathieu Schoeffler, Brenton Alexander, and Olivier Desebbe Copyright © 2016 Bertrand Delannoy et al. All rights reserved. Achievement of Vancomycin Therapeutic Goals in Critically Ill Patients: Early Individualization May Be Beneficial Thu, 17 Mar 2016 07:28:07 +0000 Objective. The aim of our study was to assess and validate the effectiveness of early dose adjustment of vancomycin based on first dose monitoring in achieving target recommended goal in critically ill patients. Methods. Twenty critically ill patients with sepsis received loading dose of 25 mg/kg of vancomycin and then were randomly assigned to 2 groups. Group 1 received maximum empirical doses of vancomycin of 15 mg/kg every 8 hrs. In group 2, the doses were individualized based on serum concentrations of vancomycin. First dose nonsteady state sampling was used to calculate pharmacokinetic parameters of the patients within 24 hours. Results. Steady state trough serum concentrations were significantly higher in group 2 in comparison with group 1 (19.4 ± 4.4 mg/L versus 14.4 ± 4.3 mg/L) (). Steady state AUCs were significantly higher in group 2 compared with group 1 (665.9 ± 136.5 mg·hr/L versus 490.7 ± 101.1 mg·hr/L) (). Conclusions. With early individualized dosing regimen, significantly more patients achieved peak and trough steady state concentrations. In the context of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic goal of area under the time concentration curve to minimum inhibitory concentration (AUC/MIC) ≥400 and also to obtain trough serum concentration of vancomycin of ≥15 mg/L, it is necessary to individualize doses of vancomycin in critically ill patients. Bita Shahrami, Farhad Najmeddin, Sarah Mousavi, Arezoo Ahmadi, Mohammad Reza Rouini, Kourosh Sadeghi, and Mojtaba Mojtahedzadeh Copyright © 2016 Bita Shahrami et al. All rights reserved. Comment on “Sedative and Analgesic Effects of Entonox Gas Compared with Midazolam and Fentanyl in Synchronized Cardioversion” Tue, 15 Mar 2016 16:35:29 +0000 Henrique Horta Veloso Copyright © 2016 Henrique Horta Veloso. All rights reserved. Blood Lactate Is a Useful Indicator for the Medical Emergency Team Thu, 03 Mar 2016 06:49:20 +0000 Lactate has been thoroughly studied and found useful for stratification of patients with sepsis, in the Intensive Care Unit, and trauma care. However, little is known about lactate as a risk-stratification marker in the Medical Emergency Team- (MET-) call setting. We aimed to determine whether the arterial blood lactate level at the time of a MET-call is associated with increased 30-day mortality. This is an observational study on a prospectively gathered cohort at a regional secondary referral hospital. All MET-calls during the two-year study period were eligible. Beside blood lactate, age and vital signs were registered at the call. Among the 211 calls included, there were 64 deaths (30.3%). Median lactate concentration at the time of the MET-call was 1.82 mmol/L (IQR 1.16–2.7). We found differences between survivors and nonsurvivors for lactate and oxygen saturation, a trend for age, but no significant correlations between mortality and systolic blood pressure, respiratory rate, and heart rate. As compared to normal lactate (<2.44 mmol/L), OR for 30-day mortality was 3.54 () for lactate 2.44–5.0 mmol/L and 4.45 () for lactate > 5.0 mmol/L. The present results support that immediate measurement of blood lactate in MET call patients is a useful tool in the judgment of illness severity. Maria Schollin-Borg, Pär Nordin, Henrik Zetterström, and Joakim Johansson Copyright © 2016 Maria Schollin-Borg et al. All rights reserved. Identifying Prognostic Criteria for Survival after Resuscitation Assisted by Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Tue, 23 Feb 2016 10:03:02 +0000 To improve survival rates during CPR, some patients are put on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Among children who have undergone ECMO cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR), the overall rate of survival to discharge is close to 40%. However, despite its wide acceptance and use, the appropriate indications and organizational requirements for ECPR have yet to be defined. Our objective was to assess the clinical outcomes of children after ECPR and to determine pre-ECPR prognostic factors for survival to guide its indication. Among the 19 patients who underwent ECPR between 2008 and 2014 in our center, 16 patients (84%, 95% confidence interval: 62–95%) died during their hospital stay, including nine (47%) who were on ECMO and seven (37%) after successful weaning from ECMO. All three survivors had normal cognitive status, but one child suffered from spastic quadriplegia. Survivors tended to have lower lactate, higher bicarbonate, and higher pH levels before ECMO initiation, as well as shorter length of resuscitation. In conclusion, in our center, ECPR has a poorer outcome than expected. Therefore, it might be important to identify, a priori, patients who might benefit from this treatment. Alexandrine Brunner, Natacha Dubois, Peter C. Rimensberger, and Oliver Karam Copyright © 2016 Alexandrine Brunner et al. All rights reserved. Perceived versus Observed Patient Safety Measures in a Critical Care Unit from a Teaching Hospital in Southern Colombia Thu, 18 Feb 2016 06:42:39 +0000 Introduction. Patient safety is an important topic. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the perceived versus observed patient safety measures (PSM) in critically ill patients in a teaching hospital in Latin America. Materials and Methods. The level of perceived patient safety was evaluated with the patient safety hospital survey. Three months later, a qualitative study was conducted, including video recording of procedures, graded according to adherence to PSM. Levels of adherence were scored during patient mobilization (PM), placement of central catheters (PCC), other invasive procedures (OIP), infection control (IC), and endotracheal intubation (ETI). Results. The perceived adherence of PSM in the prestudy survey was considered fair by 89.1% of the ICU staff. After the survey, 829 ICU procedures were video-recorded. Mean observed adherence for fair patient safety measures was 20.8%. Perceived adherence was higher than the real patient safety protocol measures observed in the videos. Conclusion. Perception of PSM was higher than observed in the management of critically ill patients in a teaching hospital in southern Colombia. Jorge Hernan Montenegro, Adriana Fernanda Romero, Paola Andrea Tejada, Sandra Ximena Olaya, and Andres Mariano Rubiano Copyright © 2016 Jorge Hernan Montenegro et al. All rights reserved. The Role of Mean Platelet Volume as a Predictor of Mortality in Critically Ill Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Thu, 04 Feb 2016 13:22:59 +0000 Background. An increase in the mean platelet volume (MPV) has been proposed as a novel prognostic indicator in critically ill patients. Objective. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine whether there is an association between MPV and mortality in critically ill patients. Methods. We did electronic search in Medline, Scopus, and Embase up to November 2015. Results. Eleven observational studies, involving 3724 patients, were included. The values of initial MPV in nonsurvivors and survivors were not different, with the mean difference with 95% confident interval (95% CI) being 0.17 (95% CI: −0.04, 0.38; ). However, after small sample studies were excluded in sensitivity analysis, the pooling mean difference of MPV was 0.32 (95% CI: 0.04, 0.60; ). In addition, the MPV was observed to be significantly higher in nonsurvivor groups after the third day of admission. On the subgroup analysis, although patient types (sepsis or mixed ICU) and study type (prospective or retrospective study) did not show any significant difference between groups, the difference of MPV was significantly difference on the unit which had mortality up to 30%. Conclusions. Initial values of MPV might not be used as a prognostic marker of mortality in critically ill patients. Subsequent values of MPV after the 3rd day and the lower mortality rate unit might be useful. However, the heterogeneity between studies is high. Pattraporn Tajarernmuang, Arintaya Phrommintikul, Atikun Limsukon, Chaicharn Pothirat, and Kaweesak Chittawatanarat Copyright © 2016 Pattraporn Tajarernmuang et al. All rights reserved. Mechanical Ventilation Boot Camp: A Simulation-Based Pilot Study Mon, 01 Feb 2016 14:13:05 +0000 Objectives. Management of mechanically ventilated patients may pose a challenge to novice residents, many of which may not have received formal dedicated critical care instruction prior to starting their residency training. There is a paucity of data regarding simulation and mechanical ventilation training in the medical education literature. The purpose of this study was to develop a curriculum to educate first-year residents on addressing and troubleshooting ventilator alarms. Methods. Prospective evaluation was conducted of seventeen residents undergoing a twelve-hour three-day curriculum. Residents were assessed using a predetermined critical action checklist for each case, as well as pre- and postcurriculum multiple-choice cognitive knowledge questionnaires and confidence surveys. Results. Significant improvements in cognitive knowledge, critical actions, and self-reported confidence were demonstrated. The mean change in test score from before to after intervention was +26.8%, and a median score increase of 25% was noted. The ARDS and the mucus plugging cases had statistically significant improvements in critical actions, . A mean increase in self-reported confidence was realized (1.55 to 3.64), . Conclusions. A three-day simulation curriculum for residents was effective in increasing competency, knowledge, and confidence with ventilator management. Jennifer Yee, Charles Fuenning, Richard George, Rana Hejal, Nhi Haines, Diane Dunn, M. David Gothard, and Rami A. Ahmed Copyright © 2016 Jennifer Yee et al. All rights reserved. Review and Outcome of Prolonged Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Thu, 14 Jan 2016 16:07:32 +0000 The maximal duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is unknown. We report a case of prolonged CPR. We have then reviewed all published cases with CPR duration equal to or more than 20 minutes. The objective was to determine the survival rate, the neurological outcome, and the characteristics of the survivors. Measurements and Main Results. The CPR data for 82 patients was reviewed. The median duration of CPR was 75 minutes. Patients mean age was 43 ± 21 years with no significant comorbidities. The main causes of the cardiac arrests were myocardial infarction (29%), hypothermia (21%), and pulmonary emboli (12%). 74% of the arrests were witnessed, with a mean latency to CPR of 2 ± 6 minutes and good quality chest compression provided in 96% of the cases. Adjunct therapy included extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (18%), thrombolysis (15.8%), and rewarming for hypothermia (19.5%). 83% were alive at 1 year, with full neurological recovery reported in 63 patients. Conclusion. Patients undergoing prolonged CPR can survive with good outcome. Young age, myocardial infarction, and potentially reversible causes of cardiac arrest such as hypothermia and pulmonary emboli predict a favorable result, especially when the arrest is witnessed and followed by prompt and good resuscitative efforts. Houssein Youness, Tarek Al Halabi, Hussein Hussein, Ahmed Awab, Kellie Jones, and Jean Keddissi Copyright © 2016 Houssein Youness et al. All rights reserved. Spectrum of Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Children: A Report from PICU of a Resource Limited Country Sun, 03 Jan 2016 11:22:22 +0000 Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in children is a rare but disabling disease that accounts for almost half cases of stroke. We report our experience of ICH in children. Retrospective review of medical records of children (1 month-16 years) admitted in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit between January 2007 and December 2014 was done. Data collected included age, gender, presentation, examination findings, neuroimaging done (CT, MRI, and angiography) management (conservative/intervention), and outcome. Results are presented as frequency and percentages. Of the total 50 patients, 58% were male and 26% were <1 year. On presentation 44% had vomiting, 42% had seizures, and GCS < 8 while 40% had altered level of consciousness. Single bleed was present in 88%, 94% had supratentorial bleed, and 32% had intraventricular extension. 72% had bleed volume of <30 mL and 8% had >60 mL. CT scan was done in 98% patients and MRI in 34%, while 6% underwent conventional angiography. 60% patients were managed conservatively, 36% underwent neurosurgical intervention, and 6% underwent radiological vascular intervention. Hematologic causes were identified in 52% patients and vascular malformations in 14% and in 26% no cause could be identified. 26% of patients expired. Qalab Abbas, Qurat ul Ain Merchant, Bushra Nasir, Anwar ul Haque, Basit Salam, and Gohar Javed Copyright © 2016 Qalab Abbas et al. All rights reserved. Clonal Relatedness among Imipenem-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from ICU-Hospitalized Patients Sun, 20 Dec 2015 13:09:17 +0000 Imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) has become an increasingly important problem in healthcare settings worldwide. The aim of the present study was to evaluate clonal spread among imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolated from ICU-hospitalized patients. Totally, 150 wound specimens were analyzed. Antibiotic resistance profiles and clonal diversity were evaluated using Kirby-Bauer’s disk diffusion method and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA- (RAPD-) PCR, respectively. The isolates showed a high frequency of antibiotic resistance against meropenem, and imipenem (100%) followed by ciprofloxacin, and ceftazidime (90%); meanwhile resistance to polymyxin B was not observed. Eighteen (40%) of P. aeruginosa isolates were MBL-positive via ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) combined disk test. Our findings showed high genetic diversity, with 37 different RAPD types detected. RAPD typing results showed cross-acquisition of P. aeruginosa in investigated hospital, suggesting failure in infection control practices. Incidence of MBL-positive isolates is high and should be regarded as a threat to hospitalized patients. Hamid Vaez, Sharareh Moghim, Bahram Nasr Esfahani, and Hajieh Ghasemian Safaei Copyright © 2015 Hamid Vaez et al. All rights reserved. Anemia and Blood Transfusion in Patients with Isolated Traumatic Brain Injury Wed, 28 Oct 2015 08:13:46 +0000 Rationale. By reducing cerebral oxygen delivery, anemia may aggravate traumatic brain injury (TBI) secondary insult. This study evaluated the impact of anemia and blood transfusion on TBI outcomes. Methods. This was a retrospective cohort study of adult patients with isolated TBI at a tertiary-care intensive care unit from 1/1/2000 to 31/12/2011. Daily hemoglobin level and packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusion were recorded. Patients with hemoglobin < 10 g/dL during ICU stay (anemic group) were compared with other patients. Results. Anemia was present on admission in two (2%) patients and developed in 48% during the first week with hemoglobin < 7 g/dL occurring in 3.0%. Anemic patients had higher admission Injury Severity Score and underwent more craniotomy (50% versus 13%, ). Forty percent of them received PRBC transfusion (2.8 ± 1.5 units per patient, median pretransfusion hemoglobin = 8.8 g/dL). Higher hospital mortality was associated with anemia (25% versus 6% for nonanemic patients, ) and PRBC transfusion (38% versus 9% for nontransfused patients, ). On multivariate analysis, only PRBC transfusion independently predicted hospital mortality (odds ratio: 6.8; 95% confidence interval: 1.1–42.3). Conclusions. Anemia occurred frequently after isolated TBI, but only PRBC transfusion independently predicted mortality. Hasan M. Al-Dorzi, Waleed Al-Humaid, Hani M. Tamim, Samir Haddad, Ahmad Aljabbary, Abdulaziz Arifi, and Yaseen M. Arabi Copyright © 2015 Hasan M. Al-Dorzi et al. All rights reserved. Sedative and Analgesic Effects of Entonox Gas Compared with Midazolam and Fentanyl in Synchronized Cardioversion Tue, 20 Oct 2015 11:23:02 +0000 The purpose of this study was to determine if the Entonox gas could cause adequate analgesic and sedative effects in patients who need cardioversion. In this randomized not blinded clinical trial, the sedative and analgesic effects of midazolam and fentanyl were compared with Entonox. Eligible patients who need synchronized cardioversion because of dysrhythmia were randomly divided into two groups. The first group received intravenous midazolam and fentanyl; the second group received Entonox through a blower-dependent mask. Onset and end of sedation, sedation level, and pain score were recorded. There were nonsignificant differences between the two groups (22 patients in each group) regarding age, gender, weight, sedation level, and frequency and level of shock. The pain score recorded in the first group was 5.05 ± 1.32, and 3.9 ± 0.7 in the second group (). Furthermore, sedation duration and time to full recovery consciousness were shorter in the second group (). In the first group, seven patients needed additional doses to induce and maintain sedation. In addition, as a result of apnoea, four patients required airway support. None of them occurred in the second group. Entonox is a suitable medication in rapid cardioversion, as it has minimal side effects and adequate analgesic and sedative effects. Kambiz Masoumi, Arash Forouzan, Sina Saghari, Maryam Feli, Ali Reza Sattari, and Ali Asgari Darian Copyright © 2015 Kambiz Masoumi et al. All rights reserved. The Impact of Intravenous Lidocaine on ICP in Neurological Illness: A Systematic Review Thu, 10 Sep 2015 09:09:44 +0000 Background. The goal of our study was to perform a systematic review of the literature to determine the effect that intravenous (IV) lidocaine had on ICP in patients with neurological illness. Methods. All articles are from MEDLINE, BIOSIS, EMBASE, Global Health, Scopus, Cochrane Library, the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (inception to March 2015). The strength of evidence was adjudicated using both the Oxford and GRADE methodology. Results. Ten original articles were considered for the final review. There were 189 patients studied. Seven studies focused on prophylactic pretreatment with IV lidocaine to determine if there would be an attenuation of ICP spikes during stimulation, with 4 displaying an attenuation of ICP. Three studies focused on a therapeutic administration of IV lidocaine in order to determine ICP reduction effects. All therapeutic studies displayed a reduction in ICP. Conclusions. We cannot make a strong definitive recommendation on the effectiveness of IV lidocaine on the attenuation of ICP spikes during stimulation. There currently exists both Oxford 2b and GRADE B literature to support and refute the attenuation of ICP spikes with IV lidocaine during stimulation. There currently exists Oxford 2b, GRADE B evidence to support ICP reduction with lidocaine when used as a therapeutic agent. F. A. Zeiler, N. Sader, and C. J. Kazina Copyright © 2015 F. A. Zeiler et al. All rights reserved. Open and Closed Endotracheal Suctioning and Arterial Blood Gas Values: A Single-Blind Crossover Randomized Clinical Trial Thu, 03 Sep 2015 06:28:55 +0000 Aim. This study was aimed at comparing the effects of the open and closed suctioning techniques on the arterial blood gas values in patients undergoing open-heart surgery. Methods. In a clinical trial, we recruited 42 patients after open-heart surgery in an educational hospital. Each patient randomly underwent both open and closed suctioning. ABGs, PaO2, SaO2, PaCO2, were analyzed before and one, five, and fifteen minutes after each suctioning episode. Results. At first the pressure of oxygen in arterial blood increased; however, this increase in the open technique was greater than that of the closed system . The pressure of oxygen decreased five and fifteen minutes after both suctioning techniques . The trends of carbon dioxide variations after the open and closed techniques were upward and downward, respectively. Moreover, the decrease in the level of oxygen saturation five and fifteen minutes after the open suctioning was greater than that of the closed suctioning technique .  Conclusion. Arterial blood gas disturbances in the closed suctioning technique were less than those of the open technique. Therefore, to eliminate the unwanted effects of endotracheal suctioning on the arterial blood gases, the closed suctioning technique is recommended. Azam Faraji, Alireza Khatony, Gholamreza Moradi, Alireza Abdi, and Mansour Rezaei Copyright © 2015 Azam Faraji et al. All rights reserved. Development of Delirium in the Intensive Care Unit in Patients after Endovascular Aortic Repair: A Retrospective Evaluation of the Prevalence and Risk Factors Wed, 02 Sep 2015 10:16:47 +0000 Delirium is an acute form of nervous system dysfunction often observed in patients in the intensive care unit. Endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) is considered a minimally invasive surgical treatment for abdominal aortic aneurysm. Although the operation method is widely used, there are few investigations of the rate and risk factors of delirium development after the operation. In this study, we retrospectively examined the rate of delirium development in the intensive care unit (ICU) after EVAR, as well as the associated preoperative risk factors and effects on the lengths of ICU and hospital stays. We examined the 81 consecutive patients who underwent elective EVAR between November 2013 and August 2014. The Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist was used to diagnose delirium. Twenty patients (24.7%) were diagnosed with delirium in this study. The ICU and hospital length of stays of patients with delirium were 3.3 ± 2.4 days and 14.5 ± 11.9 days, respectively, the latter of which was significantly longer than that of patients without delirium (). Additionally, renal dysfunction, preoperative benzodiazepine use, and intraoperative transfusion were found to be risk factors for the development of delirium after elective EVAR. Yohei Kawatani, Yoshitsugu Nakamura, Yujiro Hayashi, Tetsuyoshi Taneichi, Yujiro Ito, Hirotsugu Kurobe, Yuji Suda, and Takaki Hori Copyright © 2015 Yohei Kawatani et al. All rights reserved. Impact of a 2-Day Critical Care Ultrasound Course during Fellowship Training: A Pilot Study Wed, 05 Aug 2015 11:59:08 +0000 Objectives. Despite the increasing utilization of point-of-care critical care ultrasonography (CCUS), standards establishing competency for its use are lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a 2-day CCUS course implementation on ultrasound-naïve critical care medicine (CCM) fellows. Methods. Prospective evaluation of the impact of a two-day CCUS course on eight CCM fellows’ attitudes, proficiency, and use of CCUS. Ultrasound competency on multiple organ systems was assessed including abdominal, pulmonary, vascular, and cardiac systems. Subjects served as self-controls and were assessed just prior to, within 1 week after, and 3 months after the course. Results. There was a significant improvement in CCM fellows’ written test scores, image acquisition ability, and pathologic image interpretation 1 week after the course and it was retained 3 months after the course. Fellows also had self-reported increased confidence and usage of CCUS applications after the course. Conclusions. Implementation of a 2-day critical care ultrasound course covering general CCUS and basic critical care echocardiography using a combination of didactics, live models, and ultrasound simulators is effective in improving critical care fellows’ proficiency and confidence with ultrasound use in both the short- and long-term settings. Vi Am Dinh, Paresh C. Giri, Inimai Rathinavel, Emilie Nguyen, David Hecht, Ihab Dorotta, H. Bryant Nguyen, and Ara A. Chrissian Copyright © 2015 Vi Am Dinh et al. All rights reserved. Lung Injury Prediction Score Is Useful in Predicting Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome and Mortality in Surgical Critical Care Patients Sun, 02 Aug 2015 11:49:29 +0000 Background. Lung injury prediction score (LIPS) is valuable for early recognition of ventilated patients at high risk for developing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). This study analyzes the value of LIPS in predicting ARDS and mortality among ventilated surgical patients. Methods. IRB approved, prospective observational study including all ventilated patients admitted to the surgical intensive care unit at a single tertiary center over 6 months. ARDS was defined using the Berlin criteria. LIPS were calculated for all patients and analyzed. Logistic regression models evaluated the ability of LIPS to predict development of ARDS and mortality. A receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve demonstrated the optimal LIPS value to statistically predict development of ARDS. Results. 268 ventilated patients were observed; 141 developed ARDS and 127 did not. The average LIPS for patients who developed ARDS was versus for those who did not (). An ROC area under the curve of 0.79 demonstrates LIPS is statistically powerful for predicting ARDS development. Furthermore, for every 1-unit increase in LIPS, the odds of developing ARDS increase by 1.50 () and odds of ICU mortality increase by 1.22 (). Conclusion. LIPS is reliable for predicting development of ARDS and predicting mortality in critically ill surgical patients. Zachary M. Bauman, Marika Y. Gassner, Megan A. Coughlin, Meredith Mahan, and Jill Watras Copyright © 2015 Zachary M. Bauman et al. All rights reserved. The Use of Sodium Bicarbonate in the Treatment of Acidosis in Sepsis: A Literature Update on a Long Term Debate Thu, 30 Jul 2015 11:31:20 +0000 Introduction. Sepsis and its consequences such as metabolic acidosis are resulting in increased mortality. Although correction of metabolic acidosis with sodium bicarbonate seems a reasonable approach, there is ongoing debate regarding the role of bicarbonates as a therapeutic option. Methods. We conducted a PubMed literature search in order to identify published literature related to the effects of sodium bicarbonate treatment on metabolic acidosis due to sepsis. The search included all articles published in English in the last 35 years. Results. There is ongoing debate regarding the use of bicarbonates for the treatment of acidosis in sepsis, but there is a trend towards not using bicarbonate in sepsis patients with arterial blood gas . Conclusions. Routine use of bicarbonate for treatment of severe acidemia and lactic acidosis due to sepsis is subject of controversy, and current opinion does not favor routine use of bicarbonates. However, available evidence is inconclusive, and more studies are required to determine the potential benefit, if any, of bicarbonate therapy in the sepsis patient with acidosis. Dimitrios Velissaris, Vasilios Karamouzos, Nikolaos Ktenopoulos, Charalampos Pierrakos, and Menelaos Karanikolas Copyright © 2015 Dimitrios Velissaris et al. All rights reserved. Impact of a Simulation-Based Communication Workshop on Resident Preparedness for End-of-Life Communication in the Intensive Care Unit Thu, 25 Jun 2015 12:30:38 +0000 Introduction. Although residents frequently lead end-of-life (EOL) discussions in the intensive care unit (ICU), training in EOL care during residency has been required only recently, and few educational interventions target EOL communication in the ICU. This study evaluated a simulation-based intervention designed to improve resident EOL communication skills with families in the ICU. Methods. Thirty-four second-year internal medicine residents at a large urban teaching hospital participated in small group sessions with faculty trained in the “VitalTalk” method. A Likert-type scale questionnaire measured self-assessed preparedness before, immediately following, and approximately 9 months after intervention. Data were analyzed using Wilcoxon rank-sum analysis. Results. Self-assessed preparedness significantly improved for all categories surveyed (preintervention mean; postintervention mean; p value), including discussing bad news (3.3; 4.2; ), conducting a family conference (3.1; 4.1; ), discussing treatment options (3.2; 3.9; ), discussing discontinuing ICU treatments (2.9; 3.5; ), and expressing empathy (3.9; 4.5; ). Improvement persisted at follow-up for all items except “expressing empathy.” Residents rated the educational quality highly. Conclusion. This study provides evidence that brief simulation-based interventions can produce lasting improvements in residents’ confidence to discuss EOL care with family members of patients in the ICU. Abraham Markin, Diego F. Cabrera-Fernandez, Rebecca M. Bajoka, Samantha M. Noll, Sean M. Drake, Rana L. Awdish, Dana S. Buick, Maria S. Kokas, Kristen A. Chasteen, and Michael P. Mendez Copyright © 2015 Abraham Markin et al. All rights reserved. Pressure Measurement Techniques for Abdominal Hypertension: Conclusions from an Experimental Model Sun, 31 May 2015 14:06:03 +0000 Introduction. Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) measurement is an indispensable tool for the diagnosis of abdominal hypertension. Different techniques have been described in the literature and applied in the clinical setting. Methods. A porcine model was created to simulate an abdominal compartment syndrome ranging from baseline IAP to 30 mmHg. Three different measurement techniques were applied, comprising telemetric piezoresistive probes at two different sites (epigastric and pelvic) for direct pressure measurement and intragastric and intravesical probes for indirect measurement. Results. The mean difference between the invasive IAP measurements using telemetric pressure probes and the IVP measurements was −0.58 mmHg. The bias between the invasive IAP measurements and the IGP measurements was 3.8 mmHg. Compared to the realistic results of the intraperitoneal and intravesical measurements, the intragastric data showed a strong tendency towards decreased values. The hydrostatic character of the IAP was eliminated at high-pressure levels. Conclusion. We conclude that intragastric pressure measurement is potentially hazardous and might lead to inaccurately low intra-abdominal pressure values. This may result in missed diagnosis of elevated abdominal pressure or even ACS. The intravesical measurements showed the most accurate values during baseline pressure and both high-pressure plateaus. Sascha Santosh Chopra, Stefan Wolf, Veit Rohde, and Florian Baptist Freimann Copyright © 2015 Sascha Santosh Chopra et al. All rights reserved. Propofol Infusion Syndrome in Adults: A Clinical Update Sun, 12 Apr 2015 09:28:23 +0000 Propofol infusion syndrome is a rare but extremely dangerous complication of propofol administration. Certain risk factors for the development of propofol infusion syndrome are described, such as appropriate propofol doses and durations of administration, carbohydrate depletion, severe illness, and concomitant administration of catecholamines and glucocorticosteroids. The pathophysiology of this condition includes impairment of mitochondrial beta-oxidation of fatty acids, disruption of the electron transport chain, and blockage of beta-adrenoreceptors and cardiac calcium channels. The disease commonly presents as an otherwise unexplained high anion gap metabolic acidosis, rhabdomyolysis, hyperkalemia, acute kidney injury, elevated liver enzymes, and cardiac dysfunction. Management of overt propofol infusion syndrome requires immediate discontinuation of propofol infusion and supportive management, including hemodialysis, hemodynamic support, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in refractory cases. However, we must emphasize that given the high mortality of propofol infusion syndrome, the best management is prevention. Clinicians should consider alternative sedative regimes to prolonged propofol infusions and remain within recommended maximal dose limits. Aibek E. Mirrakhimov, Prakruthi Voore, Oleksandr Halytskyy, Maliha Khan, and Alaa M. Ali Copyright © 2015 Aibek E. Mirrakhimov et al. All rights reserved. Comment on “Management of Atrial Fibrillation in Critically Ill Patients” Sun, 12 Apr 2015 08:54:15 +0000 Sébastien Champion Copyright © 2015 Sébastien Champion. All rights reserved. Incidence and Risk Factors for Delirium among Mechanically Ventilated Patients in an African Intensive Care Setting: An Observational Multicenter Study Sun, 05 Apr 2015 08:45:13 +0000 Aim. Delirium is common among mechanically ventilated patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). There are little data regarding delirium among mechanically ventilated patients in Africa. We sought to determine the burden of delirium and associated factors in Uganda. Methods. We conducted a multicenter prospective study among mechanically ventilated patients in Uganda. Eligible patients were screened daily for delirium using the confusional assessment method (CAM-ICU). Comparisons were made using -test, chi-squares, and Fisher’s exact test. Predictors were assessed using logistic regression. The level of statistical significance was set at . Results. Of 160 patients, 81 (51%) had delirium. Median time to onset of delirium was 3.7 days. At bivariate analysis, history of mental illness, sedation, multiorgan dysfunction, neurosurgery, tachypnea, low mean arterial pressure, oliguria, fevers, metabolic acidosis, respiratory acidosis, anaemia, physical restraints, marital status, and endotracheal tube use were significant predictors. At multivariable analysis, having a history of mental illness, sedation, respiratory acidosis, higher PEEP, endotracheal tubes, and anaemia predicted delirium. Conclusion. The prevalence of delirium in a young African population is lower than expected considering the high mortality. A history of mental illness, anaemia, sedation, endotracheal tube use, and respiratory acidosis were factors associated with delirium. Arthur Kwizera, Jane Nakibuuka, Lameck Ssemogerere, Charles Sendikadiwa, Daniel Obua, Samuel Kizito, Janat Tumukunde, Agnes Wabule, and Noeline Nakasujja Copyright © 2015 Arthur Kwizera et al. All rights reserved. Is There Any Association between PEEP and Upper Extremity DVT? Thu, 02 Apr 2015 14:12:20 +0000 Background. We hypothesized that positive end-exploratory pressure (PEEP) may promote venous stasis in the upper extremities and predispose to upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (UEDVT). Methods. We performed a retrospective case control study of medical intensive care unit patients who required mechanical ventilation (MV) for >72 hours and underwent duplex ultrasound of their upper veins for suspected DVT between January 2011 and December 2013. Results. UEDVT was found in 32 (28.5%) of 112 patients. Nineteen (67.8%) had a central venous catheter on the same side. The mean ± SD duration of MV was days. Average PEEP was  cm H2O. Average PEEP was ≥10 cm H2O in 23 (20.5%) patients. Congestive heart failure (CHF) significantly increased the odds of UEDVT (OR 4.53, 95% CI 1.13–18.11; ) whereas longer duration of MV (≥13 vs. <13 days) significantly reduced it (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.11–0.8; ). Morbid obesity showed a trend towards significance (OR 3.82, 95% CI 0.95–15.4; ). Neither PEEP nor any of the other analyzed predictors was associated with UEDVT. Conclusions. There is no association between PEEP and UEDVT. CHF may predispose to UEDVT whereas the risk of UEDVT declines with longer duration of MV. Farah Al-Saffar, Ena Gupta, Furqan Siddiqi, Muhammad Faisal, Lisa M. Jones, Vandana Seeram, Mariam Louis, James D. Cury, Abubakr A. Bajwa, and Adil Shujaat Copyright © 2015 Farah Al-Saffar et al. All rights reserved.