About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 934852, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/934852
Review Article

The Simplified Acute Physiology Score III Is Superior to the Simplified Acute Physiology Score II and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II in Predicting Surgical and ICU Mortality in the “Oldest Old”

1Saint George’s University School of Medicine, West Indies, Grenada
2Department of Surgery, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston, NJ, USA
3Department of Surgery, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (UMDNJ), 94 Old Short Hills Road Livingston, Newark, NJ 07039, USA

Received 25 August 2013; Revised 3 November 2013; Accepted 2 December 2013; Published 17 February 2014

Academic Editor: Giuseppe Zuccala

Copyright © 2014 Aftab Haq et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. U. S. Census Bureau, “U.S. Interim Projections by Age, Sex, Race, and Hispanic Origin,” 3-18-2004. 6-20-2011, 2004.
  2. A. Boumendil, D. Somme, M. Garrouste-Orgeas, and B. Guidet, “Should elderly patients be admitted to the intensive care unit?” Intensive Care Medicine, vol. 33, no. 7, pp. 1252–1262, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. S. E. de Rooij, A. Abu-Hanna, M. Levi, and E. de Jonge, “Factors that predict outcome of intensive care treatment in very elderly patients: a review,” Critical Care, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. R307–R314, 2005. View at Scopus
  4. D. Hennessy, K. Juzwishin, D. Yergens, T. Noseworthy, and C. Doig, “Outcomes of elderly survivors of intensive care: a review of the literature,” Chest, vol. 127, no. 5, pp. 1764–1774, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. P. E. Marik, “Management of the critically ill geriatric patient,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 34, no. 9, pp. S176–S182, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. B. H. Nathanson, T. L. Higgins, M. J. Brennan, A. A. Kramer, M. Stark, and D. Teres, “Do elderly patients fare well in the ICU?” Chest, vol. 139, no. 4, pp. 825–831, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. E. Sacanella, J. M. Pérez-Castejón, J. M. Nicolás et al., “Mortality in healthy elderly patients after ICU admission,” Intensive Care Medicine, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 550–555, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. E. de Jonge, R. J. Bosman, P. H. J. van der Voort, H. H. M. Korsten, G. J. Scheffer, and N. F. de Keizer, “Intensive care medicine in the Netherlands, 1997–2001. I. Patient population and treatment outcome,” Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde, vol. 147, no. 21, pp. 1013–1017, 2003. View at Scopus
  9. L. Chelluri, M. R. Pinsky, M. P. Donahoe, and A. Grenvik, “Long-term outcome of critically ill elderly patients requiring intensive care,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 269, no. 24, pp. 3119–3123, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. I. L. Cohen and J. Lambrinos, “Investigating the impact of age on outcome of mechanical ventilation using a population of 41,848 patients from a statewide database,” Chest, vol. 107, no. 6, pp. 1673–1680, 1995. View at Scopus
  11. D. G. Jacobs, B. R. Plaisier, P. S. Barie et al., “Practice management guidelines for geriatric trauma: the EAST practice management guidelines work group,” Journal of Trauma, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 391–416, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. W. A. Knaus, D. P. Wagner, J. E. Zimmerman, and E. A. Draper, “Variations in mortality and length of stay in intensive care units,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 118, no. 10, pp. 753–761, 1993. View at Scopus
  13. A. J. Meinders, J. G. van der Hoeven, and A. E. Meinders, “The outcome of prolonged mechanical ventilation in elderly patients: are the efforts worthwhile?” Age and Ageing, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 353–356, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. E. Charlson, P. Pompei, K. A. Ales, and C. R. MacKenzie, “A new method of classifying prognostic comorbidity in longitudinal studies: development and validation,” Journal of Chronic Diseases, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 373–383, 1987. View at Scopus
  15. S. Greenfield, H. U. Aronow, R. M. Elashoff, and D. Watanabe, “Flaws in mortality data. The hazards of ignoring comorbid disease,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 260, no. 15, pp. 2253–2255, 1988. View at Scopus
  16. M. H. Kaplan and A. R. Feinstein, “The importance of classifying initial comorbidity in evaluating the outcome of diabetes mellitus,” Journal of Chronic Diseases, vol. 27, no. 7-8, pp. 387–404, 1974. View at Scopus
  17. W. A. Knaus, E. A. Draper, D. P. Wagner, and J. E. Zimmerman, “APACHE II: a severity of disease classification system,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 13, no. 10, pp. 818–829, 1985. View at Scopus
  18. W. A. Knaus, D. P. Wagner, E. A. Draper et al., “The APACHE III prognostic system: risk prediction of hospital mortality for critically III hospitalized adults,” Chest, vol. 100, no. 6, pp. 1619–1636, 1991. View at Scopus
  19. K. E. Covinsky, A. C. Justice, G. E. Rosenthal, R. M. Palmer, and C. S. Landefeld, “Measuring prognosis and case mix in hospitalized elders: the importance of functional status,” Journal of General Internal Medicine, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 203–208, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. S. K. Inouye, P. N. Peduzzi, J. T. Robison, J. S. Hughes, R. I. Horwitz, and J. Concato, “Importance of functional measures in predicting mortality among older hospitalized patients,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 279, no. 15, pp. 1187–1198, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. S. A. Mayer-Oakes, R. K. Oye, and B. Leake, “Predictors of mortality in older patients following medical intensive care: the importance of functional status,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 862–868, 1991. View at Scopus
  22. D. B. Reuben, L. V. Rubenstein, S. H. Hirsch, and R. D. Hays, “Value of functional status as a predictor of mortality: results of a prospective study,” The American Journal of Medicine, vol. 93, no. 6, pp. 663–670, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. Y. Sakr, C. Krauss, A. C. K. B. Amaral et al., “Comparison of the performance of SAPS II, SAPS 3, APACHE II, and their customized prognostic models in a surgical intensive care unit,” British Journal of Anaesthesia, vol. 101, no. 6, pp. 798–803, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. P. Hosking, M. A. Warner, C. M. Lobdell, K. P. Offord, and L. J. Melton III, “Outcomes of surgery in patients 90 years of age and older,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 261, no. 13, pp. 1909–1915, 1989. View at Scopus
  25. W. A. Knaus, J. E. Zimmerman, D. P. Wagner, E. A. Draper, and D. E. Lawrence, “APACHE-acute physiology and chronic health evaluation: a physiologically based classification system,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 9, no. 8, pp. 591–597, 1981. View at Scopus
  26. J.-R. le Gall, S. Lemeshow, and F. Saulnier, “A new Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS II) based on a European/North American multicenter study,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 270, no. 24, pp. 2957–2963, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. M. J. Vassar, F. R. Lewis Jr., J. A. Chambers et al., “Prediction of outcome in intensive care unit trauma patients: a multicenter study of acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE), trauma and injury severity score (TRISS), and a 24-hour intensive care unit (ICU) point system,” Journal of Trauma, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 324–329, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. P. G. H. Metnitz, R. P. Moreno, E. Almeida et al., “SAPS 3—from evaluation of the patient to evaluation of the intensive care unit. Part 1: objectives, methods and cohort description,” Intensive Care Medicine, vol. 31, no. 10, pp. 1336–1344, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. R. P. Moreno, P. G. H. Metnitz, E. Almeida et al., “SAPS 3—from evaluation of the patient to evaluation of the intensive care unit. Part 2: development of a prognostic model for hospital mortality at ICU admission,” Intensive Care Medicine, vol. 31, no. 10, pp. 1345–1355, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. D. G. Altman and P. Royston, “What do we mean by validating a prognostic model?” Statistics in Medicine, vol. 19, pp. 453–473, 2000.
  31. J. M. Silva Jr., L. M. Sá Malbouisson, H. L. Nuevo et al., “Applicability of the simplified acute physiology score (SAPS 3) in Brazilian hospitals,” Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 20–31, 2010. View at Scopus