Table 1: Prevalence of self-rated health and other health dimensions.

VariablesTotal ( 𝑛 = 4 9 4 1 ) % ( 𝑛 )Men ( 𝑛 = 2 2 2 9 )Women ( 𝑛 = 2 7 1 2 )
60–74 years ( 𝑛 = 1 3 5 5 )≥75 years ( 𝑛 = 8 7 4 )6–74 years ( 𝑛 = 1 5 0 8 )≥75 years ( 𝑛 = 1 2 0 4 )
Chinese ( 𝑛 = 9 6 6 ) % ( 𝑛 )Malay ( 𝑛 = 2 4 4 ) % ( 𝑛 )Indian ( 𝑛 = 1 4 5 ) % ( 𝑛 )Chinese ( 𝑛 = 5 6 7 ) % ( 𝑛 )Malay ( 𝑛 = 1 7 2 ) % ( 𝑛 )Indian ( 𝑛 = 1 3 5 ) % ( 𝑛 )Chinese ( 𝑛 = 1 1 0 2 ) % ( 𝑛 )Malay ( 𝑛 = 2 6 2 ) % ( 𝑛 )Indian ( 𝑛 = 1 4 4 ) % ( 𝑛 )Chinese ( 𝑛 = 9 4 1 ) % ( 𝑛 )Malay ( 𝑛 = 1 7 6 ) % ( 𝑛 )Indian ( 𝑛 = 8 7 ) % ( 𝑛 )

Self-rated health
Very healthy9.5 (416)5.0 (47)8.3 (19)7.7 (11)5.1 (29)1.3 (2)2.1 (3)16.1 (175)4.5 (11)7.2 (10)11.0 (104)0.5 (1)4.7 (4)
Healthier than average30.7 (1385)24.4 (234)13.8 (33)12.7 (18)12.6 (71)7.1 (13)3.4 (5)43.4 (478)43.0 (114)37.1 (53)31.7 (299)24.3 (41)29.6 (26)
Of average health45.3 (2326)55.8 (535)70.9 (173)73.6 (106)55.5 (315)71.9 (123)75.2 (103)31.5 (345)38.6 (101)41.1 (60)37.2 (349)40.6 (72)50.3 (44)
Somewhat unhealthy12.1 (674)12.9 (131)5.1 (15)4.9 (8)22.3 (127)17.7 (30)18.0 (23)7.9 (91)8.5 (24)11.2 (16)16.4 (154)24.4 (44)12.3 (11)
Very unhealthy2.3 (137)1.7 (17)1.8 (4)1.1 (2)4.2 (24)2.0 (4)1.3 (1)1.2 (13)5.3 (12)3.5 (5)3.7 (35)10.3 (18)3.1 (2)
Independent in activities of daily living90.0 (4252)95.8 (925)96.9 (236)97.7 (141)83.7 (473)88.4 (151)86.0 (118)96.1 (1055)88.9 (231)85.5 (122)69.2 (654)55.3 (96)56.2 (50)
Independent in instrumental activities of daily living86.7 (4034)95.7 (922)97.8 (239)98.3 (142)81.7 (461)84.4 (144)85.3 (116)93.0 (1017)86.1 (223)80.3 (114)57.2 (542)41.9 (72)47.2 (42)
Independent in mobility54.2 (2352)76.9 (731)86.7 (209)86.3 (124)41.9 (235)66.0 (112)59.0 (80)52.5 (555)44.8 (110)26.7 (37)13.9 (131)13.0 (22)6.6 (6)
No difficulty in hearing85.2 (4035)87.5 (835)91.6 (220)88.4 (127)68.0 (383)72.8 (124)76.3 (106)91.4 (1004)91.3 (239)93.7 (135)74.5 (702)56.6 (97)72.0 (63)
No difficulty in vision78.9 (3764)81.0 (779)88.7 (215)88.2 (126)67.3 (380)66.9 (114)68.9 (95)83.1 (913)79.7 (208)84.1 (121)70.3 (663)54.4 (94)63.9 (56)
No major physical illness67.8 (3177)69.7 (665)65.2 (153)49.5 (71)59.4 (336)59.7 (103)41.4 (55)74.7 (810)61.9 (159)53.8 (76)64.0 (601)61.3 (110)43.7 (38)
Free from pain88.5 (4276)95.2 (916)93.1 (226)95.3 (138)91.2 (517)87.6 (151)88.6 (121)87.5 (959)84.1 (220)75.5 (108)79.1 (746)70.0 (122)60.7 (52)
Restful sleep ( 𝑛 = 4 4 8 9 )a44.6 (1967)51.8 (492)47.8 (115)30.8 (44)50.0 (239)36.8 (57)28.9 (36)39.2 (412)66.5 (159)35.9 (50)34.5 (264)60.1 (70)43.4 (29)
Strong biting/chewing ability86.6 (4059)91.2 (875)88.2 (213)91.9 (132)72.4 (408)74.9 (127)72.6 (98)94.7 (1036)87.6 (229)92.1 (132)66.9 (632)69.7 (122)62.2 (55)
Free from depressive symptoms ( 𝑛 = 4 4 8 9 )a85.0 (3758)87.6 (822)93.8 (225)85.0 (121)84.0 (400)94.6 (142)86.3 (108)86.5 (928)73.9 (181)75.0 (102)78.0 (596)72.2 (85)72.4 (48)
Strong personal mastery ( 𝑛 = 4 4 8 9 )a75.4 (3314)74.7 (701)92.4 (219)79.1 (112)69.4 (331)86.8 (131)74.5 (92)79.8 (851)74.3 (180)67.5 (91)65.3 (498)56.5 (66)62.8 (42)
Participation in social activities71.8 (3438)65.4 (628)95.0 (232)91.5 (132)46.4 (262)86.1 (148)86.0 (118)84.5 (930)63.9 (165)85.2 (122)64.1 (605)21.4 (37)66.9 (59)
Strong social networks ( 𝑛 = 4 4 8 9 )a77.9 (3401)83.1 (783)81.3 (190)72.1 (103)78.3 (373)80.9 (121)60.6 (76)79.1 (850)77.4 (191)67.3 (92)64.9 (494)66.6 (79)73.4 (49)
Perceived financial adequacy ( 𝑛 = 4 4 8 9 )a82.6 (3587)80.5 (754)57.6 (134)66.1 (92)77.8 (371)45.7 (69)58.8 (74)89.9 (968)77.5 (190)81.4 (112)88.1 (672)79.1 (93)87.1 (58)

awere not asked to proxy respondents. Thus the “ 𝑛 ” in each cell is lower.