About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Cholesterol
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 306278, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/306278
Review Article

The Effects of Very-Low-Calorie Diets on HDL: A Review

Centre for Obesity Research and Epidemiology, Robert Gordon University, St. Andrew Street, Aberdeen AB24 3LR, UK

Received 30 August 2010; Accepted 25 November 2010

Academic Editor: Andrew Brown

Copyright © 2011 Catherine Rolland and Iain Broom. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. T. B. van Itallie, “Liquid protein mayhem,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 240, no. 2, pp. 144–145, 1978. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. Center for Disease Control, Liquid Protein Diets. Public Health Service Report, Center for Disease Control, Atlanta, Ga, USA, 1979.
  3. W. H. Saris, “Very-low-calorie diets and sustained weight loss,” Obesity Research, vol. 9, supplement 4, pp. 295S–301S, 2001. View at Scopus
  4. T. A. Wadden, “Treatment of obesity by moderate and severe caloric restriction: results of clinical research trials,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 119, no. 7, part 2, pp. 688–693, 1993. View at Scopus
  5. A. Avenell, J. Broom, T. J. Brown et al., “Systematic review of the long-term effects and economic consequences of treatments for obesity and implications for health improvement,” Health Technology Assessment, vol. 8, no. 21, pp. 1–182, 2004. View at Scopus
  6. A. D. Mooradian, M. J. Haas, K. R. Wehmeier, and N. C. W. Wong, “Obesity-related changes in high-density lipoprotein metabolism,” Obesity, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 1152–1160, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  7. B. S. Fong, P. O. Rodrigues, and A. M. Salter, “Characterization of high density lipoprotein binding to human adipocyte plasma membranes,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 75, no. 6, pp. 1804–1812, 1985. View at Scopus
  8. T. Shoji, Y. Nishizawa, H. Koyama et al., “Lipoprotein metabolism in normolipidemic obese women during very low calorie diet: changes in high density lipoprotein,” Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology, vol. 37, pp. S57–64, 1991. View at Scopus
  9. P. P. Toth, “High-density lipoprotein as a therapeutic target: clinical evidence and treatment strategies,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 96, no. 9, pp. 50K–58K, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  10. A. R. Tall, “Plasma high density lipoproteins. Metabolism and relationship to atherogenesis,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 86, no. 2, pp. 379–384, 1990. View at Scopus
  11. A. D. Mooradian, M. J. Haas, and N. C. W. Wong, “The effect of select nutrients on serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I levels,” Endocrine Reviews, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 2–16, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  12. K. Hong, Z. Li, H. J. Wang, R. Elashoff, and D. Heber, “Analysis of weight loss outcomes using VLCD in black and white overweight and obese women with and without metabolic syndrome,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 436–442, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  13. K. Clément, N. Viguerie, C. Poitou et al., “Weight loss regulates inflammation-related genes in white adipose tissue of obese subjects,” The FASEB Journal, vol. 18, no. 14, pp. 1657–1669, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  14. S. B. Haugaard, A. Vaag, C.-E. Høy, and S. Madsbad, “Desaturation of skeletal muscle structural and depot lipids in obese individuals during a very-low-calorie diet intervention,” Obesity, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 117–125, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  15. D. E. Laaksonen, S. Kainulainen, A. Rissanen, and L. Niskanen, “Relationships between changes in abdominal fat distribution and insulin sensitivity during a very low calorie diet in abdominally obese men and women,” Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 349–356, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. W.-Y. Lin, C.-H. Wu, N.-F. Chu, and C.-J. Chang, “Efficacy and safety of very-low-calorie diet in Taiwanese: a multicenter randomized, controlled trial,” Nutrition, vol. 25, no. 11-12, pp. 1129–1136, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  17. T. Christiansen, S. K. Paulsen, J. M. Bruun, S. B. Pedersen, and B. Richelsen, “Exercise training versus diet-induced weight-loss on metabolic risk factors and inflammatory markers in obese subjects: a 12-week randomized intervention study,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 298, no. 4, pp. E824–E831, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  18. M. Fogelholm, K. Kukkonen-Harjula, A. Nenonen, and M. Pasanen, “Effects of walking training on weight maintenance after a very-low- energy diet in premenopausal obese women: a randomized controlled trial,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 160, no. 14, pp. 2177–2184, 2000.
  19. C. Rolland, M. Hession, S. Murray, A. Wise, and I. Broom, “Randomized clinical trial of standard dietary treatment versus low-carbohydrate/high-protein diet or the LighterLife Programme in the management of obesity,” Journal of Diabetes, vol. 1, 217 pages, 2009.
  20. T. Pekkarinen, I. Takala, and P. Mustajoki, “Weight loss with very-low-calorie diet and cardiovascular risk factors in moderately obese women: one-year follow-up study including ambulatory blood pressure monitoring,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 22, no. 7, pp. 661–666, 1998.
  21. R. R. Wing, M. D. Marcus, R. Salata, L. H. Epstein, S. Miaskiewicz, and E. H. Blair, “Effects of a very-low-calorie diet on long-term glycemic control in obese type 2 diabetic subjects,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 151, no. 7, pp. 1334–1340, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. B. Richelsen, S. Tonstad, S. Rössner et al., “Effect of orlistat on weight regain and cardiovascular risk factors following a very-low-energy diet in abdominally obese patients: a 3-year randomized, placebo-controlled study,” Diabetes Care, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 27–32, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  23. N. Erondu, T. Wadden, I. Gantz et al., “Effect of NPY5R antagonist MK-0557 on weight regain after very-low-calorie diet-induced weight loss,” Obesity, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 895–905, 2007.
  24. M. V. Heinonen, D. E. Laaksonen, T. Karhu et al., “Effect of diet-induced weight loss on plasma apelin and cytokine levels in individuals with the metabolic syndrome,” Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 626–633, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  25. M. Apfelbaum, P. Vague, O. Ziegler, C. Hanotin, F. Thomas, and E. Leutenegger, “Long-term maintenance of weight loss after a very-low-calorie diet: a randomized blinded trial of the efficacy and tolerability of sibutramine,” The American Journal of Medicine, vol. 106, no. 2, pp. 179–184, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. R. B. Paisey, J. Frost, P. Harvey et al., “Five year results of a prospective very low calorie diet or conventional weight loss programme in type 2 diabetes,” Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 121–127, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  27. E. A. Delbridge, L. A. Prendergast, J. E. Pritchard, and J. Proietto, “One-year weight maintenance after significant weight loss in healthy overweight and obese subjects: does diet composition matter?” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 90, no. 5, pp. 1203–1214, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  28. S. B. Haugaard, A. Vaag, H. Mu, and S. Madsbad, “Skeletal muscle structural lipids improve during weight-maintenance after a very low calorie dietary intervention,” Lipids in Health and Disease, vol. 8, article 34, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  29. T. Shoji, Y. Nishizawa, H. Koyama et al., “High-density-lipoprotein metabolism during a very-low-calorie diet,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 297S–298S, 1992. View at Scopus
  30. K. V. Williams, M. L. Mullen, D. E. Kelley, and R. R. Wing, “The effect of short periods of caloric restriction on weight loss and glycemic control in type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes Care, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 2–8, 1998. View at Scopus
  31. H. Lantz, M. Peltonen, L. Ågren, and J. S. Torgerson, “Intermittent versus on-demand use of a very low calorie diet: a randomized 2-year clinical trial,” Journal of Internal Medicine, vol. 253, no. 4, pp. 463–471, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. G. D. Foster, T. A. Wadden, F. J. Peterson, K. A. Letizia, S. J. Bartlett, and A. M. Conill, “A controlled comparison of three very-low-calorie diets: effects on weight, body composition, and symptoms,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 811–817, 1992. View at Scopus
  33. M. Ohno, J. Miura, K. Arai, S. Tsukahara, and Y. Ikeda, “The efficacy and metabolic effects of two different regimens of very low calorie diet,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 79–85, 1989. View at Scopus
  34. S. Rössner and H. Flaten, “VLCD versus LCD in long-term treatment of obesity,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 22–26, 1997.
  35. S. Rashid and J. Genest, “Effect of obesity on high-density lipoprotein metabolism,” Obesity, vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 2875–2888, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  36. M. Dobiášová and J. Frohlich, “Understanding the mechanism of LCAT reaction may help to explain the high predictive value of LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio,” Physiological Research, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 387–397, 1998.
  37. A. M. Dattilo and P. M. Kris-Etherton, “Effects of weight reduction on blood lipids and lipoproteins: a meta-analysis,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 320–328, 1992. View at Scopus
  38. O. L. Svendsen, C. Hassager, and C. Christiansen, “Six months' follow-up on exercise added to a short-term diet in overweight postmenopausal women—effects on body composition, resting metabolic rate, cardiovascular risk factors and bone,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 692–698, 1994.
  39. K. R. Wilund, R. E. Ferrell, D. A. Phares, A. P. Goldberg, and J. M. Hagberg, “Changes in high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol subfractions with exercise training may be dependent on cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) genotype,” Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 774–778, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. A. Halverstadt, D. A. Phares, R. E. Ferrell, K. R. Wilund, A. P. Goldberg, and J. M. Hagberg, “High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, its subfractions, and responses to exercise training are dependent on endothelial lipase genotype,” Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, vol. 52, no. 11, pp. 1505–1511, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. M. Hession, C. Rolland, U. Kulkarni, A. Wise, and J. Broom, “Systematic review of randomized controlled trials of low-carbohydrate vs. low-fat/low-calorie diets in the management of obesity and its comorbidities,” Obesity Reviews, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 36–50, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  42. E. M.H. Mathus-Vliegen, “Long-term maintenance of weight loss with sibutramine in a GP setting following a specialist guided very-low-calorie diet: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 59, supplement 1, pp. S31–S39, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  43. N. Finer, S. Finer, and R. P. Naoumova, “Drug therapy after very-low-calorie diets,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 195S–198S, 1992. View at Scopus
  44. J. D. LeCheminant, D. J. Jacobsen, M. A. Hall, and J. E. Donnelly, “A comparison of meal replacements and medication in weight maintenance after weight loss,” Journal of the American College of Nutrition, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 347–353, 2005. View at Scopus