Table 2: Definition of variables.

VariableCoding

Subjective health 1 = very good; 2 = good; 3 = reasonable; 4 = poor; 5 = very poor
Sleep problems 0 = no; 1 = yes
Subjective physical activity 1 = very good; 2 = good; 3 = reasonable; 4 = poor; 5 = very poor
ADL 0 = with difficulties; 1 = without difficulties
Illness0 = none;1 = 1 illness; 2 = 2 illness; 3 = 3 illness; 4 = 4 or more illness
Psychological distressa1 = <9; 2 = ; 3 = ; 4 = ≥16
Happiness1 = nothing; 2 = 2; 3 = 3; 4 = very
Optimisma1 = <11; 2 = ; 3 = ; 4 = ≥15
Quality of lifea1 = <24; 2 = ; 3 = ; 4 = ≥29
Loneliness0 = yes; 1 = no
Cognitive impairmenta1 = <25; 2 = ; 3 = ; 4 = ≥30
Vision1 = no specs and very poor/poor vision; 2 = no specs and acceptable vision; 3 = no specs and good/very good vision; 4 = specs and very poor/poor vision; 5 = specs and acceptable vision; 6 = specs and good/very good vision
Audition1 = no device use and very good/good audition; 2 = no device use and acceptable audition/3 = no device use and poor/very poor audition; 4 = use device
Smoking1 = no; 2 = ex-smoker; 3 = yes
Drinking1 = never; 2 = special occasions; 3 = occasionally; 4 = regularly
Incomeb1 = ≤386 €; 2 = 386 €–772 €; 3 = 772 €–1158 €; 4 = >1158 €
Education level1 = no formal; 2 = primary; 3 = 5–8 years; 4 = 9–12 years; 5 = university
Peak flowa1 = <180; 2 = ; 3 = ; 4 = ≥340
Grip strengtha1 = <18.3; 2 = ; 3 = ; 4 = ≥29.0
Familya1 = <9; 2 = ; 3 = ; 4 = ≥13
Friendsa1 = <5; 2 = ; 3 = ; 4 = ≥10
Confidentsa1 = <4; 2 = ; 3 = ; 4 = ≥9
Neuroticisma1 = <30; 2 = ; 3 = ; 4 = ≥37
Extraversiona1 = <39; 2 = ; 3 = ; 4 = ≥44
Openness to experiencea1 = <35; 2 = ; 3 = ; 4 = ≥40

aQuartiles; bby reference to the Portuguese Minimum National Wage in 2006.