- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Advance Access ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 176802, 6 pages
The Fruit Fly Drosophila melanogaster as a Model System to Study Cholesterol Metabolism and Homeostasis
1Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tennoudai 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572, Japan
2Initiative for the Promotion of Young Scientists' Independent Research, University of Tsukuba, Tennoudai 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577, Japan
Received 15 October 2010; Accepted 4 January 2011
Academic Editor: Patrizia M. Tarugi
Copyright © 2011 Ryusuke Niwa and Yuko S. Niwa. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- P. E. Kuwabara and M. Labouesse, “The sterol-sensing domain: Multiple families, a unique role?” Trends in Genetics, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 193–201, 2002.
- H. K. Saini, A. S. Arneja, and N. S. Dhalla, “Role of cholesterol in cardiovascular dysfunction,” Canadian Journal of Cardiology, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 333–346, 2004.
- M. A. Wollmer, “Cholesterol-related genes in Alzheimer's disease,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 1801, no. 8, pp. 762–773, 2010.
- A. M. Arias, “Drosophila melanogaster and the development of biology in the 20th century,” Methods in Molecular Biology, vol. 420, pp. 1–25, 2008.
- J. Botas, “Drosophila researchers focus on human disease,” Nature Genetics, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 589–591, 2007.
- E. Ikonen, “Cellular cholesterol trafficking and compartmentalization,” Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 125–138, 2008.
- T. V. Kurzchalia and S. Ward, “Why do worms need cholesterol?” Nature Cell Biology, vol. 5, no. 8, pp. 684–688, 2003.
- A. J. CLARK and K. BLOCK, “The absence of sterol synthesis in insects,” The Journal of biological chemistry, vol. 234, pp. 2578–2582, 1959.
- C. A. Parkin and B. Burnet, “Growth arrest of Drosophila melanogaster on erg-2 and erg-6 sterol mutant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae,” Journal of Insect Physiology, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 463–471, 1986.
- M. Carvalho, D. Schwudke, and D. Schwudke, “Survival strategies of a sterol auxotroph,” Development, vol. 137, no. 21, pp. 3675–3685, 2010.
- A. H. Payne and D. B. Hales, “Overview of steroidogenic enzymes in the pathway from cholesterol to active steroid hormones,” Endocrine Reviews, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 947–970, 2004.
- J. T. Warren, A. Petryk, and A. Petryk, “Molecular and biochemical characterization of two P450 enzymes in the ecdysteroidogenic pathway of Drosophila melanogaster,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 99, no. 17, pp. 11043–11048, 2002.
- K. D. Spindler, C. Hönl, CH. Tremmel, S. Braun, H. Ruff, and M. Spindler-Barth, “Ecdysteroid hormone action,” Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, vol. 66, no. 24, pp. 3837–3850, 2009.
- A. F. Simon, C. Shih, A. Mack, and S. Benzer, “Steroid control of longevity in Drosophila melanogaster,” Science, vol. 299, no. 5611, pp. 1407–1410, 2003.
- H. Ishimoto and T. Kitamoto, “The steroid molting hormone ecdysone regulates sleep in adult Drosophila melanogaster,” Genetics, vol. 185, no. 1, pp. 269–281, 2010.
- H. Ishimoto, T. Sakai, and T. Kitamoto, “Ecdysone signaling regulates the formation of long-term courtship memory in adult Drosophila melanogaster,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 106, no. 15, pp. 6381–6386, 2009.
- L. I. Gilbert, R. Rybczynski, and J. T. Warren, “Control and biochemical nature of the ecdysteroidogenic pathway,” Annual Review of Entomology, vol. 47, pp. 883–916, 2002.
- X. Huang, J. T. Warren, and L. I. Gilbert, “New players in the regulation of ecdysone biosynthesis,” Journal of Genetics and Genomics, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 1–10, 2008.
- V. M. Chavez, G. Marques, and G. Marques, “The Drosophila disembodied gene controls late embryonic morphogenesis and codes for a cytochrome P450 enzyme that regulates embryonic ecdysone levels,” Development, vol. 127, no. 19, pp. 4115–4126, 2000.
- R. Niwa, T. Namiki, and T. Namiki, “Non-molting glossy/shroud encodes a short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase that functions in the 'Black Box' of the ecdysteroid biosynthesis pathway,” Development, vol. 137, no. 12, pp. 1991–1999, 2010.
- T. A. Link, “The structures of rieske and rieske-type proteins,” Advances in Inorganic Chemistry, vol. 47, no. C, pp. 83–157, 1999.
- T. Yoshiyama, T. Namiki, K. Mita, H. Kataoka, and R. Niwa, “Neverland is an evolutionally conserved Rieske-domain protein that is essential for ecdysone synthesis and insect growth,” Development, vol. 133, no. 13, pp. 2565–2574, 2006.
- J. R. Kennerdell and R. W. Carthew, “Heritable gene silencing in Drosophila using double-stranded RNA,” Nature Biotechnology, vol. 18, no. 8, pp. 896–898, 2000.
- J. R. Mason and R. Cammack, “The electron-transport proteins of hydroxylating bacterial dioxygenases,” Annual Review of Microbiology, vol. 46, pp. 277–305, 1992.
- M. L. Grieneisen, J. T. Warren, and L. I. Gilbert, “Early steps in ecdysteroid biosynthesis: evidence for the involvement of cytochrome P-450 enzymes,” Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 13–23, 1993.
- V. Rottiers, D. L. Motola, B. Gerisch, C. L. Cummins, K. Nishiwaki, D. J. Mangelsdorf, and A. Antebi, “Hormonal control of C. elegans dauer formation and life span by a Rieske-like oxygenase,” Developmental Cell, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 473–482, 2006.
- D. L. Motola, C. L. Cummins, and C. L. Cummins, “Identification of ligands for DAF-12 that Govern dauer formation and reproduction in C. elegans,” Cell, vol. 124, no. 6, pp. 1209–1223, 2006.
- G. V. Markov, R. Tavares, C. Dauphin-Villemant, B. A. Demeneix, M. E. Baker, and V. Laudet, “Independent elaboration of steroid hormone signaling pathways in metazoans,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 106, no. 29, pp. 11913–11918, 2009.
- X. Bi and G. Liao, “Cholesterol in Niemann-Pick type C disease,” Subcellular Biochemistry, vol. 51, pp. 319–335, 2010.
- E. D. Carstea, J. A. Morris, and J. A. Morris, “Niemann-Pick C1 disease gene: homology to mediators of cholesterol homeostasis,” Science, vol. 277, no. 5323, pp. 228–231, 1997.
- S. Naureckiene, D. E. Sleat, and D. E. Sleat, “Identification of HE1 as the second gene of Niemann-Pick C disease,” Science, vol. 290, no. 5500, pp. 2298–2301, 2000.
- K. B. Peake and J. E. Vance, “Defective cholesterol trafficking in Niemann-Pick C-deficient cells,” FEBS Letters, vol. 584, no. 13, pp. 2731–2739, 2010.
- X. Huang, K. Suyama, J. Buchanan, A. J. Zhu, and M. P. Scott, “A Drosophila model of the Niemann-Pick type C lysosome storage disease: dnpc1a is required for molting and sterol homeostasis,” Development, vol. 132, no. 22, pp. 5115–5124, 2005.
- M. L. Fluegel, T. J. Parker, and L. J. Pallanck, “Mutations of a drosophila NPC1 gene confer sterol and ecdysone metabolic defects,” Genetics, vol. 172, no. 1, pp. 185–196, 2006.
- X. Huang, J. T. Warren, J. Buchanan, L. I. Gilbert, and M. P. Scott, “Drosophila Niemann-Pick Type C-2 genes control sterol homeostasis and steroid biosynthesis: a model of human neurodegenerative disease,” Development, vol. 134, no. 20, pp. 3733–3742, 2007.
- L. D. Griffin, W. Gong, L. Verot, and S. H. Mellon, “Niemann-Pick type C disease involves disrupted neurosteroidogenesis and responds to allopregnanolone,” Nature Medicine, vol. 10, no. 7, pp. 704–711, 2004.
- S. P. Voght, M. L. Fluegel, L. A. Andrews, and L. J. Pallanck, “Drosophila NPC1b Promotes an Early Step in Sterol Absorption from the Midgut Epithelium,” Cell Metabolism, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 195–205, 2007.
- S. W. Altmann, H. R. Davis, and H. R. Davis, “Niemann-Pick C1 like 1 protein is critical for intestinal cholesterol absorption,” Science, vol. 303, no. 5661, pp. 1201–1204, 2004.
- J. J. Repa and D. J. Mangelsdorf, “The liver X receptor gene team: potential new players in atherosclerosis,” Nature Medicine, vol. 8, no. 11, pp. 1243–1248, 2002.
- M. A. Horner, K. Pardee, and K. Pardee, “The Drosophila DHR96 nuclear receptor binds cholesterol and regulates cholesterol homeostasis,” Genes and Development, vol. 23, no. 23, pp. 2711–2716, 2009.
- K. King-Jones, M. A. Horner, G. Lam, and C. S. Thummel, “The DHR96 nuclear receptor regulates xenobiotic responses in Drosophila,” Cell Metabolism, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 37–48, 2006.
- M. Bujold, A. Gopalakrishnan, E. Nally, and K. King-Jones, “Nuclear receptor DHR96 acts as a sentinel for low cholesterol concentrations in Drosophila melanogaster,” Molecular and Cellular Biology, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 793–805, 2010.
- D. J. Peet, S. D. Turley, W. Ma, B. A. Janowski, J. M. A. Lobaccaro, R. E. Hammer, and D. J. Mangelsdorf, “Cholesterol and bile acid metabolism are impaired in mice lacking the nuclear oxysterol receptor LXRα,” Cell, vol. 93, no. 5, pp. 693–704, 1998.
- N. Y. Kalaany and D. J. Mangelsdorf, “LXRs and FXR: the Yin and Yang of cholesterol and fat metabolism,” Annual Review of Physiology, vol. 68, pp. 159–191, 2006.
- M. S. Brown and J. L. Goldstein, “The SREBP pathway: regulation of cholesterol metabolism by proteolysis of a membrane-bound transcription factor,” Cell, vol. 89, no. 3, pp. 331–340, 1997.
- J. D. Horton, N. A. Shah, J. A. Warrington, N. N. Anderson, S. W. Park, M. S. Brown, and J. L. Goldstein, “Combined analysis of oligonucleotide microarray data from transgenic and knockout mice identifies direct SREBP target genes,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 100, no. 21, pp. 12027–12032, 2003.
- A. C. Seegmiller, I. Dobrosotskaya, J. L. Goldstein, Y. K. Ho, M. S. Brown, and R. B. Rawson, “The SREBP pathway in Drosophila: regulation by palmitate, not sterols,” Developmental Cell, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 229–238, 2002.
- G. E. Roth, M. S. Gierl, L. Vollborn, M. Meise, R. Lintermann, and G. Korge, “The Drosophila gene Start1: a putative cholesterol transporter and key regulator of ecdysteroid synthesis,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 101, no. 6, pp. 1601–1606, 2004.
- P. Lavigne, R. Najmanivich, and J. G. Lehoux, “Mammalian StAR-related lipid transfer (START) domains with specificity for cholesterol: structural conservation and mechanism of reversible binding,” Sub-Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 51, pp. 425–437, 2010.
- J. T. Warren, J. S. Bachmann, JI. D. Dai, and L. I. Gilbert, “Differential incorporation of cholesterol and cholesterol derivatives into ecdysteroids by the larval ring glands and adult ovaries of Drosophila melanogaster: a putative explanation for the l(3)ecd mutation,” Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, vol. 26, no. 8-9, pp. 931–943, 1996.
- I. Gaziova, P. C. Bonnette, V. C. Henrich, and M. Jindra, “Cell-autonomous roles of the ecdysoneless gene in Drosophila development and oogenesis,” Development, vol. 131, no. 11, pp. 2715–2725, 2004.