- About this Journal
- Abstracting and Indexing
- Aims and Scope
- Annual Issues
- Article Processing Charges
- Articles in Press
- Author Guidelines
- Bibliographic Information
- Citations to this Journal
- Contact Information
- Editorial Board
- Editorial Workflow
- Free eTOC Alerts
- Publication Ethics
- Reviewers Acknowledgment
- Submit a Manuscript
- Subscription Information
- Table of Contents
Clinical and Developmental Immunology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 580696, 9 pages
CD4 T-Cell-Independent Antibody Response Reduces Enterovirus 71 Lethality in Mice by Decreasing Tissue Viral Loads
1Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Medical College, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan
2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Medical College, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan
3National Institute of Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, National Health Research Institutes, Tainan 701, Taiwan
4Statistical Analysis Laboratory, Department of International Business Management, Tainan University of Technology, Tainan 701, Taiwan
5Center of Excellence for Infectious Diseases and Signaling Research, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan
Received 15 March 2012; Revised 9 September 2012; Accepted 10 September 2012
Academic Editor: David Kaplan
Copyright © 2012 Li-Chiu Wang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- L. Y. Chang, L. M. Huang, S. S. F. Gau et al., “Neurodevelopment and cognition in children after enterovirus 71 infection,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 356, no. 12, pp. 1226–1234, 2007.
- M. Ho, E. R. Chen, K. H. Hsu et al., “An epidemic of enterovirus 71 infection in Taiwan,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 341, no. 13, pp. 929–935, 1999.
- C. C. Huang, C. C. Liu, Y. C. Chang, C. Y. Chen, S. T. Wang, and T. F. Yeh, “Neurologic complications in children with enterovirus 71 infection,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 341, no. 13, pp. 936–942, 1999.
- J. Qiu, “Enterovirus 71 infection: a new threat to global public health?” The Lancet Neurology, vol. 7, no. 10, pp. 868–869, 2008.
- L. Y. Chang, C. A. Hsiung, C. Y. Lu et al., “Status of cellular rather than humoral immunity is correlated with clinical outcome of enterovirus 71,” Pediatric Research, vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 466–471, 2006.
- S. M. Wang, H. Y. Lei, K. J. Huang et al., “Pathogenesis of enterovirus 71 brainstem encephalitis in pediatric patients: roles of cytokines and cellular immune activation in patients with pulmonary edema,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 188, no. 4, pp. 564–570, 2003.
- L. Y. Chang, S. H. Hsia, C. T. Wu et al., “Outcome of enterovirus 71 infections with or without stage-based management: 1998 to 2002,” Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 327–332, 2004.
- S. H. Hsia, C. T. Wu, J. J. Chang et al., “Predictors of unfavorable outcomes in enterovirus 71-related cardiopulmonary failure in children,” Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 331–334, 2005.
- L. C. S. Lum, K. T. Wong, S. K. Lam et al., “Fatal enterovirus 71 encephalomyelitis,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 133, no. 6, pp. 795–798, 1998.
- S. M. Wang, C. C. Liu, H. W. Tseng et al., “Clinical spectrum of enterovirus 71 infection in children in southern Taiwan, with an emphasis on neurological complications,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 184–190, 1999.
- J. J. Yan, J. R. Wang, C. C. Liu, H. B. Yang, and I. J. Su, “An outbreak of enterovirus 71 infection in Taiwan 1998: a comprehensive pathological, virological, and molecular study on a case of fulminant encephalitis,” Journal of Clinical Virology, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 13–22, 2000.
- P. McMinn, I. Stratov, L. Nagarajan, and S. Davis, “Neurological manifestations of enterovirus 71 infection in children during an outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease in Western Australia,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 236–242, 2001.
- M. A. Nolan, M. E. Craig, M. M. Lahra et al., “Survival after pulmonary edema due to enterovirus 71 encephalitis,” Neurology, vol. 60, no. 10, pp. 1651–1656, 2003.
- S. M. Wang, H. Y. Lei, L. Y. Su et al., “Cerebrospinal fluid cytokines in enterovirus 71 brain stem encephalitis and echovirus meningitis infections of varying severity,” Clinical Microbiology and Infection, vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 677–682, 2007.
- T. Y. Lin, S. H. Hsia, Y. C. Huang, C. T. Wu, and L. Y. Chang, “Proinflammatory cytokine reactions in enterovirus 71 infections of the central nervous system,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 269–274, 2003.
- Y. W. Lin, K. C. Chang, C. M. Kao, S. P. Chang, Y. Y. Tung, and S. H. Chen, “Lymphocyte and antibody responses reduce enterovirus 71 lethality in mice by decreasing tissue viral loads,” Journal of Virology, vol. 83, no. 13, pp. 6477–6483, 2009.
- Z. H. Li, C. M. Li, P. Ling et al., “Ribavirin reduces mortality in enterovirus 71-infected mice by decreasing viral replication,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 197, no. 6, pp. 854–857, 2008.
- Y. F. Wang, C. T. Chou, H. Y. Lei et al., “A mouse-adapted enterovirus 71 strain causes neurological disease in mice after oral infection,” Journal of Virology, vol. 78, no. 15, pp. 7916–7924, 2004.
- C. K. Yu, C. C. Chen, C. L. Chen et al., “Neutralizing antibody provided protection against enterovirus type 71 lethal challenge in neonatal mice,” Journal of Biomedical Science, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 523–528, 2000.
- A. Rahemtulla, W. P. Fung-Leung, M. W. Schilham et al., “Normal development and function of CD8+ cells but markedly decreased helper cell activity in mice lacking CD4,” Nature, vol. 353, no. 6340, pp. 180–184, 1991.
- H. F. Staats, J. E. Oakes, and R. N. Lausch, “Anti-glycoprotein D monoclonal antibody protects against herpes simplex virus type 1-induced diseases in mice functionally depleted of selected T-cell subsets or asialo GM1+ cells,” Journal of Virology, vol. 65, no. 11, pp. 6008–6014, 1991.
- K. R. Alugupalli, J. M. Leong, R. T. Woodland, M. Muramatsu, T. Honjo, and R. M. Gerstein, “B1b lymphocytes confer T cell-independent long-lasting immunity,” Immunity, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 379–390, 2004.
- A. F. Ochsenbein, D. D. Pinschewer, B. Odermatt, M. C. Carroll, H. Hengartner, and R. M. Zinkernagel, “Protective T cell-independent antiviral antibody responses are dependent on complement,” Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 190, no. 8, pp. 1165–1174, 1999.
- M. F. Bachmann and R. M. Zinkernagel, “Neutralizing antiviral B cell responses,” Annual Review of Immunology, vol. 15, pp. 235–270, 1997.
- R. Berland and H. H. Wortis, “Origins and functions of B-1 cells with notes on the role of CD5,” Annual Review of Immunology, vol. 20, pp. 253–300, 2002.
- B. O. Lee, J. Rangel-Moreno, J. E. Moyron-Quiroz et al., “CD4 T cell-independent antibody response promotes resolution of primary influenza infection and helps to prevent reinfection,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 175, no. 9, pp. 5827–5838, 2005.
- R. Wagner, Ed., The Rhabdoviruses, Plenum Press, New York, NY, USA, 1987.
- V. R. Racaniello, “Picornaviridae: the viruses and their replication,” in Fields Virology, D. M. Knipe, P. M. Howley, D. E. Griffin, et al., Eds., pp. 796–838, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 2007.
- R. E. McKinney Jr., S. L. Katz, and C. M. Wilfert, “Chronic enteroviral meningoencephalitis in agammaglobulinemic patients,” Reviews of Infectious Diseases, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 334–356, 1987.
- C. M. Wilfert, R. H. Buckley, T. Mohanakumar, et al., “Persistent and fatal central nervous system echovirus infections in patients with agammaglobulinemia,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 296, no. 26, pp. 1485–1489, 1977.
- M. J. Abzug, H. L. Keyserling, M. L. Lee, M. J. Levin, and H. A. Rotbart, “Neonatal enterovirus infection: virology, serology, and effects of intravenous immune globulin,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 1201–1206, 1995.
- S. M. Wang, H. Y. Lei, M. C. Huang et al., “Modulation of cytokine production by intravenous immunoglobulin in patients with enterovirus 71-associated brainstem encephalitis,” Journal of Clinical Virology, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 47–52, 2006.