Table 1: Sample characteristics by age group.

OctogenariansCentenarians
Characteristic 𝑁 𝑀 /%SDMinMax 𝑁 𝑀 /%SDMinMax 𝑃 -value

Age (years)a8084.322.7880.5390.06244100.582.0498.10108.55.001
Femaleb8066.324484.8.001
Blackb24417.58021.3.525
Institutionalizedb24416.38062.7.001
SPPBc805.633.220122441.462.1909.001
PPMEc804.482.01062442.312.1106.001
GCSc809.083.152122445.183.08112.001
DAFS BADLa7721.235.2502323116.298.26023.001
DAFS IADLc7847.6717.1205823525.7418.28058.001
Leg strength (kg)a8011.067.87040.052415.055.83035.001
Grip strength (kg)a8021.4912.22063.5024310.3210.54060.001

a 𝑡 -test with unequal variances.
bFisher's exact test.
c 𝑡 -test with equal variances.