Table 2: Associations between characteristics of the participants and self-reported falls.

Unadjusted OR
(95% CI)
Adjusted OR
(95% CI)

Sex
 Men1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)
 Women1.70 (1.46–1.99)1.81 (1.32–2.48)
Age groups, years
 60–691.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)
 70–791.34 (1.13–1.60)1.13 (0.83–1.55)
 ≥801.40 (1.14–1.72) 0.95 (0.60–1.51)
Live in rural areas
 No1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)
 Yes1.36 (1.17–1.58)1.01 (0.76–1.34)
Alcohol use
 None1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)
 1 day per week0.66 (0.54–0.81)1.16 (0.77–1.73)
 ≥2 days per week1.15 (0.70–1.91)1.47 (0.53–4.04)
Self-reported health
 Excellent1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)
 Very good0.81 (0.30–2.18)0.22 (0.19–2.55)
 Good1.26 (0.57–2.78)0.90 (0.13–6.20)
 Fair2.03 (0.93–4.40)1.10 (0.16–7.38)
 Poor3.39 (1.55–7.41)1.51 (0.22–10.4)
Comorbidities
Cognitive impairment
 No1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)
 Yes1.99 (1.65–2.40)1.71 (1.18–2.49)
Depression
 No1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)
 Yes1.99 (1.64–2.42)1.14 (0.82–1.59)
Hypertension
 No1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)
 Yes1.27 (1.09–1.48)1.19 (0.90–1.58)
Diabetes
 No1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)
 Yes1.10 (0.88–1.36)1.07 (0.71–1.59)
COPD
 No1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)
 Yes1.45 (1.10–1.89)0.98 (0.60–1.59)
Arthritis
 No1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)
 Yes1.72 (1.46–2.01)1.03 (0.76–1.39)
Stroke
 No1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)
 Yes1.91 (1.42–2.56)1.49 (0.86–2.58)
Urinary incontinence
 No1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)
 Yes1.91 (1.60–2.28)1.58 (1.13–2.22)
Cataracts
 No1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)
 Yes1.34 (1.13–1.59) 0.92 (0.66–1.29)
Physical activity
 No1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)
 Yes1.14 (0.96–1.34)1.68 (1.23–2.29)
Lower extremity disability
 No1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)
 Yes1.41 (1.16–1.71)1.20 (0.89–1.61)
Limitations in ADLs
 No1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)
 Yes2.03 (1.73–2.39)1.20 (0.86–1.67)
Chair stand test
 Q1 (4 to 9 sec)1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)
 Q2 (10 to 11 sec)1.07 (0.84–1.38)0.94 (0.63–1.39)
 Q3 (12 to 14 sec)1.23 (0.96–1.57)0.87 (0.58–1.29)
 Q4 (unable and ≥15 sec)1.86 (1.45–2.38)1.17 (0.78–1.77)

Bold numbers represent statistical significance in the final multivariate model.