Table 1: Descriptive statistics of all variables.

Cognition (t1) Cognition (t1)
Description and range (min-max)Mean SEMean SEMean SEt-test

Cognition (t1)
 Magic window(0–15)7.43(3.39)
 Face recognition(0–15)7.20(2.95)
 Gestalt closure(0–20)5.43(3.04)
Cognition (t2)
 Magic window(0–15)10.63(2.59)9.59(2.83)11.57(1.92) *
 Face recognition(0–15)10.44(2.58)10.04(2.82)10.80(2.28) *
 Gestalt closure(0–23)10.27(3.61)8.73(3.54)11.65(3.07) *
Home environment (t1)
 Story telling(1–7)5.21(2.07)4.79(2.20)5.59(1.86) *
 Reading aloud(1–7)5.55(1.99)4.92(2.21)6.11(1.57) *
 Playing cards(1–7)4.92(1.87)4.68(2.05)5.14(1.66) *
Years of parental education(0–13)10.03(2.54)9.30(2.70)10.70(2.19) *
Ratio of Turkish(0-1)0.490.640.36 *
Age (t1)(34–51)42.13(3.79)40.79(3.71)43.33(3.44) *
Age (t2)(45–64)54.76(4.03)53.40(4.02)55.98(3.64) *
Preschool attendance (t2)(0–62)17.97(7.40)16.45(6.98)19.33(7.51) *
Time span (t2-t1)(9–17)12.63(1.39)12.61(1.34)12.65(1.43)
N1009477532

Note. Own calculations with data of the project “Preschool Education and Educational Careers among Migrant Children”. Cognition (t1) is a subsample of all children who have below the mean Cognition (t1). Cognition (t1) contains all children scores above the mean. The results of a two-group mean comparison test. *Significant 𝑃 . 0 5 .