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Chemotherapy Research and Practice
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 839742, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/839742
Review Article

Neoadjuvant Treatment in Rectal Cancer: Actual Status

Department of Hematology and Oncology Sciences “L. A. Seragnoli”, Sant'Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, University of Bologna, via Massarenti 9, 40138 Bologna, Italy

Received 30 November 2010; Revised 20 June 2011; Accepted 28 June 2011

Academic Editor: Sandro Barni

Copyright © 2011 Ingrid Garajová et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Neoadjuvant (preoperative) concomitant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) has become a standard treatment of locally advanced rectal adenocarcinomas. The clinical stages II (cT3-4, N0, M0) and III (cT1-4, N+, M0) according to International Union Against Cancer (IUCC) are concerned. It can reduce tumor volume and subsequently lead to an increase in complete resections (R0 resections), shows less toxicity, and improves local control rate. The aim of this review is to summarize actual approaches, main problems, and discrepancies in the treatment of locally advanced rectal adenocarcinomas.