Figure 2: The factors of cardiovascular disease (a), cancer (b), pneumonia (c), psychiatric disorders (d), and living arrangement (e) determine the fraction of survivors, delayers, and escapers [4] among centenarians. The observed (in blue) and expected proportions (in red) track each other in that the logistic multinomial model well predicts the outcome of a being a survivor (S), delayer (D), or escaper (E) [4]. In panels (a)–(e), a square indicates the presence of a disease and a circle, the absence of a disease. (f). Centenarians were higher (with mean of 3.21 and standard deviation of 2.56) on the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) [6] than the control group of octogenarians (with mean of 2.13 and standard deviation of 2.62). The proportion (15.5%) of centenarians with GDS from 6–15 is significantly different from that proportion (4.6%) in octogenarians (, ).