About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 412536, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/412536
Editorial

Aging and Down Syndrome

1Department of Molecular and Biomedical Pharmacology, Sanders-Brown Center on Aging, University of Kentucky, 800 South Limestone Street, Lexington, KY 40536, USA
2Kennedy Krieger Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 707 N. Broadway, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
3Eleanor Roosevelt Institute and the Department of Biological Sciences, University of Denver, 2101 E. Wesley Avenue, Denver, CO 80208, USA
4Department of Pediatrics and Neurology, School of Medicine, University of California-Irvine (UCI), 101 The City Dr. ZC 4482, Orange, CA 92868, USA

Received 15 May 2012; Accepted 15 May 2012

Copyright © 2012 Elizabeth Head et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. L. Down, “Observations on an ethnic classification of idiots. 1866,” London Hospital Report, vol. 3, pp. 259–262, 1866.
  2. J. Lejeune, M. Gautier, and R. Turpin, “Etude des chromosomes somatiques de neuf enfants mongoliens,” Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de L'Academie des Sciences, vol. 248, pp. 1721–1722, 1959.
  3. S. E. Parker, C. T. Mai, M. A. Canfield et al., “Updated national birth prevalence estimates for selected birth defects in the United States, 2004–2006,” Birth Defects Research Part A, vol. 88, no. 12, pp. 1008–1016, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. N. J. Roizen and D. Patterson, “Down's syndrome,” The Lancet, vol. 361, no. 9365, pp. 1281–1289, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. D. Strauss and R. K. Eyman, “Mortality of people with mental retardation in California with and without Down syndrome, 1986–1991,” American Journal on Mental Retardation, vol. 100, no. 6, pp. 643–653, 1996. View at Scopus
  6. J. M. Friedman, “Racial disparities in median age at death of persons with down syndrome—United States, 1968–1997,” Morbitidity and Mortality Weekly Report, vol. 50, pp. 463–465, 2001.
  7. Q. Yang, S. A. Rasmussen, and J. M. Friedman, “Mortality associated with Down's syndrome in the USA from 1983 to 1997: a population-based study,” Lancet, vol. 359, no. 9311, pp. 1019–1025, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. C. Oliver, L. Crayton, A. Holland, S. Hall, and J. Bradbury, “A four year prospective study of age-related cognitive change in adults with Down's syndrome,” Psychological Medicine, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 1365–1377, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. F. Lai and R. S. Williams, “A prospective study of Alzheimer disease in Down syndrome,” Archives of Neurology, vol. 46, no. 8, pp. 849–853, 1989. View at Scopus
  10. A. J. Dalton, D. R. Crapper, and G. R. Schlotterer, “Alzheimer's disease in Down's syndrome: visual retention deficits,” Cortex, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 366–377, 1974. View at Scopus
  11. M. E. Thase, L. Liss, D. Smeltzer, and J. Maloon, “Clinical evaluaton of dementia in Down's syndrome: a preliminary report,” Journal of Mental Deficiency Research, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 239–244, 1982. View at Scopus
  12. D. Owens, J. C. Dawson, and S. Losin, “Alzheimer's disease in Down's syndrome,” American Journal of Mental Deficiency, vol. 75, no. 5, pp. 606–612, 1971. View at Scopus
  13. K. Wisniewski, J. Howe, D. G. Williams, and H. M. Wisniewski, “Precocious aging and dementia in patients with Down's syndrome,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 619–627, 1978. View at Scopus
  14. S. J. Krinsky-McHale, D. A. Devenny, and W. P. Silverman, “Changes in explicit memory associated with early dementia in adults with Down's syndrome,” Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 198–208, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. A. J. Holland, J. Hon, F. A. Huppert, and F. Stevens, “Incidence and course of dementia in people with Down's syndrome: findings from a population-based study,” Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 138–146, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. E. H. Aylward, D. B. Burt, L. U. Thorpe, F. Lai, and A. Dalton, “Diagnosis of dementia in individuals with intellectual disability,” Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 152–164, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. S. A. Cooper and V. P. Prasher, “Maladaptive behaviours and symptoms of dementia in adults with Down's syndrome compared with adults with intellectual disability of other aetiologies,” Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 293–300, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. L. Nelson, P. Touchette, I. Lott, P. Satz, and L. D'Elia, “Detection of Alzheimer disease in individuals with Down syndrome,” American Journal on Mental Retardation, vol. 99, no. 6, pp. 616–622, 1995. View at Scopus
  19. J. Carr, “Stability and change in cognitive ability over the life span: a comparison of populations with and without Down's syndrome,” Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, vol. 49, no. 12, pp. 915–928, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. S. Deb and J. Braganza, “Comparison of rating scales for the diagnosis of dementia in adults with Down's syndrome,” Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 400–407, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. V. Prasher, A. Farooq, and R. Holder, “The Adaptive Behaviour Dementia Questionnaire (ABDQ): screening questionnaire for dementia in Alzheimer's disease in adults with Down syndrome,” Research in Developmental Disabilities, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 385–397, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. D. B. Burt and E. H. Aylward, “Test battery for the diagnosis of dementia in individuals with intellectual disability,” Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 175–180, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. V. Temple, E. Jozsvai, M. M. Konstantareas, and T. A. Hewitt, “Alzheimer dementia in Down's syndrome: the relevance of cognitive ability,” Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 47–55, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. N. Schupf and G. H. Sergievsky, “Genetic and host factors for dementia in Down's syndrome,” British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 180, pp. 405–410, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. D. M. A. Mann, “The pathological association between Down syndrome and Alzheimer disease,” Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 99–136, 1988. View at Scopus
  26. W. B. Zigman, N. Schupf, E. Sersen, and W. Silverman, “Prevalence of dementia in adults with and without Down syndrome,” American Journal on Mental Retardation, vol. 100, no. 4, pp. 403–412, 1996. View at Scopus
  27. D. M. A. Mann and M. M. Esiri, “The pattern of acquisition of plaques and tangles in the brains of patients under 50 years of age with Downs' syndrome,” Journal of the Neurological Sciences, vol. 89, no. 2-3, pp. 169–179, 1989. View at Scopus
  28. K. E. Wisniewski, H. M. Wisniewski, and G. Y. Wen, “Occurrence of neuropathological changes and dementia of Alzheimer's disease in Down's syndrome,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 278–282, 1985. View at Scopus
  29. P. R. Hof, C. Bouras, D. P. Perl, D. L. Sparks, N. Mehta, and J. H. Morrison, “Age-related distribution of neuropathologic changes in the cerebral cortex of patients with Down's syndrome: quantitative regional analysis and comparison with Alzheimer's disease,” Archives of Neurology, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 379–391, 1995. View at Scopus
  30. I. T. Lott and E. Head, “Down syndrome and alzheimer's disease: a link between development and aging,” Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 172–178, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. J. Tyrrell, M. Cosgrave, M. McCarron et al., “Dementia in people with Down's syndrome,” International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, vol. 16, no. 12, pp. 1168–1174, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. V. P. Prasher and A. Filer, “Behavioural disturbance in people with Down's syndrome and dementia,” Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 432–436, 1995. View at Scopus
  33. A. Bush and N. Beail, “Risk factors for dementia in people with down syndrome: issues in assessment and diagnosis,” American Journal of Mental Retardation, vol. 109, pp. 83–97, 2004.
  34. D. J. Selkoe, “Alzheimer's disease: genes, proteins, and therapy,” Physiological Reviews, vol. 81, no. 2, pp. 741–766, 2001. View at Scopus
  35. J. Hardy, “Alzheimer's disease: the amyloid cascade hypothesis—an update and reappraisal,” Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 151–153, 2006. View at Scopus
  36. M. Farzan, C. E. Schnitzler, N. Vasilieva, D. Leung, and H. Choe, “BACE2, a β-secretase homolog, cleaves at the β site and within the amyloid-β region of the amyloid-β precursor protein,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 97, no. 17, pp. 9712–9717, 2000. View at Scopus
  37. A. G. Vlassenko, M. A. Mintun, and C. Xiong, “Amyloid-beta plaque growth in cognitively normal adults: longitudinal [11C] Pittsburgh compound B data,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 70, pp. 857–861, 2011.
  38. W. E. Klunk, H. Engler, A. Nordberg et al., “Imaging brain amyloid in Alzheimer's disease with Pittsburgh compound-B,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 306–319, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. H. Crystal, D. Dickson, P. Fuld et al., “Clinico-pathologic studies in dementia: nondemented subjects with pathologically confirmed Alzheimer's disease,” Neurology, vol. 38, no. 11, pp. 1682–1687, 1988. View at Scopus
  40. J. Busciglio and B. A. Yankner, “Apoptosis and increased generation of reactive oxygen species in Down's syndrome neurons in vitro,” Nature, vol. 378, no. 6559, pp. 776–779, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. M. Carratelli, L. Porcaro, M. Ruscica, E. De Simone, A. A. E. Bertelli, and M. M. Corsi, “Reactive oxygen metabolites and prooxidant status in children with Down's syndrome,” International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Research, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 79–84, 2001. View at Scopus
  42. P. E. Coskun, J. Wyrembak, O. Derbereva et al., “Systemic mitochondrial dysfunction and the etiology of Alzheimer's disease and down syndrome dementia,” Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. S293–S310, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. D. Patterson and D. C. Cabelof, “Down syndrome as a model of DNA polymerase beta haploinsufficiency and accelerated aging,” Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, vol. 133, no. 4, pp. 133–137, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  44. W. S. T. Griffin, L. C. Stanley, C. Ling et al., “Brain interleukin 1 and S-100 immunoreactivity are elevated in Down syndrome and Alzheimer disease,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 86, no. 19, pp. 7611–7615, 1989. View at Scopus
  45. W. S. T. Griffin, J. G. Sheng, J. E. Mckenzie et al., “Life-long overexpression of S100β in Down's syndrome: implications for Alzheimer pathogenesis,” Neurobiology of Aging, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 401–405, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. M. Hanney, V. Prasher, and N. Williams, “Memantine for dementia in adults older than 40 years with Down's syndrome (MEADOWS): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial,” The Lancet, vol. 379, pp. 528–536, 2012.
  47. T. Kondoh, A. Kanno, H. Itoh et al., “Donepezil significantly improves abilities in daily lives of female down syndrome patients with severe cognitive impairment: a 24-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial,” International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 71–89, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. M. Mohan, C. Bennett, and P. K. Carpenter, “Rivastigmine for dementia in people with Down syndrome,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 1, Article ID CD007658, 2009. View at Scopus
  49. M. Mohan, C. Bennett, and P. K. Carpenter, “Memantine for dementia in people with Down syndrome,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 1, Article ID CD007657, 2009. View at Scopus
  50. M. Mohan, C. Bennett, and P. K. Carpenter, “Galantamine for dementia in people with Down syndrome,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 1, Article ID CD007656, 2009. View at Scopus
  51. M. Mohan, P. K. Carpenter, and C. Bennett, “Donepezil for dementia in people with Down syndrome,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 1, Article ID CD007178, 2009. View at Scopus
  52. W. J. Netzer, C. Powell, Y. Nong et al., “Lowering beta-amyloid levels rescues learning and memory in a Down syndrome mouse model,” PloS ONE, vol. 5, no. 6, Article ID e10943, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. I. T. Lott, E. Doran, V. Q. Nguyen, A. Tournay, E. Head, and D. L. Gillen, “Down syndrome and dementia: a randomized, controlled trial of antioxidant supplementation,” American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A, vol. 155, no. 8, pp. 1939–1948, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus