- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Recently Accepted Articles ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
Child Development Research
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 467872, 9 pages
What Makes an Act a Pretense One? Young Children’s Pretend-Real Judgments and Explanations
1Department of Psychology, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, ON, Canada M5B 2K3
2Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400400, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4400, USA
Received 16 January 2013; Accepted 19 March 2013
Academic Editor: Tricia Striano
Copyright © 2013 Lili Ma and Angeline S. Lillard. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- A. S. Lillard, “Pretend play skills and the child's theory of mind,” Child development, vol. 64, no. 2, pp. 348–371, 1993.
- J. Belsky and R. K. Most, “From exploration to play: a cross-sectional study of infant free play behavior,” Developmental Psychology, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 630–639, 1981.
- I. Bretherton, “Representing the social world in symbolic play: reality and fantasy,” in Symbolic Play: The Development of Social Understanding, I. Bretherton, Ed., pp. 3–41, Academic Press, Orlando, Fla, USA, 1984.
- G. G. Fein, “Pretend play in childhood: an integrative review,” Child Development, vol. 52, pp. 1095–1118, 1981.
- L. Nicolich, “Beyond sensorimotor intelligence: assessment of symbolic maturity through analysis of pretend play,” Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 89–99, 1977.
- W. L. Haight and P. J. Miller, Pretending at Home: Early Development in a Sociocultural Context, SUNY Press, Albany, NY, USA, 1993.
- K. L. Walton, Mimesis as Make-Believe, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass, USA, 1990.
- A. M. Leslie, “Pretense and representation: the origin of ‘theory of mind’,” Psychological Review, vol. 94, pp. 412–426, 1987.
- A. S. Lillard, “Wanting to be it: children's understanding of intentions underlying pretense,” Child Development, vol. 69, no. 4, pp. 981–993, 1998.
- H. Rakoczy, M. Tomasello, and T. Striano, “Young children know that trying is not pretending: a test of the “behaving-as-if” construal of children's early concept of pretense,” Developmental Psychology, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 388–399, 2004.
- D. M. Sobel, “Children's knowledge of the relation between intentional action and pretending,” Cognitive Development, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 130–141, 2007.
- A. S. Lillard and D. C. Witherington, “Mothers' behavior modifications during pretense and their possible signal value for toddlers,” Developmental Psychology, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 95–113, 2004.
- P. H. Weiss, M. Jeannerod, Y. Paulignan, and H. J. Freund, “Is the organisation of goal-directed action modality specific? A common temporal structure,” Neuropsychologia, vol. 38, no. 8, pp. 1136–1147, 2000.
- M. Bekoff, “Social communication in canids: evidence for the evolution of a stereotyped mammalian display,” Science, vol. 197, no. 4308, pp. 1097–1099, 1977.
- A. S. Lillard, T. Nishida, D. Massaro, A. Vaish, L. Ma, and G. McRoberts, “Signs of pretense across age and scenario,” Infancy, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 1–30, 2007.
- J. S. DeLoache and B. Plaetzer, “Tea for two: joint mother-child symbolic play,” in Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting for the Society for Research in Child Development, Toronto, Canada, 1985.
- R. A. Richert and A. S. Lillard, “Observers' proficiency at identifying pretense acts based on behavioral cues,” Cognitive Development, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 223–240, 2004.
- J. D. Bransford, J. R. Barclay, and J. J. Franks, “Sentence memory: a constructive versus interpretive approach,” Cognitive Psychology, vol. 2, pp. 331–350, 1972.
- S.-E. Clausen, Applied Correspondence Analysis: An Introduction, Sage, Thousand Oaks, Calif, USA, 1998.
- B. S. Everitt, The Analysis of Contingency Tables. Monographs on Statistics and Applied Probability, vol. 4, Chapman & Hall/CRC, Washington, DC, USA, 1992.
- R. Baillargeon, “Object permanence in 3 1/2- and 4 1/2-month-old infants,” Developmental Psychology, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 655–664, 1987.
- E. S. Spelke, K. Breinlinger, J. Macomber, and K. Jacobson, “Origins of knowledge,” Psychological Review, vol. 99, no. 4, pp. 605–632, 1992.
- J. H. Flavell, E. R. Flavell, F. Green, and J. E. Korfmacher, “Do young children think of television images as pictures or real objects,” Journal of Broadcasting & Electronics Media, vol. 34, pp. 399–419, 1990.
- A. Dorr, “No shortcuts to judging reality,” in Children's Understanding of Television: Research on Attention and Comprehension, J. Bryant and D. R. Anderson, Eds., pp. 199–220, Academic Press, New York, NY, USA, 1983.
- C. Hoffner, J. Cantor, and D. M. Badzinski, “Children's understanding of adverbs denoting degree of likelihood,” Journal of child language, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 217–231, 1990.
- S. R. Beck, E. J. Robinson, D. J. Carroll, and I. A. Apperly, “Children's thinking about counterfactuals and future hypotheticals as possibilities,” Child Development, vol. 77, no. 2, pp. 413–426, 2006.
- C. Garvey, Play, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass, USA, 1977.
- L. Ma and A. S. Lillard, “Where is the real cheese? Young children's ability to discriminate between real and pretend acts,” Child Development, vol. 77, no. 6, pp. 1762–1777, 2006.
- L. Ma and A. S. Lillard, “Two-year-olds' understanding of real-pretend contrasts: the case of real versus substitute content,” in Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of Society of Research in Child Development, Boston, Mass, USA, 2007.
- S. Carey, Conceptual Change in Childhood, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass, USA, 1985.
- A. Gopnik and A. N. Meltzoff, Words, Thoughts, and Theories, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass, USA, 1997.
- K. Inagaki and G. Hatano, “Young children's conception of the biological world,” Current Directions in Psychological Science, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 177–181, 2006.
- F. C. Keil, “The origins of an autonomous biology,” in Modularity and Constraints in Language and Cognition: The Minnesota Symposia on Child Psychology, M. R. Gunnar and M. Maratsos, Eds., vol. 25, pp. 103–137, Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, USA, 1992.
- H. M. Wellman and S. A. Gelman, “Cognitive development: foundational theories of core domains,” Annual Review of Psychology, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 337–375, 1992.
- L. E. Schulz, E. B. Bonawitz, and T. L. Griffiths, “Can being scared cause tummy aches? Naive theories, ambiguous evidence, and preschoolers' causal inferences,” Developmental Psychology, vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 1124–1139, 2007.
- A. K. Hickling, H. M. Wellman, and G. M. Gottfried, “Preschoolers' understanding of others' mental attitudes towards pretend happenings,” British Journal of Developmental Psychology, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 339–354, 1997.