Child Development Research http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Preschool Power Play: Resource Control Strategies Associated with Health Thu, 10 Apr 2014 10:18:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cdr/2014/706547/ Background. This exploratory study uses a multimethod approach to examine the relationship between social strategy usage and overall health in preschool children. Methods. Children's temperament, social strategies, and health assessments were obtained via reported behavior from parents and teachers. In addition, children's use of prosocial and coercive strategies was observed and recorded via one-way windows in the preschool facility. Results. Results revealed that the temperament characteristic of effortful control was related to the observed use of coercive strategies and that coercive strategies were not observed by teachers, who viewed these children as primarily prosocial. The reported use of both coercive and prosocial strategies was also related to decrease in illness. Conclusion. These findings in relation to previous work suggest that using both prosocial and coercive strategies can elevate status as well as maintain health even in young children. Amber R. Massey, Jennifer Byrd-Craven, and CaSandra L. Swearingen Copyright © 2014 Amber R. Massey et al. All rights reserved. Student Engagement in After-School Programs, Academic Skills, and Social Competence among Elementary School Students Thu, 10 Apr 2014 10:14:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cdr/2014/498506/ Research on the relationship between after-school program participation and student outcomes has been mixed, and beneficial effects have been small. More recent studies suggest that participation is best characterized as a multidimensional concept that includes enrollment, attendance, and engagement, which help explain differences in student outcomes. The present study uses data from a longitudinal study of after-school programs in elementary schools to examine staff ratings of student engagement in after-school activities and the association between engagement and school outcomes. The factor structure of the staff-rated measure of student engagement was examined by exploratory factor analysis. Multiple regression analyses found that student engagement in academic, youth development, and arts after-school program activities was significantly related to changes in teacher ratings of academic skills and social competence over the course of the school year and that students with the greatest increase in academic skills both were highly engaged in activities and attended the after-school program regularly. The results of this study provide additional evidence regarding the benefits of after-school programs and the importance of student engagement when assessing student outcomes. Kathryn E. Grogan, Christopher C. Henrich, and Mariya V. Malikina Copyright © 2014 Kathryn E. Grogan et al. All rights reserved. Early Vocabulary Development of Australian Indigenous Children: Identifying Strengths Tue, 01 Apr 2014 11:43:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cdr/2014/942817/ The current study sought to increase our understanding of the factors involved in the early vocabulary development of Australian Indigenous children. Data from the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children were available for 573 Indigenous children (291 boys) who spoke English ( months, months, at wave 3). Data were also available for 86 children (51 boys) who spoke an Indigenous language ( months, months, at wave 3). As hypothesised, higher levels of parent-child book reading and having more children’s books in the home were associated with better English vocabulary development. Oral storytelling in Indigenous language was a significant predictor of the size of children’s Indigenous vocabulary. Brad M. Farrant, Carrington C. J. Shepherd, Roz D. Walker, and Glenn C. Pearson Copyright © 2014 Brad M. Farrant et al. All rights reserved. Taxonomies Support Preschoolers’ Knowledge Acquisition from Storybooks Tue, 25 Mar 2014 09:13:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cdr/2014/386762/ For young children, storybooks may serve as especially valuable sources of new knowledge. While most research focuses on how extratextual comments influence knowledge acquisition, we propose that children’s learning may also be supported by the specific features of storybooks. More specifically, we propose that texts that invoke children’s knowledge of familiar taxonomic categories may support learning by providing a conceptual framework through which prior knowledge and new knowledge can be readily integrated. In this study, 60 5-year olds were read a storybook that either invoked their knowledge of a familiar taxonomic category (taxonomic storybook) or focused on a common thematic grouping (traditional storybook). Following the book-reading, children’s vocabulary acquisition, literal comprehension, and inferential comprehension were assessed. Children who were read the taxonomic storybook demonstrated greater acquisition of target vocabulary and comprehension of factual content than children who were read the traditional storybook. Inferential comprehension, however, did not differ across the two conditions. We argue for the importance of careful consideration of book features and storybook selection in order to provide children with every opportunity to gain the knowledge foundational for successful literacy development. Ashley M. Pinkham, Tanya Kaefer, and Susan B. Neuman Copyright © 2014 Ashley M. Pinkham et al. All rights reserved. Abnormalities in Pattern of Lateralization in Relation to Visuospatial Short Term Memory in Children with Williams Syndrome Thu, 20 Mar 2014 07:30:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cdr/2014/491458/ Williams syndrome (WS) is a genetic disorder characterised by significant intellectual disability. Initial studies indicate that children with WS have a profound bias for information in the top left of visual arrays. Study 1, using a visuospatial memory test for items presented in a matrix, found a significant top left bias in WS children relative to controls. Study 2 used a probe-based memory test with arrays in which items appeared with equal probability in each position. Relative to controls, WS children showed a significant top and left bias. In Study 3, the same children engaged in a visual search task and again, a top and left bias was found in the WS group. It is concluded that children with WS display atypical laterality, which might be explained by abnormal saccadic movements, by abnormalities involving development of the dorsal stream or by uneven cortical development. Antonios Chasouris, Peter Mayer, Ian Stuart-Hamilton, Martin Graff, and Lance Workman Copyright © 2014 Antonios Chasouris et al. All rights reserved. The Smart Nonconserver: Preschoolers Detect Their Number Conservation Errors Wed, 12 Feb 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cdr/2014/768186/ Classic developmental studies have established that children’s number conservation is often biased by misleading intuitions. However, the precise nature of these conservation errors is not clear. A key question is whether children detect that their erroneous conservation judgment is unwarranted. The present study focuses on this critical error sensitivity issue. Preschool children were given a classic version of a number conservation task in which an intuitively cued response conflicted with the correct conservation response and a control version in which this conflict was not present. After solving each version children were asked to indicate their response confidence. Results showed that in contrast with children who gave a correct conservation response, preschoolers who erred showed a sharp confidence decrease after solving the classic conflict problem. This suggests that nonconserving preschoolers detect that their response is questionable and are less ignorant about conservation than their well-documented errors might have previously suggested. Wim De Neys, Amélie Lubin, and Olivier Houdé Copyright © 2014 Wim De Neys et al. All rights reserved. Lost in Translation? Comparing British, Japanese, and Italian Children’s Theory-of-Mind Performance Thu, 16 Jan 2014 09:53:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cdr/2014/893492/ Findings from cross-cultural theory-of-mind studies highlight potential measurement effects and both general (e.g., East-West) and specific (e.g., pedagogical experiences) cultural contrasts. We compared theory-of-mind scores for children from UK and Italy (two Western countries that differ in age of school entry) and Japan (a Far-Eastern country in which children, like their Italian counterparts, start school later than British children). Confirmatory factor analysis was applied to data from 268 age-gender- and verbal ability-matched 5- to 6-year olds. Key findings were that (i) all 8 indicators loaded onto a single latent factor; and (ii) this latent factor explained significant variance in each group, with just one indicator showing differential item functioning. Supporting the importance of pedagogical experiences, British children outperformed both their Italian and Japanese counterparts. Claire Hughes, Rory T. Devine, Rosie Ensor, Masuo Koyasu, Ai Mizokawa, and Serena Lecce Copyright © 2014 Claire Hughes et al. All rights reserved. Comparing Adolescent Only Children with Those Who Have Siblings on Academic Related Outcomes and Psychosocial Adjustment Tue, 14 Jan 2014 07:17:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cdr/2014/578289/ This study uses a large and representative sample of adolescents to test the theoretically informed hypotheses comparing adolescent singletons with those who have siblings. The results found that, for academic related outcomes (educational expectations, time spent on homework, and self-reported grades), there are no differences between singletons and firstborns who have any number of younger siblings. Singletons are also not different from laterborns from two-child families. In contrast, singletons are more advantageous compared to laterborns who have two or more siblings on educational expectations and grades. Singletons also spend more time on homework than laterborns who have three or more siblings. For psychosocial outcomes (psychological distress, susceptibility to negative peer pressure, and problem behaviors), singletons are not different from both firstborns and laterborns with any number of siblings. The findings suggest that singletons are not at any disadvantage compared to their peers who have siblings and they enjoy some advantages over laterborns from medium to large families on academic related outcomes. Zeng-yin Chen and Ruth X. Liu Copyright © 2014 Zeng-yin Chen and Ruth X. Liu. All rights reserved. Cognitive Flexibility, Theory of Mind, and Hyperactivity/Inattention Sun, 12 Jan 2014 10:14:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cdr/2014/741543/ The present study analyzed the concurrent and longitudinal relations among cognitive flexibility, theory of mind, and hyperactivity/inattention in a sample of 70 typically developing children ( age = 61.4 months, SD = 8.3 months). Mothers and teachers reported on children’s hyperactivity/inattention using the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (Goodman, 1997), cognitive flexibility was measured using the dimension change card sort task (Zelazo, 2006), and theory of mind was assessed using a battery of tasks. Cognitive flexibility and theory of mind scores were found to be significantly negatively correlated with the level of hyperactivity/inattention at both time points. Furthermore, year 1 cognitive flexibility score was found to be a significant predictor of year 2 hyperactivity/inattention score after controlling for child age, gender, and year 1 hyperactivity/inattention score. Directions for future research include training studies which would further our understanding of these relationships and allow more effective interventions. Brad M. Farrant, Janet Fletcher, and Murray T. Maybery Copyright © 2014 Brad M. Farrant et al. All rights reserved. Children’s Trust Beliefs in Others and Trusting Behavior in Peer Interaction Wed, 25 Dec 2013 15:14:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cdr/2013/806597/ The relation between children’s trust beliefs and trusting behavior in peer interaction was examined. One hundred and 5 Italian children (54 boys; mean age = 10 years-7 months) completed standardized scales of reliability (i.e., promise keeping) trust beliefs in parents and peers. The children participated in mixed-motive interactions with classmates which assessed behavior-dependent reliability trust on peers. The children’s reliability trustworthiness towards peers/classmates was assessed by peer reports. The SEM analyses supported the hypothesized model by showing: (1) a path between trust beliefs in parents and trust beliefs in peers; (2) paths between both types of trust beliefs and behavior-dependent trust on peers; (3) a path between behavior-dependent trust in peers and trustworthiness towards peers. Trust beliefs in peers were found to mediate the relation between trust beliefs in parents and behavior-dependent trust in peers. The findings yielded support for the basis, domain, and target trust framework and attachment theory. Ken J. Rotenberg, Serena Petrocchi, Flavia Lecciso, and Antonella Marchetti Copyright © 2013 Ken J. Rotenberg et al. All rights reserved. A Bidirectional Relationship between Conceptual Organization and Word Learning Sun, 22 Dec 2013 09:43:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cdr/2013/298603/ This study explores the relationship between word learning and conceptual organization for preschool-aged children. We proposed a bidirectional model in which increases in word learning lead to increases in taxonomic organization, which, in turn, leads to further increases in word learning. In order to examine this model, we recruited 104 4-year olds from Head Start classrooms; 52 children participated in a two-week training program, and 52 children were in a control group. Results indicated that children in the training program learned more words and were more likely to sort taxonomically than children in the control condition. Furthermore, the number of words learned over the training period predicted the extent to which children categorized taxonomically. Additionally, this ability to categorize taxonomically predicted the number of words learned outside the training program, over and above the number of words learned in the program. These results suggest a bi-directional relationship between conceptual organization and word learning. Tanya Kaefer and Susan B. Neuman Copyright © 2013 Tanya Kaefer and Susan B. Neuman. All rights reserved. Associations of Motor Developmental Risks with the Socioeconomic Status of Preschool Children in North-Eastern Germany Wed, 18 Dec 2013 13:20:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cdr/2013/790524/ Aims. The study is part of the pilot project “children in preschools” and aims to detect developmental risks of preschool children in the context of their socioeconomic status (SES) as a base to initiate individual intervention strategies. Methods. The “Dortmund Developmental Screening for the Kindergarten” was used in 12 preschools in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (MWP) to detect early developmental risks in children aged 3 to 6 years (). Socioeconomic data from parents were collected by a standardised questionnaire. Results. Significant differences between the SES groups were identified especially in the field of fine motor skills (). In gross motor development differences were not statistically significant. Prevalence rate of fine motor developmental risks ranges from 1.7% to 20.9%; the rate of gross motor developmental risks tops out at 14.4%. The prevalence rates are associated with age and sex. Conclusions. Fine motor skills in 3–6 years old preschool children are significantly associated with the socioeconomic status. In gross motor skills an association could not be identified. In this study, motor development was more affected by sex than by SES. Annika Gottschling-Lang, Marco Franze, and Wolfgang Hoffmann Copyright © 2013 Annika Gottschling-Lang et al. All rights reserved. Children’s Perceptions of Their Play: Scale Development and Validation Thu, 21 Nov 2013 15:30:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cdr/2013/284741/ A wealth of research has been conducted on children’s play, yet the vast majority has relied on others’ accounts to define, describe, and characterize their play. This study presents a successful effort to generate a scale to measure third through fifth grade children’s perceptions of their play. Items were generated from children’s unrestricted accounts of how they viewed their play, and the reliability (internal consistency, stability), content, and construct (convergent and discriminant) validity of the Children’s Perceptions of Their Play (CPTP) scale were all high. Across two independent samples, children defined their play in terms of six factors: opportunities to choose what to do and with whom (Child’s Choice), play interactions with friends (Social Play), structured recreation activities in which they chose to participate (Planned Activities), their involvement and absorption in play (Engagement), how physically active they are (Active Play), and freedom from school obligations when they were able to play as they desired (Free Time). No differences between boys and girls, the three grade levels, or children attending public versus private school were found. Lynn A. Barnett Copyright © 2013 Lynn A. Barnett. All rights reserved. It Works Both Ways: Transfer Difficulties between Manipulatives and Written Subtraction Solutions Wed, 13 Nov 2013 14:17:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cdr/2013/216367/ Three experiments compared performance and transfer among children aged 83–94 months after written or manipulatives instruction on two-digit subtraction. In Experiment 1a, children learned with manipulatives or with traditional written numerals. All children then completed a written posttest. Experiment 1b investigated whether salient or perceptually attractive manipulatives affected transfer. Experiment 2 investigated whether instruction with writing would transfer to a manipulatives-based posttest. Children demonstrated performance gains when the posttest format was identical to the instructed format but failed to demonstrate transfer from the instructed format to an incongruent posttest. The results indicate that the problem in transferring from manipulatives instruction to written assessments stems from a general difficulty in using knowledge gained in one format (e.g., manipulatives) in another format (e.g., writing). Taken together, the results have important implications for research and teaching in early mathematics. Teachers should consider making specific links and alignments between written and manipulatives-based representations of the same problems. David H. Uttal, Meredith Amaya, Maria del Rosario Maita, Linda Liu Hand, Cheryl A. Cohen, Katherine O’Doherty, and Judy S. DeLoache Copyright © 2013 David H. Uttal et al. All rights reserved. The Relationship between Mothers’ Attachment Orientations and Their Infants’ Sleep Patterns Sun, 10 Nov 2013 09:07:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cdr/2013/324217/ Objective. In this paper we examine the association between mothers’ attachment style and their infants’ sleep patterns. We hypothesized that low levels of anxiety and avoidance attachment orientations would enable the mother to use more efficient strategies to put her infant to sleep, and in time the infant will assimilate these strategies and consequently develop suitable and more independent sleep routines. Participants and Measures. The 125 mothers who participated in this study completed (a) a measure of attachment orientations (b) and a measure of mother’s perception of their infant’s sleep patterns. Results. The results indicated that the greater the mothers’ avoidance attachment orientation is, the longer it takes to put the child to bed at night, the more wakeful the child is at night, and the more the night wakings are. However, for mothers with high anxiety attachment orientation, there is a positive correlation between child’s age and the time it takes to put him/her to bed, such that the older the child, the longer it takes. Conclusions. The implications of the parent strategies for putting infants to bed on infants’ sleep patterns are discussed. Suggestions for future studies examining broader implications of the results are offered. Diana Cohenca-Shiby and Shiri Schonbach-Medina Copyright © 2013 Diana Cohenca-Shiby and Shiri Schonbach-Medina. All rights reserved. The Role of Sport Involvement and General Self-Worth in the Interplay between Body Dissatisfaction, Worry, and School Disaffection in Preadolescent Boys and Girls Thu, 22 Aug 2013 10:26:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cdr/2013/835149/ While in recent years there has been increasing research on body dissatisfaction in preadolescence and a small body of research on worry in association with eating disorders, less is known about their effects on school disaffection. Therefore, the current study examined possible gender-specific relations between body dissatisfaction, worry, and school disaffection. To identify possible strategies of intervention and prevention, sport involvement and general self-worth were tested as mediators. Multigroup structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test for the mediating role of sport involvement and general self-worth in the association between body dissatisfaction, worry, and school disaffection in a sample of 4th, 5th, and 6th grade students (; ) in elementary schools in Berlin, Germany. The results suggest that promoting feelings of general self-worth could be an effective starting point in decreasing the association between body dissatisfaction, worry, and school disaffection, in both boys and girls. Conversely, sport involvement was identified as a mediating factor for boys only. Diana Raufelder, Sandra Waak, Alice Melchior, and Angela Ittel Copyright © 2013 Diana Raufelder et al. All rights reserved. Maternal Attachment Status, Mother-Child Emotion Talk, Emotion Understanding, and Child Conduct Problems Wed, 21 Aug 2013 11:25:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cdr/2013/680428/ Conduct problems that emerge in childhood often persist into adolescence and are associated with a range of negative outcomes. It is therefore important to identify the factors that predict conduct problems in early childhood. The present study investigated the relations among maternal attachment status, mother-child emotion talk, child emotion understanding, and conduct problems in a sample of 92 (46 males) typically developing children (M age = 61.3 months, SD = 8.3 months). The results support a model in which maternal attachment status predicts the level of appropriate/responsive mother-child emotion talk, which predicts child emotion understanding, which in turn negatively predicts child conduct problems. These findings further underline the developmental role of mother-child emotion talk as well as the importance of involving parents in programs designed to increase children’s emotion understanding and/or decrease the incidence of conduct problems. Brad M. Farrant, Murray T. Maybery, and Janet Fletcher Copyright © 2013 Brad M. Farrant et al. All rights reserved. Influence of Affordances in the Home Environment on Motor Development of Young Children in Japan Mon, 19 Aug 2013 11:58:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cdr/2013/898406/ Previous research indicates that the home environment is a significant factor in early child development. The present study examined influence of the multidimensional home environment on young Japanese children’s motor development. A Japanese translation of the Affordances in the Home Environment for Motor Development-Self Report (AHEMD-SR) was used to assess home motor affordances in 262 families. Motor ability was assessed by parental report using the Enjoji Infant Analytic Developmental Test. We also asked parents to rate their own physical activity in terms of level and years of experience. As results, we found that the home environment in Japan was generally sufficient for children’s motor development and that children’s access to Fine Motor Toys (FMT) and Gross Motor Toys (GMT) had the strongest influence on their development. Analysis also indicated that AHEMD-SR scores were higher for children of parents who had some level of physical activity experience compared to children whose parents indicated no physical activity experience. Parents’ self-reported activity level was correlated with higher scores for the subscales FMT and GMT and for total AHEMD-SR score. These results indicate that both the physical and social-psychological environments (parental experience and views) of the home influenced children’s motor development. Shiro Mori, Hiroki Nakamoto, Hiroshi Mizuochi, Sachi Ikudome, and Carl Gabbard Copyright © 2013 Shiro Mori et al. All rights reserved. Affordances in the Home Environment for Motor Development: A Cross-Cultural Study between American and Lebanese Children Mon, 12 Aug 2013 15:06:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cdr/2013/152094/ Considerable efforts have been devoted to map the relations between the home environment and selected aspects of child’s development. A recent instrument was developed that aimed at assessing the affordances in the home environment, the AHEMD-SR. Although the AHEMD-SR gave insight into affordances in the home, it was focused on two specific populations from the United States and Portugal. Currently, there is limited research regarding the validity of this instrument when used in different cultures. The purpose of this study was to compare a sample of Middle Eastern children to the normative sample that was used to validate the AHEMD. Results showed a significance difference between the socioeconomic statuses between the groups. Concerning factor analysis, results showed that the Lebanese group had five factors loading as did the American/Portuguese sample but with variables loading differently. Interestingly, the Lebanese group showed higher scores for affordances inside the home such replica toys and games. Our findings show that the state of the environment may play a role in the affordances and development. Future work is needed to look at the specific loading and possible variables that may be included in the AHMED-SR to look at other cultures that may have other limitations. Diala Ammar, Gabriel A. Acevedo, and Alberto Cordova Copyright © 2013 Diala Ammar et al. All rights reserved. Object Individuation or Object Movement as Attractor? A Replication of the Wide-Screen/Narrow-Screen Study by Means of (a) Standard Looking Time Methodology and (b) Eye Tracking Thu, 25 Jul 2013 08:23:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cdr/2013/639702/ We report a replication experiment of a mechanized version of the seminal wide-screen/narrow-screen design of Wilcox and Baillargeon (1998) with 9.5-month-old infants (). Two different methodologies were employed simultaneously: (a) the standard looking time paradigm and (b) eye tracking. Across conditions with three different screen sizes, the results from both methodologies revealed a clear and interesting pattern: the looking times increased as a significantly linear function of reduced screen sizes, that is, independently of the number of different objects involved. There was no indication in the data that the infants made use of the featural differences between the different-looking objects involved. The results suggest a simple, novel, and thought-provoking interpretation of the infants’ looking behavior in the wide-screen/narrow-screen design: moving objects are attractors, and the more space left for visible object movement in the visual field, the longer are infants’ looks. Consequently, no cognitive interpretation may be needed. Peter Krøjgaard, Osman S. Kingo, and Søren R. Staugaard Copyright © 2013 Peter Krøjgaard et al. All rights reserved. Developmental Risk: Evidence from Large Nonright-Handed Samples Mon, 22 Jul 2013 10:56:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cdr/2013/169509/ The aim of the present study is twofold. First, we tested the view that individuals who do not develop a typically strong behavioral laterality are distributed differentially among the two genders across age. Second, we examined whether left handedness and mixed handedness are associated with an elevated risk of some developmental or cognitive deficits. A special recruitment procedure provided norms of the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF) copy from large samples of left-handed () and mixed-handed () compared to right-handed () schoolchildren and adults (). This graphic task was considered as reflective of the growth of visual-spatial skills and impairment at copying as a developmental risk. Subjects’ hand preference was assessed by the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory. Data analysis indicated that (1) the trend towards consistent right handedness is sex related. Girls are clearly ahead of boys in this lateralization process, and boys are overrepresented in mixed-handed subjects. The greater prevalence of mixed-handed boys compared to girls decreases with age. (2) Performance on drawing the ROCF varies according to age and handedness groups. Mixed-handed subjects scored worse in all age groups. The results are discussed in relation to the hormonal-developmental, neuropathological, and learning theories of lateralization. Filippos Vlachos, Francois Gaillard, Kiriazis Vaitsis, and Argiris Karapetsas Copyright © 2013 Filippos Vlachos et al. All rights reserved. Naturalistic Observations of Nonverbal Children with Autism: A Study of Intentional Communicative Acts in the Classroom Tue, 25 Jun 2013 08:52:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cdr/2013/296039/ We examined evoked and spontaneous communicative acts in six nonverbal children with autism (10–15 years, M = 12.8, SD = 2.1). All participants attended the same special school for children with autism but were in different classes. Each was observed for 30 minutes during a typical school day. An observer coded the presence/absence of an antecedent, the form and function of the communicative act, and the teacher’s response to the child. One hundred and fifty-five communicative acts were observed, 41% were spontaneous and 59% were evoked. The main antecedents to evoked communicative acts were verbal prompts, and most of the evoked communicative acts were physical in nature (i.e., motor acts and gestures). However, verbalizations and the use of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) were higher for spontaneous communicative acts. The functions of spontaneous communicative acts were primarily requests. Results showed a substantial number of “nonresponses” from teachers, even following evoked communicative acts. These results suggest that teachers may not actively promote intentional communication as much as possible. Therefore, our findings provide information concerning ways in which educators could facilitate intentional communication in non-verbal children with autism. Samantha Drain and Paul E. Engelhardt Copyright © 2013 Samantha Drain and Paul E. Engelhardt. All rights reserved. Adolescent Religiosity and Psychosocial Functioning: Investigating the Roles of Religious Tradition, National-Ethnic Group, and Gender Mon, 20 May 2013 17:50:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cdr/2013/814059/ This study utilized data from over 9,300 youth from 11 national or within-nation ethnic groups to evaluate the relationship between youth religiosity and youth social outcomes (social initiative, antisocial behavior) and psychological outcomes (self-esteem and depression) considering the roles of religious tradition, national-ethnic group, and gender. We created national-ethnic group by religious tradition (NEG × RT) combinations, partitioned religiosity into between-group and within-group components, and performed a series of mixed model regressions for each outcome. The levels of all four outcomes of interest differed significantly across NEG × RT groups, and these differences were attributable to national-ethnic group rather than religious tradition. Youth reports of antisocial behavior and self-esteem were predicted by between-group religiosity. Additionally, within-group religiosity predicted all four outcomes, indicating that the protective role of religiosity functions in a comparative, or relative, manner with youth who are more religious than others in their group reaping the most benefits. Heidi E. Stolz, Joseph A. Olsen, Teri M. Henke, and Brian K. Barber Copyright © 2013 Heidi E. Stolz et al. All rights reserved. What Makes an Act a Pretense One? Young Children’s Pretend-Real Judgments and Explanations Tue, 30 Apr 2013 14:18:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cdr/2013/467872/ The present study examined what makes an act a pretense one for adults and preschoolers. Participants watched pretense versus real acts, judged whether each act was pretend or real, and justified their judgment by citing the cues they used. These reported cues are presumed to reflect viewers’ conception of what makes an act a pretense one. The results suggested that like adults, 5-year-olds represented pretense behavior in the form of contrasts between pretense and its real counterpart. However, children placed greater weight on deviant content than on behavioral cues, whereas adults used behavioral cues, especially movement, when content information was not available. These results are discussed in terms of how children’s intuitive theories of pretense might differ from those of adults. Lili Ma and Angeline S. Lillard Copyright © 2013 Lili Ma and Angeline S. Lillard. All rights reserved. Examining the Relative Contribution of Memory Updating, Attention Focus Switching, and Sustained Attention to Children’s Verbal Working Memory Span Wed, 10 Apr 2013 11:56:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cdr/2013/763808/ Whereas considerable developmental memory research has examined the contributions of short-term memory, processing efficiency, retention duration, and scope of attention to complex memory span, little is known about the influence of controlled attention. The present study investigated the relative influence of three understudied attention mechanisms on the verbal working memory span of school-age children: memory updating; attention focus switching; and sustained attention. Results of general linear modeling revealed that, after controlling for age, only updating accuracy emerged as a significant predictor of verbal working memory span. Memory updating speed (that subsumed attention focus switching speed) also contributed but was mediated by age. The results extend the developmental memory literature by implicating the mechanism of memory updating and developmental improvement in speed of attention focus switching and updating as critical contributors to children’s verbal working memory. Theoretically, the results provide substantively new information about the role of domain-general executive attention in children’s verbal working memory. Beula M. Magimairaj and James W. Montgomery Copyright © 2013 Beula M. Magimairaj and James W. Montgomery. All rights reserved. Linking Early Adversity, Emotion Dysregulation, and Psychopathology: The Case of Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants Thu, 04 Apr 2013 09:03:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cdr/2013/203061/ The ability to regulate emotion is a crucial process that humans utilize in order to adapt to the demands of environmental constraints. Individuals exposed to early adverse life events such as being born at an extremely low birth weight (ELBW, 501–1000 g) are known to have problems regulating emotion which have been linked to the development of psychopathology in this population. Recent studies have used psychophysiological measures, such as electroencephalogram (EEG) and cardiac vagal tone, to index emotion regulatory processes. The purpose of this paper was three-fold: (1) to investigate the relation between ELBW and emotion regulation issues (pathway 1), (2) to review studies investigating the relation between early emotion regulation and later internalizing problems (pathway 2); and (3) to provide a model in which two psychophysiological measures (i.e., frontal EEG asymmetry and cardiac vagal tone) are suggested to understand the proposed conceptual pathways in the relation between ELBW and psychopathology. Lauren A. Drvaric, Ryan J. Van Lieshout, and Louis A. Schmidt Copyright © 2013 Lauren A. Drvaric et al. All rights reserved. The Father-Child Activation Relationship, Sex Differences, and Attachment Disorganization in Toddlerhood Sun, 31 Mar 2013 18:21:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cdr/2013/102860/ The activation relationship theory serves as a complement to Bowlby’s attachment theory to better understand the impact of fathering on child development, focusing primarily on parental stimulation of risk taking and control during children’s exploration. The first aim of this study was to confirm that the activation relationship as assessed with the observational procedure, the Risky Situation, is primarily determined by paternal stimulation of risk taking as assessed by questionnaire. The second aim was to verify the link between the activation relationship and attachment disorganization. The third aim was to verify the existence of a sex difference in father-toddler dyad activation relationships. The Strange Situation procedure and the Risky Situation procedure were conducted with 58 father-toddler dyads. Fathers completed questionnaires on child temperament and parental behavior. Paternal stimulation of risk taking explains activation once child sex and temperament, the attachment relationship, and emotional support are taken into account. Moreover, there is no relation between the father-child activation relationship and attachment disorganization. Finally, data confirm the existence of a sex difference in the activation relationship in toddlers: fathers activate their sons more than their daughters. Daniel Paquette and Caroline Dumont Copyright © 2013 Daniel Paquette and Caroline Dumont. All rights reserved. Notetaking Instruction Enhances Students’ Science Learning Wed, 27 Mar 2013 17:12:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cdr/2013/831591/ Students face various learning challenges in their daily life. Teachers should teach them learning strategies to accommodate demands. One hundred ten fifth graders were randomly assigned to three groups: strategic notetaking, partial strategic notetaking, and control group, with three levels (high versus medium versus low) according to their prior science achievement. The levels also functioned as one independent variable in the MANCOVA analysis, with writing speed as covariate. The results showed significant treatment main effects in support of strategic and partial strategic groups on the measurements of board cued, verbal cued, and noncued information units. The high science achievement group outperformed the low one on the task of verbal cued, whereas the medium outperformed the low one on comprehension multiple-choice test. The study suggested notetaking as an effective learning strategy that can be taught to elementary students. Pai-Lin Lee, Chiao-Li Wang, Douglas Hamman, Ching-Hsiang Hsiao, and Chuang-Hua Huang Copyright © 2013 Pai-Lin Lee et al. All rights reserved. A New Tool to Explore Children’s Social Competencies: The Preschool Competition Questionnaire Sat, 16 Mar 2013 14:23:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cdr/2013/390256/ This paper presents the validation of Preschool Competition Questionnaire (PCQ). The PCQ was completed by the childcare teachers of 780 French-speaking children between the ages of 36 and 71 months. The results of exploratory factor analysis suggest three dimensions involving neither physical nor relational aggression: other-referenced competition, task-oriented competition, and maintenance of dominance hierarchy. The three dimensions are positively correlated with dominance ratings and are linked to social adjustment. Girls are just as competitive as boys in the dimensions of other-referenced competition and dominance hierarchy maintenance. Task-oriented competition is relatively more important in older children and girls. Classification analysis reveals that the children who obtain the highest dominance ratings are the ones who employ a variety of competition strategies. Daniel Paquette, Marie-Noëlle Gagnon, Luc Bouchard, Marc Bigras, and Barry H. Schneider Copyright © 2013 Daniel Paquette et al. All rights reserved. Eighteen-Month-Old Infants Generalize to Analog Props across a Two-Week Retention Interval in an Elicited Imitation Paradigm Thu, 14 Mar 2013 14:48:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cdr/2013/786862/ We report a generalization experiment in which 72 18-month-old infants were tested in the elicited imitation paradigm. Two questions were addressed: (1) whether infants' were able to generalize to differently looking (shape and color changes) but functionally equivalent props and (2) whether narrative support at both encoding and retrieval would facilitate memory. The results revealed that the 18-month-old infants were indeed capable of generalizing to differently looking but functionally equivalent props across a retention interval of two weeks. However, contrary to expectations, narrative support did not facilitate memory or generalization. Osman S. Kingo and Peter Krøjgaard Copyright © 2013 Osman S. Kingo and Peter Krøjgaard. All rights reserved.