Table 1: Means (SDs) of the raw and standardized scores for the cognitive measures at baseline, standardized scores for executive function, verbal episodic memory, overall cognition, IAV Cognitive Domains, and IAV Time for WHISCA participants by group.

Means (SDs)
Cognitive domainAll ( )No impairment ( )MCI valueProbable dementia valueMCI or probable dementia ( ) value

PMA vocabulary36.93 (9.580)37.24 (9.420)31.19 (10.56)<0.000131.00 (10.44)<0.000130.86 (10.64)<0.0001
Letter fluency40.03 (12.35)40.18 (12.27)37.47 (13.57)0.063937.82 (14.50)0.205037.15 (13.51)0.0162
Category fluency29.15 (6.215)29.37 (6.168)24.07 (4.922)<0.000125.44 (6.298)<0.000124.91 (5.589)<0.0001
*BVRT6.915 (3.675)6.755 (3.579)9.838 (4.122)<0.000110.36 (4.483)<0.000110.01 (4.151)<0.0001
CVLT (learning)29.03 (6.174)29.34 (6.009)23.05 (5.527)<0.000122.00 (6.931)<0.000123.03 (6.308)<0.0001
CVLT (short-delay free recall)8.587 (3.018)8.756 (2.925)5.365 (2.672)<0.00014.822 (3.284)<0.00015.287 (2.923)<0.0001
CVLT (long-delay free recall)9.334 (2.975)9.488 (2.893)6.203 (2.669)<0.00016.022 (3.583)<0.00016.337 (2.984)<0.0001
Digits forward7.484 (2.059)7.524 (2.066)6.608 (1.719)<0.00016.978 (1.738)0.07896.713 (1.751)<0.0001
Digits backward6.723 (2.022)6.765 (2.029)6.041 (1.716)0.00255.867 (1.590)0.00055.891 (1.696)<0.0001
Card rotations56.38 (26.94)57.13 (26.81)43.78 (24.26)<0.000136.89 (26.25)<0.000141.66 (25.30)<0.0001
Finger tapping (dominant)38.57 (7.561)38.67 (7.566)36.64 (7.242)0.023738.00 (6.801)0.558336.71 (7.245)0.0113
Finger tapping (nondominant)36.46 (6.417)36.58 (6.419)34.11 (6.080)0.001235.32 (5.915)0.193134.14 (5.955)0.0002

Standardized total score ( -scores): verbal fluency, CVLT, digits forward and backward, and fine motor speed
Verbal fluency−0.046 (0.952)−0.019 (0.945)−0.633 (0.873)<0.0001−0.490 (1.009)0.0010−0.570 (0.932)<0.0001
CVLT0.024 (0.932)0.076 (0.902)−1.01 (0.813)<0.0001−1.11 (1.104)<0.0001−0.988 (0.926)<0.0001
Digits forward and backward−0.017 (0.993)0.006 (0.997)−0.446 (0.805)<0.0001−0.396 (0.718)0.0006−0.460 (0.787)<0.0001
Fine motor speed−0.102 (1.085)−0.084 (1.085)−0.456 (1.037)0.0038−0.246 (0.995)0.3216−0.449 (1.028)0.0010

Standardized scores ( -scores): executive function, verbal episodic memory, and overall cognition
Executive function−0.038 (0.978)−0.008 (0.976)−0.661 (0.816)<0.0001−0.544 (0.862)0.0003−0.633 (0.839)<0.0001
Verbal episodic memory0.024 (0.932)0.076 (0.902)−1.01 (0.813)<0.0001−1.11 (1.104)<0.0001−0.988 (0.926)<0.0001
Overall cognition−0.128 (0.962)−0.077 (0.938)−1.10 (0.887)<0.0001−1.12 (0.906)<0.0001−1.11 (0.902)<0.0001

IAV Cognitive Domains (standard deviation across cognitive domains at baseline)
SD0.806 (0.260)0.804 (0.259)0.811 (0.272)0.81820.917 (0.288)0.00420.843 (0.269)0.1475

IAV time (slope of IAV Cognitive Domains across measurement occasions)
Slope SD0.003 (0.519)−0.009 (0.512)0.221 (0.600)0.00170.281 (0.594)0.00020.237 (0.604)0.0001

Note. PMA vocabulary: primary mental abilities vocabulary (total correct  −  1/3 number incorrect); letter fluency: letter fluency (number correct); category fluency: category fluency (number correct); BVRT: Benton Visual Retention Test (total figures with errors); CVLT (learning): California Verbal Learning Test (number correct 3 list A trials); CVLT (short-delay free-recall): California Verbal Learning Test (number correct list A short-delay free recall); CVLT (long-delay free-recall): California Verbal Learning Test (number correct list A long-delay free-recall); digits forward: digit span forward (number correct); digits backward: digit span backward (number correct); card rotations: card rotations (total correct  −  total incorrect); finger tapping (dominant): finger tapping test (taps for dominant hand); finger tapping (nondominant): finger tapping test (taps for nondominant hand); *higher scores reflect poorer performance.