Table 4: Measurement model of the SEM presented in Figure 3.

Dependent variable
effects on indicators
Independent variableUnstandardized CoefficientSE

Home environment Education0.1740.024 ***
Preschool (t1) Education0.0650.098
Preschool (t1) Ethnic origin−2.2130.499 ***
Cognition (t1) Home environment0.4630.079 ***
Cognition (t1) Education0.0760.027 **
Cognition (t1) Age (t1)0.1650.018 ***
Cognition (t1) Preschool (t1)0.0020.007
Cognition (t2) Home environment−0.0490.063
Cognition (t2) Education0.0110.023
Cognition (t2) Time span between0.1070.031 ***
Cognition (t2) Cognition (t1)0.6250.061 ***
Cognition (t2) Preschool (t1)0.0130.006 *
Magic window (t2) Cognition (t2)1.2070.068 ***
Face recognition (t2) Cognition (t2)1.000
Gestalt closure (t2) Cognition (t2)2.0240.107 ***
Story telling Home environment1.000
Reading aloud Home environment1.3910.181 ***
Playing games Home environment0.2410.071 ***
Playing games Age (t1)0.0550.015 ***
Reading aloud Age (t1)0.0090.013
Story telling Age (t1)0.0210.016
Magic window (t1) Cognition (t1)1.6550.129 ***
Face recognition (t1) Cognition (t1)1.000
Gestalt closure (t1) Cognition (t1)1.2560.104 ***
Magic window (t2) Ethnic origin−0.7820.176 ***
Face recognition (t2) Ethnic origin1.7250.170 ***
Gestalt closure (t2) Ethnic origin−0.0160.256
Playing games Ethnic origin−0.3400.122 **
Reading aloud Ethnic origin−1.5050.121 ***
Story telling Ethnic origin−0.7510.140 ***
Magic window (t1) Ethnic origin−1.9200.215 ***
Face recognition (t1) Ethnic origin0.7960.195 ***
Gestalt closure (t1) Ethnic origin−1.1330.196 ***
Home environment Education0.1740.024 ***
Preschool (t1) Education0.0650.098 ***

Significant with 𝑃 . 0 0 1 . Significant with 𝑃 . 0 1 . Significant with 𝑃 . 0 5 .