Table 1: Studies investigating the use of VLCD only.

StudyNNumber of malesInterventionDuration of interventionWeight at baseline (Kg)Weight at end of intervention (Kg)HDL at baseline
(mmol/L)
HDL at end of intervention (mmol/L)

Clément et al. [13]210800 kcal/d28 days94 (3.0)88 (3.0)*1.05 (0.04)0.9 (0.03)
Clément et al. [13]80650 kcal/d2 days120 (7.7)119 (8)1.4 (0.2)
Haugaard et al. [14]134600–800 kcal/d8 weeks106.4 (SE: 4.1)97.0 (SE: 4.3)*1.3 (SE: 0.1)1.2 (SE: 0.1)*
Hong et al. [12]1520Black participants 500–800 kcal/d + BT + exercise.
12 weeks105 (21)95 (28)*1.45 (0.39)1.34 (0.39)*
Hong et al. [12]1520White participants 500–800 kcal/d + BT + exercise.12 weeks104 (28)94 (25)*1.50 (0.34)1.37 (0.34)*
Laaksonen et al. [15]209800 kcal/d9 weeks101.3 (12.0)86.4 (9.6)*1.17 (0.26)1.22 (0.18)
Lin et al. [16]66241200 kcal/d + 450 kcal/d14 weeks (2 weeks LCD followed by 12 weeks VLCD)92.5 (14.1) −8.37 (0.7)*1.09 (0.20) −0.26 (0.85)
Lin et al. [16]66211200 kcal/d + 800 kcal/d14 weeks (2 weeks LCD followed by 12 weeks VLCD)92.1 (15.6) −8.42 (0.7)*1.15 (0.25) −0.49 (0.85)

All values are reported as means (standard deviation) unless stated otherwise.
N: number of participants
* 𝑃 < . 0 5 compared to baseline
Δ Values reported as change
SE: standard error.