Table 2: Unadjusted and adjusted odd ratios for positive and negative self-rated health among older adults.

VariablesUnadjusted odds ratios (95% CI) ( 𝑛 = 4 4 8 9 )aAdjusted odds ratios (95% CI) 𝑁 = 4 2 1 1
Positiveb versus average self-rated healthNegativec versus average self-rated healthPositiveb versus average self-rated healthNegativec versus average self-rated health

Sociodemographic
Age 65–74 versus 60–641.0 (0.9–1.1)1.4 (1.1–1.8)1.2 (1.0–1.4)0.9 (0.7–1.2)
75 and above versus 60–640.7 (0.6–0.9)1.9 (1.5–2.4)1.1 (0.9–1.4)0.9 (0.6–1.3)
Gender Females versus Males3.6 (3.2–4.1)1.2 (1.0–1.5)4.7 (3.9–5.6)0.6 (0.4–0.8)
Ethnicity Malay versus Chinese0.6 (0.5–0.8)0.7 (0.5–0.9)0.6 (0.5–0.8)0.5 (0.3–0.8)
Indians versus Chinese0.5 (0.4–0.6)0.6 (0.4–0.8)0.6 (0.5–0.9)0.5 (0.3–0.7)
Educational status Primary versus none0.8 (0.7–1.0)0.9 (0.7–1.1)1.1 (0.9–1.3)1.2 (0.9–1.6)
Secondary versus none0.9 (0.7–1.0)0.6 (0.5–0.8)1.2 (1.0–1.5)1.0 (0.7–1.4)
Vocational/junior college/polytechnic/university and above versus none1.0 (0.8–1.2)0.3 (0.2–0.5)1.5 (1.1–2.0)0.5 (0.3–0.9)
Housing type 1-2 room public housing versus 4-5 room1.0 (0.7–1.2)1.6 (1.1–2.2)1.5 (1.1–2.1)1.2 (0.8–1.9)
public/private3 room public housing versus 4-5 room public/private1.0 (0.9–1.2)1.2 (1.0–1.5)1.1 (1.0–1.4)1.2 (0.9–1.5)
Marital status Widowed versus married1.5 (1.3–1.7)1.2 (1.0–1.5)1.2 (1.0–1.4)0.7 (0.5–1.0)
Separated/divorced versus married2.2 (1.5–3.2)2.5 (1.5–4.1)1.9 (1.2–2.9)2.2 (1.2–4.0)
Never married versus married1.7 (1.3–2.3)1.8 (1.2–2.6)1.2 (0.8–1.7)1.5 (0.9–2.5)

Health dimensions

Independent in activities of daily living2.1 (1.5–2.9)0.2 (0.1–0.2)1.4 (0.8–2.2)0.6 (0.4–1.0)
Independent in instrumental activities of daily living1.5 (1.1–1.9)0.2 (0.1–0.2)1.1 (0.8–1.7)0.5 (0.3–0.7)
Independent in mobility1.1 (0.9–1.2)0.2 (0.2–0.3)1.3 (1.1–1.6)0.3 (0.2–0.4)
No difficulty in hearing2.8 (2.2–3.6)0.4 (0.3–0.5)1.5 (1.2–2.1)0.8 (0.6–1.0)
No difficulty in vision2.9 (2.4–3.5)0.3 (0.3–0.4)2.7 (2.1–3.4)0.5 (0.4–0.6)
No major physical illness2.1 (1.8–2.4)0.3 (0.2–0.4)1.9 (1.6–2.3)0.4 (0.3–0.4)
Free from pain3.2 (2.4–4.2)0.3 (0.2–0.3)3.3 (2.4–4.6)0.5 (0.4–0.7)
Restful sleep1.2 (1.0–1.3)1.1 (0.9–1.3)1.4 (1.2–1.6)1.2 (0.9–1.5)
Strong biting/chewing ability2.1 (1.7–2.6)0.6 (0.4–0.7)1.4 (1.1–1.8)1.4 (1.0–2.0)
Free from depressive symptoms2.2 (1.8–2.7)0.3 (0.3–0.4)1.6 (1.3–2.1)0.7 (0.5–0.9)
Strong personal mastery2.0 (1.7–2.3)0.4 (0.4–0.5)1.8 (1.5–2.2)0.7 (0.5–0.9)
Participation in social activities1.4 (1.2–1.7)0.5 (0.4–0.7)1.0 (0.9–1.3)0.9 (0.7–1.2)
Strong social networks1.1 (0.9–1.2)0.7 (0.6–0.8)1.0 ( 0.8–1.2)1.0 (0.8–1.3)
Perceived financial adequacy3.7 (3.0–4.5)0.5 (0.4–0.6)2.2 (1.8–2.8)0.6 (0.4–0.8)

a 𝑛 for each odds ratio may vary due to variable number of missing values.
bPositive self-rated health includes those who respond “very healthy” or “healthier than average”.
cNegative self-rated health includes those who respond “somewhat unhealthy” or “very unhealthy”.