Table 1: Demographic and clinical characteristics and assessment results of patients with delirium versus those without delirium.

CharacteristicDelirium at admission
( );
(%)
No delirium at admission
( );
(%)
(df) valueIncident delirium††  
( );
(%)
No incident delirium
( );
(%)
(df) value

Age (years)M = 84.6;
SD = 4.9
M = 79.9;
SD = 6.5
−4.80.008*M = 81.2;
SD = 6.1
M = 79.8;
SD = 6.5
−1.21.000
Gender
 Female26 (54.2)262 (58.9)17 (50.0)245 (59.6)
 Male22 (45.8)183 (41.1)0.39 (1)1.00017 (50.0)166 (40.4)1.2 (1)1.000
Diagnosis of dementia24 (50)78 (17.5)27.8 (1)0.008*15 (44.1)63 (15.3)18.0 (1)0.023*
Visual impairment7 (14.6)39 (8.8)1.72 (1)0.8655 (14.7)34 (8.3)1.6 (1)1.000
Hearing impairment4 (8.3)29 (6.5)0.23 (1)1.0005 (14.7)24 (5.9)4.0 (1)0.455
Admitted from
 Private residence33 (68.8)398 (89.4)28 (82.4)370 (90.0)
 Nursing home
  Low care4 (8.3)18 (4.0)2 (5.9)16 (3.9)
  High care10 (20.8)16 (3.6)3 (8.8)13 (3.2)
 Other1 (2.1)13 (2.9)28.4 (3)0.008*1 (2.9)12 (2.9)3.1 (3)1.000
Admitted to
 General medical ward37 (77.1)257 (57.8)18 (52.9)239 (58.2)
 General surgical ward7 (14.6)133 (29.9)13 (38.2)120 (29.2)
 Orthopedic ward4 (8.3)55 (12.4)6.9 (2)0.1713 (8.8)52 (12.7)1.4 (2)1.000
Did they have surgery requiring general anesthetic ?7 (14.6)95 (21.3)1.2 (1)1.00012 (35.3)83 (20.2)4.3 (1)0.455
Most frequent principal diagnosisStroke (25); Hip replacement/other hip and femur procedures (12.5)COPD‡‡   (5.4); oesophagitis, gastroenteritis, and other digestive disorders (4.3)Hip fracture/other hip and femur procedure (14.7); heart failure and shock   (11.8)COPD‡‡   (5.8); oesophagitis, gastroenteritis, and other digestive disorders (4.6)

CharacteristicDelirium at admissionNo delirium
at admission
valueIncident deliriumNo incident delirium value

Mini-Mental State Examination; mean (SD)19.2 (6.6)25.2 (4.6)7.20.008*22.3 (5.8)25.4 (4.4)3.730.023*
Informant Questionnaire for Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE); (SD)4.1 (0.79)
( )
3.4 (0.73)
( )
−4.10.008*3.7 (0.7)
( )
3.4 (0.73)
( )
−1.40.967
Vulnerable Elders Survey (VES-13); mean (SD)6.64 (3.3)5.1 (3.2)−3.040.013*6.3 (2.9)4.9 (3.3)−2.50.455
Neuropsychiatric Questionnaire (NPI-Q); mean (SD)7.1 (5.8)
( )
3.4 (4.5)
( )
−3.80.008*4.4 (4.4)
( )
3.3 (4.5)
( )
−1.01.000
Charlson Comorbidity Index4.5 (2.6)4.0 (2.9)−1.021.0004.9 (2.4)3.9 (2.9)−1.80.455

Unless otherwise indicated; ††patients with delirium at admission were excluded from the analyses; * .
Other includes supported accommodation in the community, short-term crisis accommodation, other hospital, and “other”.
IQCODE: higher scores indicate greater decline with scores greater than 3.44 indicative of cognitive decline.
VES-13 scores of 3 or more in older people indicate an increased risk of functional decline or mortality over the next 2 years.
NPI-Q: scores range from 0 to 36 with higher scores indicative of greater symptomatology.
GA: general anesthetic; none of the 43 cases assessed following the procedure were considered to have delirium at admission compared to 11.9% ( ) of those assessed prior to the procedure ( (1); ). ‡‡COPD: chronic obstructive airway disease.