Table 4: Portuguese Geriatric Care Environment Scale (GCES) subscales and total scores ( 1068).

Variable ( )F1F2F3F4Total score
M ± SD ( )M ± SD ( )M ± SD ( )M ± SD ( )M ± SD ( )

Gender
 Male (217)
 Female (851)
18.2 ± 8.4
16.9 ± 8.3
4.4 (0.036)15.3 ± 5.8
15.8 ± 5.9
1.2 (0.269)11.3 ± 5.2
11.6 ± 4.9
0.5 (0.476)5.2 ± 2.7
5.1 ± 2.7
0.3 (0.585)50.5 ± 17.1
48.8 ± 16.7
1.8 (0.184)
Hospital type
 Academic (647)
 Centers (421)
16.3 ± 8.2
18.5 ± 8.4
17.4 (<0.001)14.8 ± 6.2
16.4 ± 5.2
20.7 (<0.001)11.0 ± 5.0
12.3 ± 4.8
16.7 (<0.001)4.8 ± 2.7
5.6 ± 2.5
21.5 (<0.001)46.9 ± 17.0
51.7 ± 15.8
31.1 (<0.001)
Unit type
 Critical care (201)
 Medical (536)
 Surgery (331)
15.3 ± 9.0
17.4 ± 8.2
17.9 ± 8.1
6.7 (0.001**)12.0 ± 6.8
16.1 ± 5.3
16.3 ± 5.4
46.6 (<0.001**)9.2 ± 4.8
12.0 ± 4.8
12.1 ± 4.9
29.4 (<0.001**)3.9 ± 2.7
5.4 ± 2.6
5.5 ± 2.4
29.9 (<0.001**)40.1 ± 19.2
50.9 ± 15.6
51.8 ± 15.2
38.4 (<0.001**)
Region
 North (375)
 Center (693)
17.5 ± 8.2
17.0 ± 8.4
0.7 (0.388)16.5 ± 5.5
14.8 ± 6.0
21.1 (<0.001)12.9 ± 4.9
10.7 ± 4.8
49.9 (<0.001)5.5 ± 2.6
4.9 ± 2.7
14.2 (<0.001)52.4 ± 15.9
47.4 ± 17.0
21.3 (<0.001)
Perception
 Hospital educational support
  Less (729)
  Adequate (276)
  More (63)
15.9 ± 8.1
19.5 ± 8.1
21.9 ± 8.5
30.9 (<0.001**)14.3 ± 5.8
17.6 ± 5.2
19.5 ± 4.0
52.7 (<0.001*)10.4 ± 4.7
13.6 ± 4.6
15.6 ± 4.1
72.7 (<0.001*)4.7 ± 2.6
6.0 ± 2.6
7.1 ± 2.1
46.3 (<0.001*)45.1 ± 16.1
56.5 ± 14.9
66.1 ± 13.4
82.7 (<0.001*)
 Staff knowledge of older adults care
   Not very (82)
   Somewhat (523)
  Very (463)
14.8 ± 7.8
16.1 ± 8.2
18.6 ± 8.4
13.1 (<0.001***)13.0 ± 5.9
14.8 ± 5.9
16.5 ± 5.6
17.8 (<0.001*)9.5 ± 4.9
10.9 ± 4.9
12.6 ± 4.8
21.9 (<0.001**)4.7 ± 2.8
4.8 ± 2.7
5.5 ± 2.5
10.4 (<0.001***)43.1 ± 17.0
46.5 ± 16.6
53.2 ± 16.1
26.2 (<0.001***)
 Difficulty of caring for older adults
  Great (662)
   Some or not (406)
15.9 ± 8.0
19.2 ± 8.6
41.3 (<0.001)14.6 ± 5.9
16.7 ± 5.5
33.7 (<0.001)10.9 ± 5.0
12.4 ± 4.7
23.0 (<0.001)4.9 ± 2.6
5.5 ± 2.6
15.708 (<0.001)46.3 ± 16.7
53.9 ± 15.8
53.0 (<0.001)
 Reward of caring for older adults
  Not (744)
  Very (324)
16.90 ± 8.0
17.8 ± 9.0
2.4 (0.121)15.0 ± 5.7
16.3 ± 6.1
11.5 (0.001)11.1 ± 4.7
12.4 ± 5.5
14.1 (<0.001)5.0 ± 2.6
5.4 ± 2.8
3.7 (0.053)48.0 ± 16.2
51.8 ± 18.0
11.1 (0.001)
 Of burden of caring older adults
  Very (455)
  Somewhat (545)
  Not (68)
15.6 ± 7.8
18.2 ± 8.5
18.7 ± 9.2
13.8 (<0.001**)15.1 ± 5.6
15.6 ± 5.9
15.4 ± 7.0
0.9 (0.386)11.4 ± 4.9
11.5 ± 4.9
11.6 ± 5.4
0.3 (0.774)4.9 ± 2.6
5.3 ± 2.7
5.5 ± 2.7
2.6 (0.070)47.7 ± 15.7
50.7 ± 17.3
51.3 ± 19.0
6.3 (0.002**)

F1: resource availability; F2: aging-sensitive care; F3: institutional values regarding older adults and staff; F4: continuity of care.
*Each group differed from the other two (Turkey’s HDS test, ). **The first group differed from the second and third groups (Turkey’s HDS test, ). ***The third group differed from the first and second groups (Turkey’s HDS test, ).