Table 5: Comparison between previous studies (HR for mortality, adjusted for age or demographic variables only).

ParticipantsSource of MenWomen
income dataPercentileHazard ratio95% CIPercentileHazard ratio95% CI

The present study65+Government data0–23.5*1.00 0–3.3*1.00
(Japan)78.7–99.61.53 1.28–1.8270.1–99.61.54 0.97–2.45
Osler20+
Government data0–25*1.00 0–25*1.00
(Denmark)75–1001.921.69–2.1775–1001.641.47–1.85
Manor**45–69Government data0–25*1.00
(Israel)75–1001.611.45–1.79
Bassuk***65+Interview survey0–14.7*1.00 0–5.9*1.00
(USA)(response rate 82%)74.6–1001.72 1.20–2.4849.0–1002.13 1.34–3.38
Martikainen30+Government data0–10*1.00 0–10*1.00
(Finland)80–902.02 1.96–2.0870–801.47 1.42–1.53
  80–901.511.46–1.57

*Reference.
**Men only.
***Population of Connecticut (relatively similar in reference group percentile).