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Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 478126, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/478126
Review Article

Senescent Remodeling of the Innate and Adaptive Immune System in the Elderly Men with Prostate Cancer

1Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Via Manzoni 56, Rozzano, Milan 20089, Italy
2Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Rijeka, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia
3Division of Oncology and Hematology, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX 79409, USA

Received 31 July 2013; Revised 26 January 2014; Accepted 10 February 2014; Published 19 March 2014

Academic Editor: Moisés Evandro Bauer

Copyright © 2014 Gianluigi Taverna et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Despite years of intensive investigation that has been made in understanding prostate cancer, it remains a major cause of death in men worldwide. Prostate cancer emerges from multiple alterations that induce changes in expression patterns of genes and proteins that function in networks controlling critical cellular events. Based on the exponential aging of the population and the increasing life expectancy in industrialized Western countries, prostate cancer in the elderly men is becoming a disease of increasing significance. Aging is a progressive degenerative process strictly integrated with inflammation. Several theories have been proposed that attempt to define the role of chronic inflammation in aging including redox stress, mitochondrial damage, immunosenescence, and epigenetic modifications. Here, we review the innate and adaptive immune systems and their senescent remodeling in elderly men with prostate cancer.